Introduction to Geography (GT
Introduction to Geography (GT GR 100
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gay DuBuque on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GR 100 at Colorado State University taught by Stephen Leisz in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see /class/210151/gr-100-colorado-state-university in Geography at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
Geography of Population October 3 2011 Population and Migration Population Geography the distribution ofhumankind across the planet I World Population Distribution and Density a most people in northern hemisphere 75 live bw 70 and 60 degrees North 90 of us on less than 20 of the earth s surface b Where do people live most humans live less that 650ft above sea level near the ocean arismatic density people per whatever Physiological density of ppl per unit of arable land higherthe physiological density the more pressure on the ppl to produce enough food relationship bw ppl amp resources Agricultural density of rural residents per unit of agriculturally productive land Ecumene permanently inhabited ares of the earth has been extended by technologies Nonecumene uninhabited or very sparsely occupied zone 35 to 40 ofthe land surface ll World Population Dynamics De nitions a Cohorts population group uni ed by a common characteristic such as age b Birth Rates Crude Birth Rate annual of live births per 1000 people influenced by age and sex structure customs and family size expectations population policies high greaterthan 30 low less than 18 0 Crude Death Rate annual of deaths per 1000 ppl In the past varied w levels of development also influenced by age structure d Natural Increase crude birth rate minus crude death rate expressed as a percentage excludes migration e Demographic Equation regional population change is a function of natural increase a nd nef myrafon net migration is calculated by subtracting emigrants and adding immigrants from a population f Total Fertility Rate average number of children born to each woman over her lifetime replacement level fertility 21 23 Worldwide TFR in 2010 255 1 moredeveloped countries 16 2 lessdeveloped countries 27 III Population Projections a Population projections based on assumptions applied to current data high medium and low projections may be given Geography of Population b Population data sources United Nations World Bank Population Reference Bureau national censuses may be inaccurate IV Regional Variations to Pop Growth a 1 Age Structure ofthe Country population pyramids a graphic depiction of the age and sex composition ofa population b 2 Population Momentum numbers of births continue to grow as fertility rates per woman decline because the number ofyoung women reaching child bearing age is larger than ever before 0 Dependency Ratio the number of economic dependents that each 100 persons in the productive years must support population profile influences demands on a country s social and economic systems V Why does population doubling stop a Demographic Transition looks at a point in time in the past birth amp death rates made by people who were studying what was happening in Europe why it didn t over populate or die from starvation stages of decline Japan b The Developing World Demographic Transition some are seeing death rates plummet but birth rate is still very high c An Epidemiological Transition Stage 1 stage of pestilence and famine early human history till 1700s Stage 2 stage of receding pandemics 1800s Stage 3 stage of degenerative and humancreated diseases 1800s 1950s Stage 4 stage of delayed degenerative diseases 1950spresent Stage 5 stage of reemergence of infectious and parasitic diseases present some diseases are making a comebackantibiotics being given to livestock amp are becoming resistant different animals are being placed close togetherhuman caused diseases Vl Factors Affecting Fertility a Fertility transition women stopped having as many kids mostly bc ppl were getting richer propaganda policies towards contraceptions give them away free sterilization change in the status of women every year a girl goes to school it decreases her TFl by 510 Geography of Population October 5 2011 women get more independent and had less children b An Aging Population result oftransition from high to low levels of fertility and mortality pace is much faster in developing countries increasing burdens on workingage populations 0 Is the world overpopulated Thomas Robert Malthus 17661834 population grows exponentially but your ability to feed yourself only grow arithmetically NeoMalthusianism advocacy of population control programs to improve prosperity and wellbeing 1many countries have adopted family planning programs ie China Cornucopians believe population growth is a stimulus to development quotMiddle Path food production has increased but it is not automatic need research capacity political will resources Vll Migration the permanent relocation of both places of residence and activity space a Incentives to Migrate push factors negative conditions at origin pul factors presumed positive attractions at destination Forced or Involuntary Migrations the relocation decision is made solely by people otherthan the migrants ie relocation of 1012 mil Africans bw the 16th amp 17th century to the New World for the slave trade Reluctant Migrations Gov t Policy migrants who undertake less than fully voluntary relocation war refugees climate caused ie Katrina Vountary Migrations great majority of migrants b Types of Migrations Where to migrate to Place utility the value that an individual puts on a given residential site How to Migrate What path to follow Step migration transition from one place to another through a series of less extreme locational changes Chain migration the mover is part of an established migrant flow from a common origin to a prepared destination Temporary migration 1 Sojourner intend to stay only for a short time 2 Return migration the return ofimmigrants from places that they had earlier emigrated from Prehistoric Migrations intercontinental or interregional migrations Geography of Population involve movements bw continents countries amp win countries these types of migrations date to the earliest movements of humans 0 Consequences of Migrations Colombian Exchange diseases d Recent Migrations Lebanese Migrations amp Indian Migrations Chinese Immigration Migration Today to Europe to the US amp Canada US building wall between borders less friendly towards immigrants Mexico 125 are foreign born people October 12 Culture is the specialized behavioral patterns understandings and adaptationsthat summarize the way of life of a group of people A bundle of attributes of shared behavior or belief including virtually anything one about the way a people live Subsystems of Culture a Technological System Technological system material objects and techniques artifacts people use to carry out their productive activities b Sociological System The sun of those expected amp accepted patterns of interpersonal relations that find their outlet in economic political military religious kinship amp other associations Sociofacts make up the sociological subsystem c Ideological System The ideas beliefs and knowledge of a culture and of the ways in which they are expressed in speech or other forms of communication Mentifacts How Does Culture Change Theories of Cultural Evolution a Evolutionism change from forces win the culture b Theory of human stages Cultures went through stages I Theories of Historical Materialism argues evolutionary change based on change in the technology which is avail to the culture the time Society s means of production technologygt organization of production economic systemgt legal amp political superstructuregt values amp beliefs Geography of Population Why are cultures different Cultures and Environments Environmental determinism simplistic belief that human cultures can be entirely explained as the results of the physical environment of an area ll Possibilism the physical environment will neither suggest nor determine what people will attempt it may limit what people can pro tably achieve Cultural Diffusion a Diffusion process by which a concept practice innovation or substance spreads from its point oforigin to new territories b Two main processes of cultural diffusion people can move to a new area and take their culture with them or information about and innovation can spread throughout a culture 0 Acculturation process of adopting aspects of another culture d Culture hearth Areas of innovation from which key cultural elements diffused e Folk Culture culturesthat preserve traditions Paths of Cultural Diffusion Classic Houses The Blues Popular Culture the culture of people who embrace innovation and conform to changing norms Spatial Identity attachment ofa certain identity group of individual to a particular place or region Cultural Groups Subcultures a group that shares a smaller bundle of attributes with a larger more diverse society Ethnic GroupsEthnicity Frequently used to describe a cultural or subcultrial group usually refers to the ancestry of people who share some common characteristic lang religion national origin unique customs