Current World Problems (GT
Current World Problems (GT POLS 131
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Date Created: 09/21/15
POL2131 Eric Fattor Exam 2 spring 2012 Study guide 1 Gobalization a What is meant by globalization i quotThe process of creating an integrated world market and culture through the removal of all obstacles to the flows of money commodities information and populations ii Flattening of the globe b What are different r r 39 on U39 39 quot 39 and its I Friedman Ramonet etc i Thomas Friedman Globalization represents a new force that will transform the world for the better ii Ignacio Ramonet Globalization is a new version of exploitative economics that will enrich and empower a few and impoverish everyone else c What is meant by hybridization visavis globalization 39 Mixture of culture McCurry Slum dog Millionaire Culture can quotcrosspollinatequot creating transnational variations of a single cultural theme or institution iquot Hybrids are loaded with tension and often controversial 2 Institutions a What is a norm regime and institution i Norm informal rule expectation 1 Ex diplomatic immunity ii Regimegroups of likeminded citizens from more than a single nation iii Institution Formal organization IMF World Bank UN b What are the main international regimes and organizations eg NAFI39A EU UN World Bank IMF etc i UN global scope multiple issue 1 ICJInternational Court of Justice Forum to address issues of international justice States suing other States Not ICC Security councilThe Council is composed of five permanent members China France RUSSIaH Federation the United Kingdom and the United States and ten nonpermament members with year of term39s end Azerbai an 2013 India 2012 South Africa 2012 Colombia 2012 Morocco 2013 Togo 2013 Germany 2012 Pakistan 2013 Guatemala 2013 Portugal 2012 2 3 General assembly The General Assembly is the main deliberative policymaking and representative organ of the United Nations Comprising all 193 Members of the United Nations it provides a unique forum for multilateral discussion of the full spectrum of international issues covered by the Charter The Assembly meets in regular session intensively from September to December each year and thereafter as required 4 UnescoEconomic and Social Council UNESCO Forum addressing issues of wealth trade culture and society IMF stabilize currency bail out states and banks iquot WB development agency 1 Bank that provides loans for large infrastructure projects 2 Common projects include dams factories roads and railways etc 3 Starting to dabble in quotmicrofinancequot 4 Heavily criticized for loan conditions structural adjustment iv WTO 1 Originally GATT General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs Sought to maximize areas of free trade between signatories 2 Enforcement mechanism of established rules of trade enforcement through sanction not coercion 3 Instrument ofarbitration in trade disputes between nations v EU 1 European Commission Executive Brussels 2 European Parliament Legislative Brussels 3 European Court ofJustice Judicial Strasbourg c What is meant by interdependency i What effects one member state effect other parts of the world 3 Global Economics a What are some of the institutional mechanisms of free trade eg GATT WTO and Most Favored Nation i GATT is now WTO who solves disputes and is an arbitrator ii MFN Bilateral agreements negotiated by states in which participants agree to remove trade barriers on all products exchanged between the two nations b What are some of the reasons for the popularity of free trade and what are the alternatives to free trade eg protectionism i Comparative Advantage 1 States support those industries with which they have a natural advantage in production 2 By selling their surplus in one industry exports they can purchase those items they cannot produce themselves imports By reducing trade barriers states can more easily find the equilibrium in their trade balances Trade barriers prop up inefficient industries and keep prices on products artificially high Protectionism i By reducing trade barriers states can more easily find the equilibrium in their trade balances ii Trade barriers prop up inefficient industries and keep prices on products artificially high 4 Human Rights Issues 5 What are the different ways of understanding quotrightsquot i Libertarian Rights of individuals to be protected from outside interference on their own personal autonomy will or action Negative rights ii Egalitarian Rights of individuals to be provided with needs and provisions to maximize their own potential and not be deprived of opportunity due to low social status Positive rights b What are some of the key issues with regards to human rights migration poverty stateless people etc i Refuees ii Ethniccleansing What are some of the key human rights treaties UN Declaration CPG etc i Universal Declaration 1948 Foundational document ii nt l Convention on Civil and Political Rights 1966 Expands on those rights mentioned in UDHR iii nt l Convention on Economic Social and Cultural Rights iv Geneva Conventions 1949 Rights of prisoners of war and noncombatants v Declaration of the Rights of the Child 1959 vi nt l Convention to End All Forms of Racial Discrimination 1965 vii Convention to Eliminate All Forms of Discrimination Against Women 1979 Intervention What is the difference between a Casearistquot and a Spartacistquot i Casearist dangerous place strong states and military to protect other s rights ii Spartacist not from Sparta believe in restraint of power skeptical ofany intervention b What is meant by peace support operations 39 Peace enforcement Peace enforcement implies the use of force or its threat to coerce hostile factions to cease and desist from violent actions Units conducting peace enforcement therefore cannot maintain their objective neutrality in every instance They must be prepared to apply elements of 6 China a combat power to restore order to separate warring factions and to return the environment to conditions more conducive to civil order and disciplinequot Peacekeeping dispatched by the Security Council to help implement peace agreements monitor ceasefires patrol demilitarized zones create buffer zones between opposing forces and put fighting on hold while negotiators seek peaceful solutions to disputes But ultimately the success of peacekeeping depends on the consent and cooperation of the opposing partiesquot UN Humanitarian missions Humanitarian missions tend to rely on civilian actors operating outside of combatquot but may rely on military assistance to provide transport and protection services Peace enforcement peacekeeping and humanitarian assistance can be collectively referred to peace support operations How does China represent the contradictions of Globalization Tank man government was growing but people were unhappy overworked and lived in poor conditions Wealthy grow into power while laborers get crushed b What was great compromise the Chinese government made with its people after 1989 C Communist government begins dramatic reforms that liberalize Chinese economy No political reforms Joins WTO and receives Most Favored Nations status from United States in 1998 Rise in middle class in Chinese society Chinese chose to be rich rather than free Why makes the US particularly vulnerable to China China s government owns lots of Federal Treasury Bills some are callable bonds d Where might the US and China faceoff in the future 7 Terrorism a If china decided to collect on loans whenif US defaults on massive debt What type of warfare is terrorism associated with Asymmetrical weak attack the strong Asymmetrical warfare llArmed conflict between belligerents of vastly unequal strength in which weaker side is often a nonstate actor and relies on unconventional tactics b What is the relationship between terrorism and the state C Some states support it but most don t Can be formal military units or independent cells that receive support and refuge from state What are the ways of combating terrorism Prevention 1 Acknowledging a threat but not having solid information about when where and why a terrorist act might occur and who might be responsible 2 Focus is on acquiring information and taking action to disrupt attacks in the planning stage 3 Tactics include surveillance interrogation infiltration and disruption ii Preemption 1 Having knowledge of an imminent attack and taking measures to stop it 2 Preemptive military strike or other action 3 Torture and rendition 4 Intervention iii Reaction 1 Steps taken to punish terrorist perpetrators after an attack and prevent future actions 2 Legal route Investigation Capture Prosecution Punishment 3 Military route Investigation Destruction through Armed Intervention d What are some of the issues raised in the film Battle ofAIgiers regarding terrorism i Torture ii Violates civil rights iii Loss of giving up colony 8 Transnational Crime a What are some examples of transnational crime i Drugs Small arms proliferation and trafficking iquot Alien Smuggling and Illegal Immigration iv Money Laundering b What is money laundering i quotWashingquot money or making illegal transactions look legitimate ii Between 2 and 5 percent of world economic output I trillion dollars iii Made easier with computer technology c Why is transnational crime difficult to fight i Not bounded by geography ii Not bound by sovereignty iii Pits governments against markets iv Pits bureaucracy against networks 9 Ecological Issues a What are the problems associated with population growth and resource depletion i Population growth 1 Rising population exceeds carrying capacity of state 2 Rising populations deplete state resources 3 Excess populations lead to migrations and llstateless people ii Resource depletion 1 Limited access to clean water arable land and key raw materials b What is Peak Oil i Refers to the notion that with a finite resource like oil at some point demand will permanently eclipse supply and expansion will be impossible ii Environmentalist say peak point has been reached iii Oil companies say peak point is still in the future c What are some of the proposed solutions to this problem i Market solution Small supplies will raise prices on gas thus reducing demand ii Conservation Reduce amount of oil used iii Alternative fuels Invest in alternative fuel sources like wind solar biofuels and other renewable sources to reduce demand of oil 10 Climate Change a What are the problems associated with climate change Rising Sea Levels Heat Waves and Desertification iquot Increases in Rainfall and More Severe Storms iv Mass migration caused by displaced populations can undermine stability of states v Drop in agricultural production due to desertification or severe weather can threaten food supply v Disruption of economy to due to environmental variables b What are some alternative explanations for this problem Earth goes through cycles of warming and cooling 30 years ago everyone was worried about global coolingquot Nature emits far more carbon dioxide than human civilization Nature 200 billion tons annually Humans 7 billion tons annually Dyson iquot Sun spot activity increases heat radiation from sun increasing temperature c What are some of the proposed solution i Multilateralism and Institutionalism 1 States rethinking their national interests to include ecological threats 2 Individuals rethinking their own lifestyle d What is ozone depletion and how was this problem addressed Hole in ozone layer lets in ultraviolet light that causes radiation damage skin cancer Holes caused by CFCs rising into atmosphere and eroding ozone layer iquot CFCs come from old style air conditioning units and aerosol spray cans iv Montreal Protocol Abolishes use of most CFCs Signed by 146 countries including the US lt POLS131 Exam 1 Study Guide PPN P Equot llWorld problems refer to challenges that affect more than one nation and require some sort of transnational solution Proper exploration of world problems requires significant knowledge of key historical events and presentday current events World Problemsquot often manifest themselves within the borders of a single country Hatian Earthquake example of current world problem a Haiti has an underdeveloped economy that prevents it from acquiring wealth that it can invest into roads safe buildings and good government b Haiti is one of the poorest nations on earth with average monthly salaries at 70 life expectancy at 52 years and only 50 literacy c Haiti has been riddled with foreign debt for the entirety of its existence Money used for debt repayment is money that isn t invested into infrastructure d Lack of abundant export industries or unfair trade restrictions prevent Haiti from raising money to fund internal development e Corrupt leadership steals what little aid money Haiti receives from the outside f No legal obligation to give aid to Haiti g Intergovernmental organizations and nongovernmental organizations primary aid givers h Amount ofaid pledged by the United States 100 million i Amount of money initially used to bailout banks 700 BILLION Global phenomena like international economics and finance transnational terrorism and climate change have local impacts Citizens in a democratic republic have rolesrightsresponsibilities to fulfill in contributing to the governance of the nation WHY DO HUMANS LIVE IN GROUPS State of Nature a Absence of any form of law and order b All individuals must take responsibility for their own safety and wellbeing Why did humans choose to exit the state of nature a Thomas Hobbes State of nature is a world of absolute freedom and absolute insecurity Humans are selfish and egotistical In Combination of freedom and selfishness sets off a llwar of all against al iv Life is llsolitary poor nasty brutish and shortquot v To escape the war of all against all humans make a contract to empower a sovereign to protect fragile lives vi Whatever decision the sovereign makes must be obeyed by subjects vii Humans give up freedom but gain security b Leviathan i Humans are naturally equal in power ii State of nature compels all humans to value security over all other values 3 4 N iii To create security humans create a particular institution Leviathan absolute ruler c John Locke i State of nature is guided by a handful of basic llnatural lawsquot life liberty and property ii Humans while not quotgoodquot usually respect natural laws allowing a civil society to form iii Selfishness and scarcity however do create irreconcilable conflicts iv To deal with these conflicts civil societies form governments empower sovereigns v Governments protect life and property and enforce agreements vi Government role in civil society should be minimal d JeanJacques Rousseau i State of nature provides natural equality ii Humans are basically good iii Society is an effect of social inequality iv llMan is born free and everywhere in chains v Cannot go back to the state of nature How do humans recapture the bliss of the state of nature Iquot vi All individuals surrender their individual claims in favor ofa llgeneral wil or common good that negotiates society s values S New social contract prioritizes collective prosperity over individual prosperity Politics a Creation and contestation of human values b The deployment of power in pursuit and protection of these values c The development of institutions to govern society by these values Values a Each conception of human group activity prioritizes a different set of values b Hobbes Security of one s life c Locke Security of one s natural rights d Rousseau Security of natural equality e What the society values and the need for the protection of these values will provide a framework for action and organization Power a llThe ability to affect outcomes Robert Keohane b llThe ability to get something donequot Van Belle and Mash c llWho gets what when where and why Harold Lasswell Institutions a Structure through which power is allocated and values are articulated b Can take the form ofa set of principles human rights c Can also be a formal organization Pentagon United Nations etc Levels of politics a American Politics Study ofpolitics within the United States b Comparative Politics Study of politics within nations c International Politics Study ofpolitics among nations International politics a Political environment is anarchic b Units are states which form themselves into alliances c Laws are nonbinding and cannot be enforced 9 Domestic politics a Political environment is hierarchic b Units are citizens which form themselves into factions and coalitions c Laws are binding and are enforced through some kind of compliance mechanism 10 Anarchy a Absence of overarching authority to make and enforce formal laws b Anarchy does not necessarily mean chaos or a lack oforder c Actors and institutions in anarchy create quotgovernancequot 11 Hierarchy a Political environment is presided over by a sovereign b Sovereign can be an individual king group aristocracy or the people democracy c All subjects of the sovereign must comply with laws on pain of punishment or other sanction 12 States and anarchy a Despite periods of world empire anarchy has been the most common global political environment b In this period of anarchy states have emerged as the dominant political quotgroupsquot c States are the best way to provide security and project power without a global ruler or ruling institution 13 Levels of analysis a Individual decisionmakers heads of state heads of IGOs and NGOs celebrities b StateActor states andor group of states c GlobalSystemic level balanceof power global economy environment i Example WWI 1 Individual Incompetence of Kaiser Wilhelm Arrogance of BritishFrench generals 2 State German military strategy Russian ethnic loyalty to Serbia British apathy 3 System Excessive arms racing imperial rivalry 14 ProblemSolving Approach a Takes the world as it is given b Treats existing objects ideas and institutions as natural and timeless c Treats existing values principles and morals as right and proper d Problems are seen as the result of certain elements in the existing system malfunctioning and needing to be fixed e Solutions are pursued via modest reform tinkering around the edges or troubleshooting f Change such that it happens always occurs slowly and incrementally 15 Critical approaches a Treats the world as contingent and in flux b Treats existing objects ideas and institutions as historically constructed entities c Questions the validity of existing values principles and morals d Problems are seen to be the result ofa system that fails to deliver on its promises and claims e Solutions are pursued via the complete destruction of the existing system and the reconstruction of a new one based on different principles f Change is immediate radical and dramatic 16 Example Social Inequality Britain vs France a 18 h Century Age of Enlightenment b Power is concentrated in elite social classes nobility clergy aristocracy c What is the best way to redistribute power throughout society to make politics more liberal and democratic d Option 1 problem solving Edmund Burke llWe place our trust in the centuriesold traditions of the king the nobility and the Church Passed series of Parliamentary Reform acts that slowly granted the right to vote to all male citizens Preserved existing royal and ecclesiastical institutions Great Reform Bill of 1832 Suffrage for all landholders Reform Act of 1867 Expanded suffrage to adult males of a certain monetary worth Reform Act of 1884 Granted suffrage to all males regardless of social class Slow Pace of reform 52 years to grant full male suffrage Lingering Inequality Royal privilege and prerogative remained in place Certain class antagonisms continue to this day e Option 2 critical approaches lt S lt lt viii lt X X SaintSimon llWe will remake the world in a new image French Revolution breaks out in 1789 Within a very short time frame the king and much of the nobility are killed church and royal land is seized and a radical republican government is established in Paris July 1789 Storming of the Bastille August 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen September 1789 Seizure of church property August 1793 King Louis XVI is executed Radical change has its consequences Social chaos Reign of Terror breaks out across France beginning in 1793 What is more important Change or stability Too much change too quickly may leave you worse off then before 17 When is a problem a problem a Prioritization Identifying one problem as more dire and in need of greater attention than others b Global agenda The selection of a set of problems as requiring the highest priority by the majority of states 5 N 53 N N NNN JHlJ39lJgt Paradox of War and Politics a Human beings tend to be social creatures that rely upon each other for protection and mutual support b Constantly fighting and killing each other Politics a Creation and contestation of human values b The deployment of power in pursuit and protection of these values c Constructing institutions to implement these values Iternational politics a Key Value Sovereignty b Power Military Force c Key Institution NationState States a Sovereignty Authority to manage internal and external affairs Must be both internally and externally recognized b Security Protect lives of citizens mediate conflicts and enforce basic rights and keep order c Legitimacy Recognized as quotlegalquot bearers of violence NationStates a Political entity that merges a particular population with a particular territory b Often feature or attempt to create a distinct culture and ethnic identity language dress cuisine artistic style personality c No such thing as a quotpurequot nationstate All states are full of ethnic and cultural contradictionsquot d History Nationstates like all political formations are historical creations in that they inherent traits from previous political arrangements Nationsstates contain traits of empires medieval manors the Catholic Church as well as develop attributes unique to themselves e Microstates Postcolonial States QuasiStates Failed States World Politics a Intergovernmental Organizations b Multinational Corporations c NonGovernmental Organizations d Individual Actors InterGovernmental Organizations a Only sovereign states can be members of IGOs b States that join organizations are obligated to abide by specific rules of conduct c States are under no obligation to join IGOs and can leave at any time d Intergovernmental Organizations Governing institutions that facilitate state cooperation UN European Union e 39 I 39 39 O U that facilitate development of poor nations IMF World Bank f Security Institutions Organizations that facilitate security for its members NATO SEATO 29 Multinational Corporations a Nonstate profit seeking organizations b Responsible for the production of economic and financial infrastructure in the world c Though headquartered in one state operation in multiple states simultaneously d Examples McDonald s Honda Disney 30 NGO s a Nonstate transnational voluntary and activist organizations b Work toward a specific political goal reduction of poverty protection of environment free international trade c Totality of groups often referred to as global civil society 31 Individual actors 32 Stru a Individuals whose power and influence affect outcomes at the global level b Though citizens of a specific country are recognized and lauded by people around the world c Examples include the Pope Bill Gates or Bono cture of international politics a Politics at the transnational level occurs in a state of anarchy b No formal legal institutions to protect life enforce contracts and laws or safeguard property and wellbeing c No appeal to higher authority d quotA condition in which the units in the global system are subjected to few if any overarching institutions to regulate their conductquot e Anarchy does not necessarily mean chaos or a lack oforder f Despite periods of world empire anarchy has been the most common global political environment g In this period of anarchy states have emerged as the dominant political units h States are the best way to provide protection and project power in an anarchical world i Because there is no world government there is no overarching world authority to protect states from aggressors or settle disputes j In the absence of such authority war becomes the only way for a state to protect itself from whatever dangers exist in the world 33 Security Dilemma a Buildup of strength by one state creates fear and suspicion on the part of other states b Fear and suspicion compel other states to buildup their strength c Cooperation becomes difficult and conflict becomes more likely eventually leading to war often through a minor insignificant event d Security competition results from anarchy and world of relative gains e Anarchy rewards defection to a greater degree than cooperation f Greater damage done to opponent through defection and greater potential for damage caused by opponent on oneself through cooperation 34 Security Dilemma in Ancient Greece a Spartan Perspective Will Athens use its empire to expand its power and attempt to conquer Sparta b Athenian Perspective Are Spartan efforts to increase power by increasing alliances an preemptive move to challenge Athenian power 35 Melian Dialogue a Justice is the interests of the strong quotMight makes rightquot b Equally powerful actors may compromise c Weak actors are vulnerable to the whims of the strong d Prudence is the greatest virtue 36 Hubris a Feeling of invincibility and impermeability among the powerful b Lapses in judgment illpreparation and overconfidence c Result is a catastrophic failure 37 Thucydides A Strategic Guide a Outbreak of War Prisoner s Dilemma b Melian Dialogue quotStrong do what they will the week suffer what they mustquot c Sicilian Expedition Beware of hubris brought about by excessive unilateral action 38 Prisoner s Dilemma a Two thieves are caught in the act of theft b Police isolate and interrogate each thief individually c Thieves must weigh the costs of cooperating with each other by not talking to police vs capitulating to the police rat out their partner 1 Freedom DC Defect rat out from partner capitulate to police and hope partner quotcooperatesquot by staying quiet 2 5 Years CC Both partners cooperate with each other do not rat each other out and do not capitulate to police iquot 3 10 Years DD Both partners defect rat each other out and capitulate to police iv 4 Death CD Cooperate with partner but have partner defect rat you out and capitulate to police
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