Current World Problems (GT
Current World Problems (GT POLS 131
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Leanne Hauck on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to POLS 131 at Colorado State University taught by Paul Crumby in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see /class/210161/pols-131-colorado-state-university in Political Science at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
KleinCh 789 0 Ch 7 0 Global health is a common goal but method for reaching goal is controversial o 3 perspectives for response to issues 0 High Technology Perspective Optimistic Conquer issues with technology intelligence and hard work 0 Human creativity is equal to any challenge Technologies are needed to progress Market will naturally look for a problem once recognized 0000 I A lot ofmoney is solving these issues I Problems are economic opportunities on which capitalism thrives I EX Waste disposal for emissions is a now pro table business 0 Most successful case of this perspective is the eradication of smallpox Green revolution 0 I Made by Bourlaug Transfer technologies to developing countries to have them grow own food Critics 0 Heavy use of pesticides and other chemicals 0 Dependency on petroleum based products 0 Shared technology perspective 0 Tech a major tool but only works in an open and cooperative social association of world groups Business is not the center of this perspective Ecological problems are global and must be solved globally Social factors are central to any successful 0000 Key words are cooperation and sustainability I First projects should be in agreement with all parties in agreement 0 Must be equitable I Second must be sustainable 0 Long term success UN established a ecological NGO I Our Common Future I World Commission on Environment and Development 0 O Critiques I Too idealistic and only for the rich I Try to solve non existing problems 0 Appropriate technology perspective 0 See world as diverse 0 Works best in speci c cases 0 May not need most complex tech 0 Locally supported and developed 0 Small low energy designs I Rejects automatic wide use of tech 0 Critiques I Each solution must be reinvented with each situation High Tech Shared Tech Appropriate Tech Focus Private Equal Egalitarian enterpriseto distribution of treatment and protect technology local control interests and environment Key Progress Sustainability Appropriate Concepts and technology cooperation Strategies Market Intemational Individual system joint uses solution Locus of Private Governments Communities Power enterprise Technology Complex Complex Simple for task Current Good too Controlled by Dominated by system is many powerful colonial forces constraints states and Case study Pandemics 0 Tech advances states celebrate end of infectious disease epidemics 0 Now there are new emerging diseases I Mutations o AIDSHIV I Most deadly pandemic I Global search for cure occurred 0 Perspectives on Pandemics I High tech New problems have huge economic potential Big business will invest heavily Cure need to be ready and available fast First price protections have taken products out of free market 0 Ex Canada put price limits on important drugs 0 US prices are much higher 0 Second 0 Lawsuits related to harm from drug are high 0 Third huge research and development expenses are increasing 0 Companies unwilling to produce without incentive 0 Last government control on drugs and approval take years to be available to consumers I Shared Tech 0 Pandemics are Worldwide and should be solved worldwide 0 Rich need to help poor to eradicate pandemic 0 Must come together under IGO and ght jointly 0 First 0 IGO have expertise in dealing with int l health issues 0 Governments need to aid these 0 Second 0 Costs from loss of trade make countries weaker to ca1ry expenses 0 Last 0 No private business must make pro t I Appropriate Tech 0 Disease can be global but start on individual scale 0 Stop pandemics locally 0 Preventative medicine 0 Each community needs to act 0 Best solution is preventing one from occuring 0 CH 8 o Soveriegnty I State accepts no political authority superseding their own I War occurs often when sovereignty is threatened I Some argue that because of an increase in international organizations sovereignty has eroded I More than 190 states 0 192 in UN 0 Int l Anarchy Explain why force can be considered within bounds of acceptable behavior in cases of extreme int l con ict 0 But not in domestic con ict Anarchy in this case is not the absence of order When domestic order collapses 0 Groups of people take on sovereignty and denounce the gov 0 Power Ability of persons groups organizations stats to cause others to do what they want 3 ways of exercise 0 Persuasion 0 Economic inducements 0 Physical force Itn lgov are aware of each other 3 powers Small powers 0 No outside in uence other than own state Regional powers 0 Effect on neighbors and self Great powers 0 Extend power beyond region Superpower 0 Worldwide power and in uence 0 Effects of Globalization Issue of peace and war UN mission 0 Collective security 0 Korean and gulf war 0 Military intervention 0 Un charter 2 principles 0 State sovereignty o Noninterference implications 0 To determine aggressor state 0 Model of Peace and War War strategies 0 5 categories when showing force 0 show of force 0 conventional war 0 nuclear war 0 guerrilla war 0 terrorism 0 Show of force 0 Movement of military forces into a con ict situation as implied threat 0 Bluff is the intention 0 Conventional war 0 Formal organized battling o What we think of when we say war 0 Nuclear war 0 Atomic weaponry 0 Large scale 0 Requires a new deal of thinking when dealing with nuclear war 0 Guerrilla war 0 Hit and run tactics 0 Usually in domestic con ict 0 Terrorism 0 Speci c acts aimed at causing fear at civilian populations 0 Balance of power strategies I Military becomes a tool not the only way I Peaceful strategies 0 Economical o Incentives o All favor powerful 0 Economic sanctions I Cut off trade or embargo o 0 Political 0 Policy positioning 0 Propaganda I Attempt to in uence through emotional appeal I Problem is people might take it differently than intended o Diplomacy I Negotiation I Officials talk to each other I Tacit negotiation 0 Indirect method of sending a message to other official 0 Opposite of force 0 State relationships I Revisionists 0 Change their existing level of military power by accumulating more troops and weapons I Status Quo States 0 Satisfied with existing level of power 0 Feel threatened by revisionists o Int l Rule of Law strategies 0 When states commonly accepted rules of behavior and process for peaceful con icts I Occurs when 0 1 Develop traditionally as norms because they are commonly practiced o 2 Rules are formed by treaties or negotiation o Int l war and peace has focused over time I Concept of just war 0 Self defense I Human rights 0 Genocide etc 0 Ch 9 0 State Sovereignty I States as the main means of interactions I Not simply People living in state borders are under authority 0 Patriotic feeling 0 Nationalism prevails even under decline of nation I States have power and security as main interests I Powerful states are ones with good sense of loyalty 0 But it can cause war within states 0 Can undermine states ability to act int l 0 Military Power paradox I Deterrence o Pose as a credible military threat to enemies or potential enemies o A weak state might invite attack 0 Also must have a reputation for willingness to use force I Paradox 0 To be credible 0 State must be effective 0 Using it now is the only way to prove power I A small war maybe necessary I Security dilemma o Gov must decide how much military power is enough to deter o If too much power is built might lead to neighboring states to gain more power I Arms race 0 No net gain of military power comparatively I World Order 0 Problem o Minimize war maximize peace 0 Strive for conditions of peace 0 4 variations of world order 0 One world I Common humanity I Economic needs I Dependence on nature I Community of social justice 0 Functionalinterdependence I 2 reasons or economic integration 0 Economies so tied together that a state could not produce warfighting material on its own 0 Shared economy requires increased social and political cooperation I Must proceed in steps 0 US Leadership I Falls on us to mediate world con icts I Police function I World order is uncomfortable with this approach 0 World government I Ex UN I Wide variety of viewpoints I State loyalty cannot be blind I Government makes mistakes in world stage 0 Ethnic autonomy o Gov expects loyalty within its boundaries 0 But growing loyalty to ethnicity can cause tension 0 Int l system should allow ethnic representation 0 Ex Inuit semisovereignty I Make gov decisions except int lly 0 When gov cannot enforce policies in own territory I Called fragile failing failed state I Bosnia 0 Actors 0 Muslims serbs croats 0 UN NATO EU 0 Con ict 0 Between ethnic actors 0 Due to major difference in actors I Ideals etc State sovereignty World order Ethnic autonomy Goals Peace often temporary Peace force not an option Peace ethnic justice Key concepts Int l anarchy Int l rule oflaw Ethnic rights of existing system state stability aggressor states based on narrow interests and perception Strategies Balance of power Strengthen int l Decentralize power institutions Maj or problems Ethnic threats to States actions Domination by state governments Sees current int l political system as Too limiting of state power at least potentially Too state centered To state centered Role of Force Deterrence Collective security Dangerous in most situations given the power of governments Nye ch 789 0 Globalization 0 Worldwide networks 0 interdependence 0 Most people in the world today do not have telephones o Truly globalized world market I Free ows of goods people capital 0 Oldest forms of globalization is environmental I EX Smallpox aids I Global climate 0 Military globalization I Force or threat of force is employed I EX WW2 or Al Qaeda 0 Social globalization I People culture ideas I EX Migration o 201h century globalization 0 Network effects I Product becomes more valuable once many other people use it I EX One telephone is useless value increases as more people have them 0 Thickness of globalization I Density of the networks of interdependence I Bigger effect from causes 0 Globalization is more complex I Competition between complexityuncertainty and efforts from governments corporations to manipulate or benefit 0 Quickness I Adds to uncertainty I Globalization moves faster now days 0 Pluralization of technology I Basically where technology is so vastly available that anyone can participate anywhere 0 Political reactions to globalization I US mortgage crisis of 2008 lead to worldwide recession 0 Concepts of interdependence 0 Actors or events in different parts of a system affect each other I Mutual dependence 0 4 dimensions of interdependence I sources relative costs benefits symmetry 0 can originate in physical or social phenomena 0 Military interdependence I Physical aspect of weaponry I But also it can lead to a change in policy or perception 0 Economic interdependence I Political and social aspects I Deals with values and costs 0 Benefits of interdependence I Zero sum and nonzero sum I Zero sum 0 Your loss is my gain 0 And vice versa I Non zero sum 0 Positive sum 0 Both gain 0 Negative sum 0 Both lose I Inequality of benefits must be paid attention to 0 Both sides can benefit from trade but often don t I Some say that globalization make us to interdependent Cooperation replaces competition Some say traditional world politics was always zero sum Could be positive sum 0 Depending on actors intentions 0 Cost of interdependence Sensitivity Amount and pace of the effects of dependence 0 How quick does the change in one part affect the whole system Vulnerability Relative cost of changing the structure of a system of interdependence Cost of escaping from the system or the changing the rules of the game Matter of degree Depends on whether substitutes are available and diverse source of supply Refers to balance of power Less dependent can be a source of power Asymmetry is at the heart of interdependence 0 Leadership and Institutions of world economy 0 Rules of int l economy re ect the policies of the largest states 0 After WW1 Us took the lead as largest economy from great Britain Great depression was because US didn t live up to new responsibilities 0 Major int l economic institutions International Monetary Fund Lends money generally to developing countries and new market economies Generally must reform economic policies The world bank Lends money to poorer countries for development projects World Trade Organization Established rules for liberal trade Critics say that these favor rich not poor EX IMF and World Bank have weighted voting Institutions re ect the underlying power of the asymmetrical interdependence of nancial markets Critics are right but the asymmetry might be worse without these 0 Realism and Complex interdependence J i U39L I Complex Interdependence 0 States not only actors 0 Also transnational actors 0 Force not only instrument 0 Economic manipulation o Int l Institutions 0 Welfare primary goal I Realist 0 Middle East I Complex Interdependence 0 US Canada 0 Politics of Oil 0 Most important raw material on earth I Economically and politically 0 Not likely to run out in short run I Plenty of reserves I But majority in the Persian gulf o Vulnerable to political corruption 0 Big contributors for the gulf wars 0 Oil Regime I 1960 o Oligopoly with close ties to governments of major consuming countries 0 2 a barrel and 7 large transnational companies determined market I 1973 0 Big turning point 0 Producing countries set prices and production 0 3 ways to explain change in oil regime I Overall Balance of power 0 Military force in Persian gulf 0 Rise of nationalism and decolonization 0 OPEC took power away from Britain as a policing force 0 US not ready to take over for Britain I Balance of power in oil issue 0 Global oil consumption changed drastically o Ch8 0 US dependence on foreign oil altered 0 Prior to 1971 we were largest producer 0 Imports for oil rose International institutionsH 0 OPEC o The big seven companies lost power 0 Obsolescing Bargain 0 Resource rich countries get investment from 11 I II gets large part of gains 0 Poor countries perspective I Better off because they get more income than before even if 11 takes revenue I But poor countries became able to selfsupport so 11 lost power 0 New companies came into picture for oil Oil as a power resource 0 Strong but not strong enough to change US policy 0 Why wasn t it stronger o If Saudi Arabia damaged US economy it would in turn hurt the SA economy I Also SA was dependent on US security for balance of power in Persian Gulf I Force played a background role Prices changed due to 0 Expected increase in price because of demand 0 But didn t reach that because of demand policy measures such as efficiency requirements 0 Supply side 0 More reserves 0 War natural disasters spiked prices 0 Technology revolution Based on rapid tech advances Faster processing speeds Volume of technology has grown rapidly over the years 2 key things 0 Huge reduction in cost 0 Massive capacity Can get an idea of future by looking in the past We are still in early stages of revolution I Mass communication pop culture broadcasting 0 Has a centralizing political effect I Some feared that there would be a central government control I Internet is hard for government to control because its rapidly changing I However the decrease in cost increase of mobility creates a decentralized effect 0 Outweighs the centralizing effect 0 More civilian sites than government 0 New world politics I Realists say technology isn t changing politics 0 States will still remain the most important actors 0 Info still benefits largest states I Revolution makes int l politics more complex 0 Gives power to nonstate actors I Low costs give poor countries an ability to skip steps in development I Should give more power so small states and nonstate actors I Several big aspects 0 Size matters 0 EX One telephone is useless but is more powerful with more telephones 0 Cheap to receive info 0 Investment to add info I Can matter most 0 Fast followers can do better than first mover in commercial situations I First mover more powerful than fast follower 0 Creator of standards 0 Military power 0 Decentralized technology from military to consumers 0 But technology can also strengthen military I Liberals think that technology revolution will increase role of democratic states 0 Free exchange of information o Transparency key for investments 0 Closed systems of information are more costly o Transparency adds to credibility I Closed information is biased 0 Could lead to a world politics not int l politics 0 Broader view 0 More centralized o Sovereignty and control I Growing issues that are difficult to control under sovereign boundaries 0 Drug trafficking AIDS etc I As technology changes and gets better it becomes harder to control within a state I National security becomes harder to control 0 Can be attacked via cyber weapons I Flash movements can occur 0 Easier to assemble a strike or protest etc o Transnational Actors I NGO s 0 Increasing in number 0 Press issues on government or directly try to affect things 0 Also have indirect effects I Information revolution 0 Hasn t equalized power 0 Paradox of plenty o Plenty of info leads to scarcity of attention 0 Politics have become a competition for credibility 0 Between NGO and government organizations 0 But propaganda might hurt instead of help establish credibility I Knowing info can hurt too I Terrorists 0 Has varying effect depending or varying issues 0 Killed relatively low number of people 0 What they do is destroy the character of American democracy 0 Only way to defend is through security 0 Conclusion I l Realists are correct 0 Revolution will have a equalizing effect on distribution of power I 2 Cheap ows of info create an enormous change of contact across state borders I 3 Revolution is changing political processes that opens democratic societies and transnational actors I 4 Soft power more important to hard power 0 Credibility becomes more important Current World Problems POLS 131001 Spring 2012 Office Clark C332 Paul A Crumby PhD Off Hrs TTh 1100 ant1200 pm Colorado State University Of ce phone 4913446 TTh 1230 1 45 pm paulcrume39colostateedu Teaching Assistants Theresa Edd Chelsea Wclkcr Email lm s i ldiillmmsmw Cd Email Chelsea Wakentiicotostatc cdu Clark C330 49 I 6083 Clark C341 A 49 1 4 l Hours Mam 12pm M39l Hours W 1302 30pm R 1 lilmvl2pm Course Description Students in this course will be presented with various lenses within which you will attempt to view the world stage and its actors This is not a simple task The perspective from the United States as we settle into the 21th century is an important one It is however only one There are a plethora of views all with their own assumptions Never has the world been so complex If the world is truly a stage never have there been so many actors with such an array of scripts It is the hope of this instructor that by the course s conclusion that each student s awareness has been raised to a higher level of confusion Required Textbooks Crumby Paul A My Notes 15 Edition Great River Publications 201 l Kelleher Ann and Klein Laura Global Perspectives 4th Edition Pearson Prentice Hall Longman Press 2011 Noted in your schedule as KK Nye Joseph 8 and Welch David A l J quot Global Con ict and nnnorminn 81h Edition Pearson Prentice Hall Longman Press 201 l Noted in your schedule as Nye Course Evaluation Grades will be based on both the assigned readings and the instructor s lecture notes There will be two midterm exams and one nal exam Each exam will consist of 30 objective questions There will also be a number of reaction papers that will be required from in class lms The length of the papers is not to exceed a single doublesided sheet of paper Course Grades 2 MidTerms 25 each 50 Final Exam Reactions papers 25 25 Tentative Course Schedule Classes Meeting Held the Week of January 1 7 24 31 February 07 March 06 Course Introduction Intro To the Modern World KK Chapter 1 Conflict in World Politics Nye Chapter 1 Con ict in World Politics Nye Chapter 1 Continued Ethnicity and Global Diversity KK Chapter 2 Film Con ict and Cooperation Nye Chapter 2 Con ict and Cooperation Nye Chapter 2 Continued Perspectives on Ethnicity KK Chapter 3 Westphalia to WWI Nye Chapter 3 Westphalia to WWI Nye Chapter 3 Continued Exam 1 Economic Development KK Chapter 4 Film Collective Security and WWII Nye Chapter 4 Security and WWII Nye Chapter 4 Continued Spring Break No class Fblbycbtl c on Eouiiuiiiic D I r KK Chapter 5 The Cold War Nye Chapter 5 The Cold War Nye Chapter 5 Continued Global Health KK Chapter 6 April May 03 Post Cold War Nye Chapter 6 Post Cold War Nye Chapter 6 Continued Exam 2 Film Perspectives on Global Health KK Chapter 7 Globalization and Interdependence Nye Chapter 7 Peace and War KK Chapter 8 Information Revolution Nye Chapter 8 Perspectives on Peace and War KK Chapter 9 The Future Nye Chapter 9 Final Exam 620 pm w 850 pm In the same classroom
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