Medical Terminology OT 215
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Westley McLaughlin on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to OT 215 at Colorado State University taught by David Greene in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see /class/210162/ot-215-colorado-state-university in Occupational Studies at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
Anatomy Chapter 2 Body Structure Color and Oncology Organization of the Body Cell basic unit of living things Human body contains trillions vary in size and shape due to function Cell membrane forms cell boundary Cytoplasm gellike fluid inside cell Nucleus largest cell structure spherical centered in cell Contains chromosomes for reproduction control center Chromosomes in nucleus 46 in normal humans 23in human sex cells Genes chromosome regions several thousand per chromosome Determine hereditary characteristics activities DNA deoxyribonucleic acid Comprises genes regulates activities Tissue group of similar cells performs specific task Muscle tissue made of cells that contract usually creating movement Nervous tissue found in nerves spinal cord brain Coordinates and controls body Connective tissue connects supports penetrates encases various body structures Adipose osseous tissues blood included in this category Epithelial tissue major covering of external surface of body Makes up membranes lining body cavities and organs major tissue in glands Organ two or more kinds of tissue together perform special body functions System group of organs work together to perform complex body functions Body Cavities Cranial inside skull contains brain Spinal inside spinal column contains spinal cord urete rs Wo rd Pa rts Thoracic or chest contains heart aorta lungs esophagus trachea bronchi Abdominal contains stomach intestines kidneys liver gallbladder pancreas spleen Pelvic contains urinary bladder certain reproductive organs parts of large intestine rectum Abdominopelvic pelvic and abdominal cavities Combining Forms of Body Structure Adeno gland Cyto cell Epithelio epithelium Fibro fiber Histo tissue Karyo nucleus Lipo fat Myo muscle Neuro nerve Organo organ Sarco flesh connective tissue Systemo system Viscero internal organs Combining Forms Commonly Used with Body Structure Terms Cancero carcino cancer Etio cause of disease Gnoo knowledge atro physician medicine also means treatment Leio smooth Onco tumor mass Patho disease Rhabdo rodshaped striated Somato body Combining Forms that Describe Color Chloro green Chromo color Cyano blue Erythro red Leuko white Melano black Xantho yellow Prefixes Dia through complete Dys painful abnormal difficult labored Hyper above excessive Hypo below incomplete deficient Meta after beyond change Neo new Pro before Suffixes Al ic ous pertaining to Cyte cell Gen substance or agent that produces or causes Genesis origin cause Genic Producing originating causing Logist one who studies and treats specialist physician Logy study of Oid resembling Oma tumor swelling Osis abnormal condition means increase when used with blood cell word roots Pathy disease Plasia condition of formation development growth Plasm growth substance formation Sarcoma malignant tumor Sis state of Stasis control stop standing Medical Terms Oncology Study of tumors Develop from excessive growth of cells from a body pa rt Benign noncancerous malignant cancerous Named with word root for body part and oma TNM Staging System of Cancer AJCC American Joint Commission on Cancer devised classification T sizeextent of primary tumor 0 4 N involvement of lymph nodes 0 4 M metastasis 0 none 1 present Complementary and Alternative Medicine CAM CAM lla group of diverse medical and health care systems practices and products that are not presently considered to e a part of conventional medicine Complementary medicine used with conventional Alternative in place of g 39 of 39 medical therapies and evidencebased CAM therapies Use increased in recent years Complementary Terms Not Built from Word Parts Benign not malignant nonrecurrent favorable for recovery Carcinoma in situ cancer in the early stage before invading surrounding tissue Chemotherapy chemo treatment of cancer with drugs Encapsulated enclosed in a capsule as with benign tumors Exacerbation increase in the severity of a disease or its symptoms Idiopathic pertaining to disease of unknown origin Inflammation response to injury or destruction of tissue characterized by redness swelling heat and pain In vitro within a glass observable within a test tube In vivo within the living body Malignant tending to become progressively worse and to cause death as in cancer Radiation therapy treatment of cancer with a radioactive substance xray or radiation also called radiation oncology and radiotherapy Remission improvement or absence of signs of disease Neoadjuvant therapy cancer treatment preceding others Adjuvant chemotherapy use of chemo after or in combination with another form of cancer treatment Brachytherapy use of radiotherapy in which source or radiation is placed within or close to area being treated Plural Endings for Medical Terms a 9 ae ax 9 aces is 9 es ix 9 ices ma 9 mata on 9 a sis 9 ses um 9 a us 9 i nx 9 nges y 9 ies Abbreviations Carcinoma Ca Chemotherapy chemo Diagnosis Dx Metastasis mets Prognosis Px Red blood cell RBC Radiation therapy XRT White blood cell WBC Chapter 1 Introduction to Word Parts Origins of Medical Language Built from Greek and Latin word parts eponyms acronyms and modern language Majority of medical terms today composed of Greek and Latin word parts Eponyms from name of person Acronyms from first letters of words in a phrase Four Word Parts Word root Word part that is the core of the word Contains fundamental meaning of the word Every medical term contains one or more Suffix Attached to the end of the word root Modifies meaning Frequently indicate Procedures Conditions Diseases Prefix Attached to the beginning of the word root Modifies meaning Often indicate Number Position Direction Time Negation Many medical terms do not have one Combining vowel Word part usually 0 used to ease pronunciation Connects two word roots or word root and suffix Guidelines Connecting word root and suffix used if suffix does not begin with vowel Connecting word root and suffix usually not used if suffix does begin with vowel Connecting 2 word roots usually used even with vowels at junction Connecting prefix and word root not used Combining Form Word root with combining vowel separated by slash Eg arthro osteo Techniques for Learning Medical Terms Built from Word Parts Analyzing medical terms Divide into word parts label Defining medical terms Apply meaning of each word part Begin with suffix then move to beginning Word part list Word roots Arthr joint Hepat liver Ven vein Oste bone Prefixes ntra within Sub under Suffixes tis inflammation Ic pertaining to Ous pertaining to Pathy disease Megaly enlargement
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