Biomedical Engineering BIOM 470
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This 22 page Class Notes was uploaded by Franco Kulas on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOM 470 at Colorado State University taught by Christian Puttlitz in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see /class/210165/biom-470-colorado-state-university in Biomedical Engineering at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
Introduction to Biomedical Engineering Cellular PhysiologyBiochemistry Physiological Hierarchy Cells basic building blocks of life amp smallest units of living things Tissue groups of similar cells that share a common function Organ a discrete structure composed of at least two tissue types four is more commonplace that performs a specific function for the body Cellular Hierarchy CrossSection of an Animal Cell Small organic molecules Macromolecules Cell Membrane Supramolecular structures Organelles small cellular structures that perform specific metabolic functions for the cell e 394 a 5 a a an L1 9 H 1 9 3 0 u l A w Cell Example nucleotidesDNA gt chromosome 2 nucleusVgt CELL Amino acids protein gt receptors 39gtCell wall Biochemistry Cells the chemical level Atoms amp molecules 24 of 108 chemical elements in body Major elements 993 H 63 o 26 C 9 N 1 Form the organic compounds in the body carbohydrates lipids proteins nucleic acids Mineral elements 07 Ca P K S Na Cl Mg Trace elements 001 0 Fe 1 Cu Zn Mn Co Cr Mo F Sn Si V Biochemistry Bonds Covalent Shared e between atoms Strong Ionic Electrical attraction between ionized groups Hydrogen Electrical attraction between polarized atoms Van der Waals Attraction between nonpolar molecules Surrounding e create transient dipole Covalent 91999 Addzscn man Lgngman w Hbond Biochemistry Organic Molecules Category Percent Atoms Subclass Body Weight Carbohydrate 1 C H O Monosaccharides glucose polysaccharides glycogen Lipids 15 C H Tricylglycerols Phospholipids Steroids Proteins 17 C H O N Amino acids Nucleic Acids 2 C H O N DNA RNA Carbohydrates Provide cells with energy 0 Water containing hydrated carbon C linked with H and 70H Polar amp soluble Monosaccharide glucose fructose galactose etc Disaccharide lactose galactose glucose Polysaccharide glycogen storage carbohydrate CH CH n l C zi ilk Tli i T U7 1 l fr LJII fats phospholipids steroids Aspalagina Asn N MW39 mm eiuiamiiie Glyn c Histldme His H MW 1 2m 4 z MW137 AipKa a n4 Lyslne Ms K MW 12E 7ipK371079 C H amp Owith neutral covalent bonds Nonpolar Insoluble in H20 Triglycerols ie fats 7 Link glycerol 3C carbo 3 fatty acid chains 7 Fatty acids 16 18 Cs long m i a cC with Single covalent bond Bond can be hick andmntherflatty acid can add to saturated t cc aln7a rose 015 CC double bond one or more fur D l 4 H H A unsaturated V 0 Phosphollplds modi ed triglycerols ll H7 7 Glycerol 3C carbo 2 FA 1 v 3 phosphate ii igiriiri H i ii 7 Polar amp non polar ends amphipathic 7 Constitute what important part of cells P teins Small Nucleaplullc CHONampS in SH a a HQNXCDOH HiNXCDOH HENLCOOH HERICOOH HQN Joooii 39 Pmtein Polymer W553 Amman iwfsmfia39fiia Mariam 0 0 H dis Iloblc of amino ac1ds Y quot b HQBIDOOH HEN COOH HZN CUOH HEN CODH gloomi Valme Var v Leucins Len Li lsoleucine llei i Memiunins MeL M Plullns Pm P MW 9914 MWIHSJG MWIHBJG MW KNJQ MW3997 2 20 AA form all H 0 OH N O O OH proteins Q g ED F o HEN COOH HEN cooH HQN COOH HzN COOH HQN cooH 39 Pl39OtelIl airquot mm cranium i i swrri 2 331t I HZN NHgf Defined by AA amp 0 NH p 0 Z HN i type AA at each E E E HzN COOH HzN CUOH HEN coon HEN COOH HEN COOH l Aygmina Avgi R MW 156Q pKa7 1243 Nucleic Acids Storage expression amp transmission of genetic information Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA Ribonucleic acid RNA DNARNA 7 Polymer of nucleotides Nucleotide 7 Nitrogencontaining base 7 Pentose 5C sugar 7 Phosphate 398VTDEINE ADE m Base thymineT 0 ll ETA Nucleic Acids and lEHm ow 0 A n u o7v07CH N J 39 c 39 H E w r warm 1 Sum mm lKJOJ L K 355 we DBGINiUWmClCUhC Di 0 o lI o7cn n l r 39 g l c z Phosc mm r IIIq Sugarmaosev 1 C c lw l 0394 OH Base uracilU m ommmg DNA confined to nucleus 7 4bases I Adenine A I Thymine T gt a wasnme sued I Cytosine C I Guanine G gt 7 2 coiled chains double helix RNA nucleus amp cytoplasm 7 4 bases of DNA I Thymine replaced with Uracil 7 1 coiled chain Back to the Hierarchy Cells Structural amp Functional Units of Life 7 Prokaryotic lack membranebound nucleus amp organelles bacteria 7 Eukaryotic membranebound nucleus amp organelles plants animals 39 compartments Prokargollc cell Eukargutlc cell 7 Plasma membrane 7 7 Interior cell Nucleus Cytoplasm Plasmamembrane 7Cgluplasm DNA 1 Nucleold region Nucleus 39 W Rihnsnmes 39r 7 Organelles 7 Cytosol 39 Intracellular uid Eellaw 7 CytOSOl 107100pm 7 Fluid inside organelles including nucleus Cellular Components Nucleus Plasma Membrane Regulate passage of substances into amp out cell ie ion gated channels Detects chemical messengers arriving at cell surface Links adjacent cells together by membrane junction Extracellular lluld Anchor for proteins involved in cell regulation ie signal transduction pathway l Phosphollpla tulayel Cylcsul NucleusNucleolus Nucleus Largest organelle in the cell Double membranebound nuclear envelope Communicate with cytosol Via nuclear pores Contains DNA Function stores amp transmits genetic info DNA 0 Nucleolus Densely stained filamentous structure Consists of proteins associated with production of ribosomes Function Forms ribosomes that pass into cytoplasm where they function as sites for protein synthesis Nucleolus m Nuclear I pores Ribosomes amp Endoplasmic Reticulum ER Nuclear Grandular ie rough envelope Membrane network at sheets 0 Attaches ribosomes for protein synthesis Agrandular ie smooth RaughE Tubular network with no ribosomes 0 Contains enzymes for fatty acid amp steroid synthesis 0 Stores amp releases Ca for muscle contraction em mnigm Smooth EH Ribosomes Bound to rough ER Composed of proteins amp RNA ribosomal RNA Synthesize proteins from AA using o V genetic info from DNA nucleus was trauma mllcuhm Mitochondria Cellular Powerplant Oval shaped body with 2 membranes Inner membrane forms cristae infoldings Function ATP production 02 utilization and CO2 formation Cown97quot m Fallson Eduunam m yumyungas aenamcmmm Genetic Information From DNA to Protein A General Overview W 0 Gene sequence of nucleotides with 1m Tmmp on info to code for AA sequence of 39 RNA s1ngle polypeptide chain K D POSlUGF RSCI IDUOTJ rnRNA DNA contain many genes v N d a N rr 3 0 Central tenet of molecular biology magma l mm Genetic info flows from DNA to O quotL 7 RNA to proteins 3 Translation 1 DNA transcription mRNA polypepmg synthesis d Posttranslation f mRNA translation 3mg polypeptide synthes1s H Denguequot Mulecubz Adiwe Protein Transcription DNA 1 RNA polymerase binds at promoter region of gene and opens up 2 strands of DNA in the region to be transcribed Free ribonucleotide triphosphates bases pair with deoxynucleotides in DNA Single strand of DNA is uncoiled and 3 Ribonucmoudes paired regions of the DNA are exposed to form Wlthpne Strand 0f DNA mRN A and ultimately proteins are 1mde Wlth RNA polymerase to form Each 3 base mRNA sequence codon mRNA containing base DNARNA nucleotide pairings pair complementary to the l codon corresponds to 1 AA DNA base sequence One strand of DNA contains many genes which code for a speci c protein Inside nucleus Outside nucleus Nucleus a I m ya rm olmnscnphan DNA or 7 5m I lsrlanllrsnsh39mmi x W y quot 2 quotma a 39 U Ammo am Protein synthesis at surface of ribosome mRN A info transferred to tRNA which code for amino acids in peptide chain Ccvlecl nmlnn acm n amth in each Pccies or quotRNA by an ammuacylrl l m symhmaio 2mm v 7 Amnncnwl mm synmelase cman levepme chain mRNA am Is nae 9mm pmmm rhnm 39 IHNA39haa 39hBanng quot I 4 alillzudun Large mmmi subunit F39crmn cl mRNA many anslalea smau nmwmai Dhucumv subnml m leoscme advance DNA Replication DNA is the only molecule in a cell able to duplicate itself Without information om some other cell component mRN A must have DNA Proteins must have mRN A Prior to cell division DNA replicates and one copy of DNA is passed to daughter cells What Is Gene Therapy Although genes get a lot of attention it s the proteins that er form most life functions and even make up the majority of cellular structures When genes are altered so that the encoded proteins are unable to carry out their normal functions genetic disorders can result Gene therapy is a technique for correcting defective genes responsible for disease development Researchers may use one of several approaches for correcting faulty genes GENE 1 l A normal gene may be inserted into a nonspeci c 4 location within the genome to replace a nonfunctional gene I This approach is most common N V GENE 2 d 2 An abnormal gene could be swapped for a normal gene through homologous recombination Chromosone 3 The abnormal gene could be repaired through GENES selective reverse mutation which returns the gene to its normal function 4 The regulation the degree to which a gene is turned on or off of a particular gene could be altered How Does Gene Therapy Work In most gene therapy W New m studies a quotnormalquot gene is mm cm mm l I l I inserted into the genome WMQ n n 1 i or replace an abnormal Modi ed DNAInjected i diseasecausmg gene 9 39quotmvem i i x 4 i A carrier molecule Emmi vector must be used to I r deliver the therapeutic gene to the patient39s target cells The most common i f if I Vector Injects new I r k gene into nucleus f1 29 quot W E packaged 3 1 59 4 g r 39 i 1 quotV g 39d vector is a Virus that has quotm E 3 I been genetically altered to 3557quot 212222 F 39 carry normal human DNA 1 39 a a Cell makes protein 39 Viruses have evolved a ene therapy 3mg usingnewgene I way of encapsulating and delivering their genes to human cells In a E Hatich Library fMgd i pathogenic manner 39 r51 adenovirus vector EL Ethical Issues Associated With Gene Therapy What is normal and what is a disability or disorder and who decides Are disabilities diseases Do they need to be cured or prevented Is somatic gene therapy done in the adult cells of persons known to have the disease more or less ethical than germline gene therapy done in egg and sperm cells and prevents the trait from being passed on to further generations In cases of somatic gene therapy the procedure may have to be repeated in future generations Preliminary attempts at gene therapy are exorbitantly expensive Who will have access to these therapies Who will nav for their use Mutations amp Cancer 3 Mutation Inactivales tumor appraiser gene Alteration in the genetic message CELLS PROLI FERATE Caused by environmental factors A TYpically deletion Mutation inactivates DNA repliair gen 2 Mutation o l prolo39oncogr39ne treates an oncogene Ser Val Lau Mutation inartiwaes EA 139CfL H i i3939fe lfquot several more 39 tumor suppressor genes f i i i iquot 3 39 ViviJug 7v v lv v p ia u v p w s i 39 9 1 krA cisiwc rezra AoTo raAfoG c9 A c I e Mutan Phi Gm Len His Pro Phe errand Gene Therapy Isn t The Panacea Shnnrlived nature nf gene therapy rPanents wru have to undergo mulaple rounds of gene therapy response rAnyume a forergn object rs od rnan assues the rrnrnune systern rs desrgned to attaek the rnyader The nsk f strrn une system r way th Prohlennswith viral vectorsetonrerty rrnrnune andm arnrnatory responses and gene eontrol and targeung tssues IVIlIltigEne disorders e Condmons or drsorders that anse from rnutatrons m a srngle gene are the best eandrd tes a forg ne therapy Unfortunately some emosteommo yoeeurnn drsorders h s e dr asehgh blood pres zhexmer s hntrs abetes are eaused by the sease and eornbrned effects ofvanauons m rnany genes BIOM 470 Introduction to Biomedical Engineering History and Structure of Biomedical Engineering Christian M Puttlitz PhD Director Orthopaedic Bioengineering Research Laboratory Associate Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering School of Biomedical Engineering q i3907779dical 3NGTNEERING AT 7011me S39I39A I lC 1i xwmsrrv Academic Background Bachelor of Science 592 Department of Materials Science Engineering and Mechanics Michigan State University U N I V E R S I T Y East Lansing Michigan 11 Department of L 39 Bioengineering Master of Science 1293 Department of Bioengineering Clemson University Clemson South Carolina Doctor of Philosophy 599 Department of Biomedical Engineering University of Iowa Iowa City Iowa Postdoctoral Research Fellow 19992001 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery University of California San Francisco Previous Position 20012005 Assistant Professor and Director Orthopaedic Biomechanics Laboratory San Francisco General Hospital Department of Orthopaedic Surgery University of California San Francisco Full Group Faculty Member UCSFUC Berkeley Joint Graduate Group in Bioengineering Research Interests Computational and experimental investigations of clinicallyrelevant orthopaedic biomechanics issues Cervical spinal disc prostheses Finite Element Analysis FEA Predicts real events using mathematical models 9 combined response of many tiny elerigms quotmum m quotIII Iiigf 39ffllllmfflilll m m z 1 SEE II I 39 se 4 sew i x I III 0 ll I39I uu mm Ig V mimmun mm 1 III 39II I W mmmmmu miiii fl rl W 39 M I Illlllil um unnmmu jq i lg147 I e w I I 11 f lxl quotIII III II l fl 1 47 l 1 4 1 x 1 1 1 a 1 I I a mum371 It I 112339 l 11 WI 14 45 III M 1 e nun mmriiiiii m I my III in mm 22 2 aa r gag ea I a 5 g r w wmi li in quot39Iiii xxii 0 iii I my 39i a a a o I N s 13 a 939 2 r a l Fracture 52 iii i hIES red1cted w N s I 0112 3 M e s Q 8 s Xs w 8 39 IIIII mm i w I755Zrllr r i quotquot39iiiiiiiliiilwmsmw lllllll I ll 1 umuull mm m mmIlmmihmmu Ankle Fracture Study This versus that iiquot An c 0mm u RleZm l Surgery Fixation of Osteoporotic Distal Fibula Fractures A Biomechanical Comparison of Locking Versus Conventional Plates um M MD llqurM hm Numeral Huh ml imam Mm Mn and mm M Wm M mm amhx m wadinunmumn 39 am i a umm m 1 mg mmumi n m mm m m Juvle Mann 1 mm 1 507 21 mmwgawmxxmmmm w 1 mmth mm m mmrm u Muirm mun w O aquot murmur k w 4 K as mu m m in m Mahmud m rmquot minim quotmum mi vdnu u m M M b 39 J v W J r 5 quotw in m 4quot upquot aw55 M Manhunlmwmm mar Mr mm W Mm minim m murmumxan mh5m4rigwiw 1 Mimmumlmnjwi m Approaches Human Cadaveric Tissue psst What s for dinner Approaches Computational Modeling of the Spine C3C7 FE Model on quotw v w lit 4 quot4 9 4339s Biomedical Engineering De ned The discipline of biomedical engineering lies at the forefront of the medical revolution Advances in hinmedinnl engineering are m n quot 39 J through interdisciplinag activities that integrate the physical chemical mathematical and computational sciences With engineering principles in order to study biology medicine and behavior National Institutes of Health Biomedical Engineering What is it Biomedical engineering is a discipline that advances knowledge in engineering biology and medicine and im roves human health throu h crossdisciplinag activities that integrate the engineering sciences with the biomedical sciences and clinical practice T11 i TAKER Fm n n 1 a H n Biomedical Engineering is Interdisciplinary 0 Engineering Electrical mechanical chemical material amp systems 0 Biology 0 Medicine 0 lVIathematics 0 Physics 0 Chemistry 0 Computer science Some Blamedlcal Engmemng Areas Bunnlnn39u 39 Pm 1quot ET quotquot3 39 hum Am hl om 39 I n linfnmntix Mnddmg Simuh m amp m1 1 Imam xth mummy 39 WNW Clmimllilm39lurinz ghtiin Health Care mauve md munmgm mmwuml gy hmdmll trummv LMWVufhbmm mm mm 1 Lmv y Newumlngymuthunl e uhve mewmgmammg USA mmmawmmmmmm Cmmxhthxvemvedfmmiquotwm mm mumm mm udy ugxm dmlnpmn B1 omedml Engmeenng an Interdlsmphnary Sclmce m himwluhlmmadz jm mmmn 95mm x m Mm mmmmm mm xu len rmmJzdlrmdrmd Slmlanues nmemedmal Engmeenng and Medmne nmmmngaugmm mm mmquot mam Biomedical Engineering History Example I November 1895 Xrays were born I Wilhelm Roentgen accidentally discovered that a cathoderay tube could make a sheet of paper coated with barium platinocyanide glow even when the tube and the paper were in separate rooms I Roentgen hypothesized cathoderay tube emitted penetrating rays he called X rays for unknown I Stimulated research into the tissue penetrating and tissuedestroying properties of Xrays I Produced modern medical imaging technologies I Virtually eliminated the need for exploratory rgery Biomedical Engineering History I Between WW1 and WWII a number of laboratories undertook research in biophysics and biomedical engineering 7 ONE institute offered formal training I The Oswalt Institute for Physics in Medicine established in 1921 in Frankfurt Germany I The Oswalt Institute and the University in Frankfurt soon established formal ties that led to a PhD program in biophysics by 1940 7 Primary research area Xrays Biomedical Engineering History I 1948 first conference in Medicine and Biology I Under the auspices of the Institute of Radio Engineers forerunner of the IEEE the American Institute for Electrical Engineering and the Instrument Society of America I 20 papers amp lt 100 attendees I Focus on ionizing radiation and its implications I 1958 conference Computers in Medicine and Biology I 70 papers amp 300 attendees I By 1961 gt 3000 attendees Biomedical Engineering History 3 training programs established in 1950s with NIH funding Johns Hopkins University University of Pennsylvania University of Rochester v Biomedical Engineering Education Current PhD Program Demand Graduate Bioengineering Enrollment 0 No formal bioengineering PhD programs exist in Kansas Nebraska Oklahoma South Dakota North Dakota Nevada Idaho Wyoming Montana or New Mexico Female Participation Is High I I I Envi onmental Bacca aureate Englneerlng Degree Representat on Among Women D Biomedical B Chemical El Indust ia Manu ac 11 ng I Ag cu tu al I A ch tec u al I Metal u g cal Mate ials I Enginee ng Management I Enginee ng Sc ence hys cs I 0 he Cvil D Nuclea E Compu e Science Ou sde D gggspace Eng nee ng I Compu e Science Ins de COE El M n ng I Enginee ng Gene a D E ect ical Compute I Eect ical 0 10 20 30 0 50 I Comp 6 Percentage of Degrees Awarded 1 Mechanical Biomedical Engineering National Economic Indicators 0 From 2004 to 2010 7 Engineeringjobs 9400 growth 7 BMEjobs 314 o growth 0 Speci c growth areas for BME industry 7 Computer assisted surgery 7 Cellular and tissue engineering 7 Rehabilitation and orthopaedic engineering Salaries for BME 7 Median income 73930 in 2006 U S Bureau ofLabor Stalirtics 2007 Biomedical Engineering Funding In 2000 NIH established an Institute dedicated to Biomedical Engineering 7 National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering NIBIB 7 NIBIB awarded rst research grants April 2002 7 308M budget for FY 09 Deparkrnenl of Heallh amp Human serwces NATIDNAL ETITLnTEquot OF HEALTH i N National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Biomedical Engineering What do I do with my degree Sky s the Limit 7 Academics 7 Research 7 Industry 7 Medicine 7 Clinical 7 Entrepreneur 7 Consultant Biomedical Engineering Colorado Economic Indicators 0 Biotechnology jobs increase 48 between 2005 and 2015 7 500 faster than state average 7 2500 faster than US average 0 Average annual wage 79580 Starting wage 58635 no experience Department ofLabor Predictions I 998 Biomedical Engineering Education No Colorado university offers undergrad BME degree Among surrounding states only U of Utah offers BME degree Students must leave Colorado to receive BME degree Next year New dual degree in MECHCEEECECBE and BIOMED School of Biomedical Engineering 0 MSlVIE and PhD Graduate Program in Bioengineering Started in Fall 2007 4 Colleges 7 Engineering 7 Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences 7 Natural Sciences 7 Applied Human Sciences Enrollment 201 112 13 lVJE 4 Total Enrolled in Program 7 48 on campus 7 10 online lO MS and PhD in Bioengineering Research areas include Biomechanics and Biomaterials C l 39 4 f 39 L i l l v x Molecular Cellular and Tissue Engineering Medical Diagnostics Devices and Imaging iniivndicnl LNGIN RING T 39I39HDRADO 5 IA l7 l IVIVHNI l Y MS and PhD in Bioengineering Over 60 elective courses including graduate level topics in Genetics Instruments and techniques Biomechanics Engineering mathematics Molecular biology Computational modeling Physiology Bioinformatics Materials science Bioethics Engineering sciences Radiation Biology Cell biology Why Grad School Poverty Rules Love to Discover Learn How to Discover Learn How to in Professional Development Don t be Myopic Competitive ll Characteristics Of A Good Grad Student Intelligent K Solid Engineering Base Q Curiosity WORK ETHIC Grad School Preparation Competitive GPA 377 average for new SBME admits Communication Skills 0 Lab Experience Discipline 7 Medinnic Why Academia vs Industry r7quot 39 7 Research Freedom Freedom Freedom Teaching Student Interaction Collaboration Travel an viamg Hmer me39mg Ll 12
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