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This 5 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Shannon Roberts on Saturday September 13, 2014. The One Day of Notes belongs to a course at a university taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 75 views.
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Date Created: 09/13/14
II III IV VI Definition of Psychology Six Approaches to Psychology Fields of Specialization History of Psychology Ethical Issues Overview of Scientific Method Lecture 1 II Six Approaches A Psychoanalytic Freud Unconscious mind If you had a mental problem it was probably caused by childhood experience Started becoming famous in the late 1800s and by 1905 was world famous B Behavioral Watson Skinner Focuses on behavior disagreed with the psychoanalytic approach because data wasn39t measurable Watson believed phobias were learnedconditioned Little Albert Experiment Paired rat with starling noise which caused the child to learn to fear the rat Generalization occurred and the child began to fear all white objects C Gestalt Kohler Wertheimer The whole is more than the sum of the parts Wouldn39t just ask you how you feel but would look at how you39re dressed your makeup etc Most were Jewish approach dies out as a result of the Nazis taking over Europe D Humanistic Maslow Rogers Every human being is motivated to reach their full potential You get stopped by the negativity of the important people around you E Cognitive thinking memory language problem solving creativity Deception is a flaw with this approach F BiologicalMedicalPhysiological Brain hormones neurotransmitters etc III Field of Specialization Human Services Clinical historically this focused on major disordersmental illness Counseing historically this focused on everyday issues marital issues family issues business problems Community housing health etc Schoo discipline motivation Applied Educationa learning disabilities Forensic mock trials Sports motivation in sports Industrial Organizationa applying to business settings employee relationships Heath doctorpatient relationships doctorstaff relationships Engineering making technology userfriendly interfaces Experimental Socia relationships Personaity nature and nature genetics what you eat environmentsurroundings Cognitive thinking Developmenta phases of life PhysiologicaMedicaBioogica drugs and prescriptions IV History of Psychology A Charles Darwin 1859 Evolution survival of the fittest natural selectiongenetics variation among people and families B Wilhelm Wundt 1879 Titchener 1893 C Sir Francis Galton 1884 D William James 1890 Principles of Psychology E Sigmund Freud 1900 F Ivan Pavlov 1920s G G John Watson 1913 1920s V Ethical Issues Institutional Review Boards IRB must submit a very detailed proposal if you want to perform an experiment with humans esp when planning on publishing Minimize Risk NOT ELIMINATE Especially In medical studies risk is common especially emotional ex ruin selfesteem Informed Consent You have the right to know what your doing but you don39t have the right to know why you are doing Right to Privacy not supposed to look at a survey Debriefing after the experiment is over you might get more information about the study ex if you like additional information copy of the results Record Keeping Animal Researchanimals have to be treated humanely Vi Overview of the Scientific Method Sir Francis Bacon late 1500seary 1600s given the credit believed to be Shakespeare don39t just say its true because of past knowledge but perform tests to see if its true Leonardo Da Vinci making painting look more realistic reproduce the shadows produced on a sheet by a candle didn39t just use ancient techniques but created his own techniques Designed helicopters also Science begins with an observation You observe something After observing you develop a theory THE THEORY LEADS TO THE HYPOTHESIS You design a TESTABLE must be falsifiable hypothesis to see if there is work to support it A THEORY IS NEVER PROVENone experiment that supports doesn39t prove it The goal of theory is not to be proven A theory can grow but not be proven The goal of a theory is to advance our understanding of the topic A theory can evolve into a whole new theory Ii Mouliv N0 TBSIEIIIIB l I Test it Ilvllotllesis It sumnort quot5 True Experiment Correlational Method 1 Randomly Divide Subjects 1 Measure Two Variables 2 Manipulate the Independent Variable 3 Measure the Dependent Variable 2 Calculate the Relationship Example Mean Coffee gp 75 bpm Example Pearson39s correlation 9O Mean no Coffee gp 65 bpm May infer that coffee CAUSED an increase in Heart Rate Support for hypothesis but cannot infer Causality Remember Correlation does not imply causation Correlational studies often have Directionality Problems andor Third variable problems September 5th C9 H The directionality issue says that H9C For example maybe people with higher heart rates are motivated to drink more coffee Coffee The third variable confounding variable issue says that another variable may affect both how much coffee someone drinks and also their heart rate 8 Heart rate
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