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Study Guide for Final Anth 1003 Chapter 8 Sex and Gender COMPARECONTRAST SEX biological GENDER social roles Choromosomal social identities Hormonal not necessarily fixed Physical MATRIARCHY a femae dominated society in which women hold all important public and private power PATRIARCHY a male dominated society in which all important public and private power is held by men MALE INITIATION RITES culturally validate male dominance legitimate a change of status from child to adult involve an extended period of separation during which the initiates learn the beliefs skills and knowledge to be an adult FEMALE INITIATION RITES performed at menarche first menstruation occur in more societies than MIR cross cultural variability isolated from society or center of attention rituals take years to perform or little ceremony What are some ways that gender is performed Performed in culture through physical movement body adornment amp activities Define Gender Ideology The totality of ideas about sex gender the natures of men and women including their sexuality and the relations between the genders How does culture affect sexual behavior Gives examples Cultures differ in Age that sexuality begins and ends Ways people make themselves attractive Importance of sexual activity Appropriate sexual behaviors ie Before Tahitians learned to kiss from the Europeans they began sexual intimacy by sniffing ie Trobriand Islanders inspected each other for lice if they liked each other What are the three New Guinean societies that Margaret Mead studied in the early 20th century How did gender roles play out in each Arapesh Both sexes acted in ways Americans consider feminine Mundugamor Both sexes acted in ways Americans consider masculine Tchambuli men acted in ways Americans consider feminine and women acted in ways Americans consider masculine Give examplesrules for how power is allotted across genders for each of the following society FORAGING men and women had equal power In Tlingit women may be heads of clanstribes Tlingit aristocrats are both male and female HORTICULTURE high degree of sex segregation with male dominance adolescent boys initiated into the men s cult solidarity of women excluded from men s cult PASTORALISM tend to be male dominated based on strength to handle large animals women s status depends on the degree to which society combines herding w cultivation animals may be jointly owned by men and women AGRICULTURE tend to be male dominant women s economic contribution status declines women paid lower wages INDUSTRIAL women highly involved in the global economy women able to support themselves and their children occupations available to both men and women What is the anthropological theory of PrivatePublic dichotomy Female subordination to men is based on women s universal role as mothers and homemakers occupying a domestic private world that is less prestigious than the public world domination by men Berdache Tradition What is the Berdache tradition and where was it practiced A Berdache is a morphological male who does not fill society s standard man s role who has a non masculine character This tradition was practiced in North America specifically the Prairie and western Great Lakes the northern and central Great Plains the lower Mississippi Valley Florida and the Caribbean the Southwest the Great Basin California Northwest western Canada and Alaska What are some of the social role of the Berdache Where does this third gender role gain its prestige Berdaches have special ceremonial roles in many Native American religions and important economic roles in their families They will do at least some women s work and mix together much of the behavior dress and social roles of women and men They gain social prestige by their spiritual intellectual or craftworkartistic contributions and by their reputation for hard work and generosity Hijras of India What are the hijras and what are the various ways they earn a living The hijra is an ambiguous gender role in India neither male nor female They perform feminine dances at weddings and births and also earn from prostitution For the hijras what is nirvana Nirvana is an operation or rebirth It is a religious ritual for hijras which positions them are ascetics whose creative powers derive from their rejecting and thus transcending normal sexuality This operation also identifies hijras with their special goddess and gives them power to confer blessings of fertility Why is their presence requested at marriage or birth ceremonies It is believed that they had the power of fertility Chapter 9 Define Political organization The patterned ways in which power is legitimately used in a society to regulate behavior maintain social order make collective decisions and deal with social disorder Political Ideology The shared beliefs and values that legitimize the distribution and use of power in a particular society Social Complexity The number of groups and their interrelationships in a society Social Differentiation The relative access individuals and groups have to basic material resources wealth power and prestige Compare and contrast the following POWER AUTHORITY COERCION force you to agree CONSENSUS everyone agrees willingly REBELLION the attempt of a group within REVOLUTION an attempt to overthrow society to force a redistribution of the existing political structure and put resources and power another type of political structure in its place Compare the following societies Give examples of which types of subsistence strategies they are associated with 1 Egalitarian No individual or group had more access to resources power or prestige than any other No fixed number of social positions for which individuals must complete Associated with bands and tribes 2 Rank Institutionalized differences in prestige but no restrictions on access to basic resources Individuals obtain what they need to survive through their kinship group Associated with horticulture or pastoral societies with a surplus of food Associated with chiefdoms 3 Stratified Formal permanent social and economic inequality Some people are denied access to basic resources Characterized by differences in standard of living security prestige and political power Economically organized by market systems Based on intensive cultivation agriculture and industrialism Associated with form of political organization called the state Give characteristics of each type of society s political organization 1 Bands small group of people 20 to 50 related by blood or marriage live together and are loosely associated with a territory in which they forage Egalitarian decisionmaking is by consensus leaders are older men and women leaders cannot enforce their decisions they can only persuade sharing and generosity are important sources of respect maintained by gossip ridicule and avoidance offenders may be controlled through ritual means such as public confessions offender is defined as a patient rather than a criminal no formal organizationproduction for war 2 Tribes members consider themselves descended from the same ancestor found primarily among pastoralists and horticulturalists Egalitarian Leadership ex Bigman gains power through personal achievements other types of groups help integrate tribal societies beyond simple kinship affiliation an age set is a named group of people similar age and sex who move life s stages together in a society with age grades individuals follow a progression through a series of statuses such as childhood warrior adult and senior have variety of mechanisms for controlling behavior and settling con icts compensation is a payment demanded to compensate for damage mediation aims to resolve disputes so that prior social relationship between the disputants is maintained and harmony is restored involves third party to resolve con ict 3 Chiefdoms monumental architecture distinct ceremonial centers elaborate grave goods re ect high social status larger settlements by smaller villages cultivators and pastoralists 4 States central government with monopoly over the use of force more populous heterogeneous and powerful than other political organizations able to organize large populations for coordinated action defend against external threats citizenship regulates social relations and defines a person s rights and duties characterized by govemment Chapter 10 Stratification Compare and contrast the following concepts Functionalism functionalist perspective Conflict Theory a perspective on social the anthropological theory that specific stratification that focuses on economic cultural institutions function to support inequality as a source of conflict and the structure of a society or serve the change needs of its people Class Systems a form of social Caste Systems social stratification based on stratification in which the different strata birth or ascribed status in which social form a continuum and social mobility is mobility between castes is not possible possible Ascribed Status a social position into Achieved Status a social position that a which a person is born person chooses or achieves on his or her own Assimilation theory the process by which Multiculturalism the View that cultural immigrants abandon their cultural diversity is a positive value and makes an distinctiveness and become mainstream iT11P0Tt311tC011tTibuti011t0 C011temP0T3TY Americans societies Define and compare When possible each criteria of stratification 1 Power the ability to impose one s will on others 2 Wealth the accumulation of material resources or access to the means of producing these resources eventually translate into high social position and power 3 Prestige social honor or respect 3rd dimension of social stratification related to race and ethnicity income accumulated Wealth power personal characteristics integrity family history and display of material goods Why can class be defined as a subculture A social class has aspects of a subculture Members share similar life experiences occupational roles values educational backgrounds affiliations leisure activities buying habits religious affiliation and political views How does race affect life chances Race can hinder life chances because of racial discrimination and minorities and race can be an advantage to racial majorities How do race and class intersect Longstanding inequalities in income and Wealth and educational opportunities Chapter 11 Religion Name Characteristics of all religions Sacred stories symbols and symbolism existence of supernatural beings powers states places and qualities rituals and means of addressing the supernatural specific practitioners Name Functions of Religion Provides meaning and order in people s lives Gives people a feeling of control over their destinies Reinforces or challenges the social order by transmitting cultural values and knowledge Compare the following ANIMISM the belief that all living and nonliving objects are imbued with spirit gods POLYTHEISM belief in many MONOTHEISM belief in a single god RITES OF PASSAGE a ritual that moves an individual from one social status to another RITES OF INTENSIFICATION a ritual structured to reinforce the values and norms of a community and to strengthen group identity IMITATIVE MAGIC the belief that imitating an action in a religious ritual will cause the action to happen in the material world CONTAGIOUS MAGIC the belief that things once in contact with a person or object retain an invisible connection with that person or object NATIVISTIC aim to restore what its followers believe is a golden age of the past VITALISTIC RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS a religious movement that looks toward the creation of a utopian future that does not resemble a past golden age MESSIANIC focusing on the coming of an individual who will usher in a utopian world MILLENARIAN RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS belief that a coming catastrophe will signal the beginning of a new age and the eventual establishment of paradise Define Cosmology A system of beliefs that deals with fundamental questions in the religious and social order List ways of addressing the supernatural Prayer sacrifice magic divination trance or altered consciousness Why are pitchershitters more prone to rituals and acts of magic What major function of religion is this related to Since Baseball players livelihoods depend on how they play many use magic as form of control over the outcome This is related to rituals in religion How does religion affect the social order of societies Dominant cultural beliefs about good and evil are reinforced Sacred stories and rituals provide a rationale for social order and give social values religious authority Religious ritual intensifies social solidarity by creating an atmosphere in which people experience their common identity in emotionally moving ways What is a shaman and how does the type of shamanism practiced dependent on context of the community A shaman is a ritualist who is able to divine predict and affect future outcomes provides medical care and has direct access to the supernatural and gains powers through spiritsdeceased ancestors Three case studies 1 and 2 Siberian 0 Hunting vs Pastoralist 3 Columbian o Putumayo Indians of southern Columbian I Healers against evil air Define syncretism the merging of elements of two or more religious traditions to produce a new religion How have Westerners views of Muslims changed since 911 How do Christianity and Islam con ictdiffer What is a moderate Muslim Since 911 most Muslims have been associated with terrorism particularly Muslims in Western societies Britain France US Islam is a bigger part of daily life and enforces civil law Shari a law Moderate Muslims aren t focused on by the media view Taliban as extreme and myopic narrowminded have very different culture from Taliban and have no centralized authority among Muslims worldwide What is the cause of zombif1cation in Haiti What social purpose does it serve Puffer fish were the cause of zombi cation in Haiti and it was an act of regulation to keep them in order Chapter 12 Power Conquest and a World System List the motivators for European expansion and colonialism Christianize the world aka white man s burden Find a wide variety of wonders both real and imaginedspices Amass great wealth List the leading developments in Europe that spurred expansion and colonization Rise of banking and merchant class Growing population New ship design that was better at sailing into the wind Diseases carried by Europeans to native populations How did disease play a role in Western expansion Almost every time Europeans met others who had been isolated from the European African and Asian land masses they brought death and cultural destruction in the form of microbes In many instances virtually the entire native population perished of imported diseases within 20 years Describe the act of pillaging that took place under colonization Europeans stripped areas of money goods and raw materials through the use of physical violence and threats Mines were under European control What are monocultures and why were they important Give examples Monoculture plantations specialized in the largescale production of a single crop for sale to distant consumers They created demand for slaves Ex Cotton sugar spices Explain the economic cycle of African slaves raw materials and European markets What part did the Industrial Revolution play The use of slave labor was extremely profitable for both slave shippers and plantation owners Slave labor created continuous warfare and impoverishment in the areas from which slaves were drawn How did educational policies play a role in colonial rule Colonial education was often designed to convince subjects that they were cultural moral and intellectual inferiors Education in 19th century India encouraged children to aspire to be like Englishmen In France s African colonies children were taught to obey their colonial masters What role did anthropology play in colonization British anthropologists Worked within British colonies French anthropologists Worked in French colonies and Americans Worked Within the US borders or in areas of American in uence and control in the Pacific When did decolonization occur for those parts of the world under colonial rule In Africa and Asia independence was not achieved until after WWII Many nations part of the Soviet Union received their independence in the late 1980s and early 1990s Reasons for decolonization Civil obedience Changing political structures Changing economic structures Other material to review can be found on the PowerPoint slides regarding Can White Men Jump Al1y s Choice Labor and Legality