Introduction to Prehistory (GT
Introduction to Prehistory (GT ANTH 140
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Anthropology The study of humans and their culture Divided into 41 sub elds 1 Cultural anthropology 2 Physical or biological anthropology 3 Archaeology 4 Linguistic anthropology 5 Applied Anthropology Hominids 1149 PM Swamps and forests a First primates 1100 PM Dinosaurs Occurring within A the last 39 5 seconds Saturday Day 7 before x Insects mldmght kx Sheiied animals gt v quot v Imm wm W I Friday Day6 Indusz First ceil containing 7 ENN 7quot1 r genetic material MAw a w K ampV 1 l x Thursday Day 5 K W WV rvv Vrir K AMquot A Photosynthesis ednesday Day 4 Algae Io 39 7 K og r is Tuesday Day 3 FIRST LIVING 3 22232 THINGS 35 bya FORMATION OF I wjm w First molecules Each day 650 million years Sundaywm Qt EARTH 45 bya What is material culture anything made or modi ed by humans eg garbage lost or abandoned items Artifacts Ecofacts Features Goals of archaeology 1 Study culture through material remains 2 Reconstruct past ways of life 3 Explain culture change Archaeologists study culture Diachronically study change over time Synchronically study a single period in time Absolute Dating Methods Coins Terminus Post Quem Dendrochronology as old as the trees Radiocarbon 40000 70000 BP Potassium Argon 100000 45 bya Others 029 30 in textbook Paleomagnetism 1000005 millions BP Luminescence 100 1000005 BP Obsidian Hydration tens of thousands BP CONTEXT where something is found the soil layer XYZ etc ASSOCIATION the relationship between an artifact and other archaeological finds at the level of a feature structure or site Balter Michael 2008 V N V bu VV DNA From Fossil Feces Breaks Clovis Barrier Science 320 587237 What kind of DNA did Willerslev and Gilbert extract from the coprolites found by Jenkins How did the researchers mitigate contamination of the coprolites by the DNA of the excavators and other researchers How did the researchers verify their ndings Why is the presence of canid DNA in the coprolites a potential problem for interpreting their signi cance How do the excavators respond to these problems Anth 140 Study Questions WeekZ Epstein S 1987 Scholars Will Call it Nonsense The Structure of Erich Von Daniken s Argument Expedition 29 2 1218 1 What is Erich von Daniken s EvD profession 2 How many copies of EvD s book had sold at the time of Epstein s article 3 How does EvD treat the archaeological record as a Rorschach test in the case of the image on the sarcophagus lid of Pakal look up Rorschach test if necessary 4 What are some scienti c explanations for why the Delhi Pillar has preserved relatively well 5 How did experimental archaeology demonstrate that the Easter Island statues were erected by humans not extraterrestrials 6 What is Occam s Razor and how does it relate to an evaluation of EvD s assertions Stringer Chris 2001 Lost in the myths of time Independent Thursday July 5 Stringer discusses examples of sensational initial discoveries that are later disproven or at least altered by subsequent testing and analysis He notes that initial exciting claims are often widely publicized but the later debunking or modifying of preliminary results are rarely afforded much publicity Why do you think this is the case Adovasio J M Soffer Olga and Jake Page 2007 The Invisible Sex Harper Collins New York 1 Why do you think women are left out of reconstructions of prehistory such as the ones given irrthis text 2 How did the image of Clovis Man attacking cave bears come about and what was the role of popular magazines in perpetuating this image 3 What is Uniformitarianism and who were its chief proponents in the 18th and 191h centuries 4 Why do we find so many ancient stone tools but very few organic remains such as baskets leather and textiles 5 What role did feminism play in changing how we write prehistory Molleson Theya 1994 The Eloquent Bones of Abu Hureyra Scienti c American 271 2 7075 Where is the site of Abu Hureyra and when was it occupied and for how long What kinds of plants and animals did the people at Abu Hureyra eat Which domesticated plants did they eat What kinds of preparation did the domesticated foods require What kinds of physical activities and associated stress are eVident in the bones of the people of Abu Hureyra Why did these activities cause stress that shows up in bones How did cooking food in ceramic pots change the amount of wear found on people s teeth at Abu Hureyra From H erectus to Neanderthals 500000 175000 BP H Neanderthalensis EUROPE 175000 30000 BP I H39 Haidabergensis 1200 cc brain H Antecessor AFRICA 9 EUROPE 500000 BP Atapuerca SPAIN 800000 BP T H Erectus H Ergaster GEORGIA 18 MYA AFRICA SE ASIA 14 MYA 19 MYA V39 739 REPLACEMENT OR CONTINUITY Hndcm 3 Dd13TH Mmicm 7 h lm lcrni m mm Iiu mpuguts Axians Mmtruliam CONTINUITY N 391 I 39 3mm erm 5 7 MULTI REGIONAL 7 Maudnus MODEL V Titan A Ellrtgpmn gt gt Asian lndnneaimu H urrm H wwms I 1 WEho H mama Mndcm Madrm Mndum Madem A ans Eu rapmm v39mi an a x ulitmlm nun REPLACEMENT andurhl Ngandnng OUT OF AFRICA 1 MODEL 1 African Eurrnpmn Aaian Itid nt i n I 139 at39ir w39fwmi39usr39 H rr rfu Wersr39a Ii rm l39mf H m rrrcs haulfa Hm39rgrmi Anth 140 Hominin Lab Spring 2010 After completing the lab please type your answers on the answer sheet provided on RamCT This lab is due IN CLASS in HARD COPY on Tuesday February 23 1 30 points sign vour mlme 0n the 1 sheet Stationl Stone tools Oldowan Acheulian Mousterian Upper Paleolithic 10 points 1 Which hominin species is associated with each of the stone toolkits and when did each of the toolkits rst appear A Oldowan is the first appearing tools associated with the homo habalis about 2500000 BP Followed by the Acheulian tools with homo erectus d but around 17250000 BP After this was the Mousterian then the upper Paleolithic 2 How are the tool kits similar or different A Oldowan is simple and old in design and purpose with less usable edge surface area due to inefficient and inaccurate design As we evolve the efficiency in terms of increased surface area and design using softer materials to finer shape the precision of tool Overall all of them come from the stone age 3 What can the tools tell us about a what people were eating b what people were thinking A The tools can give insight into behavior which can act as a guide to interpreting society so that we can reconstruct what they may have been doing They needed assistance aside from natural born appendage to eat with so they developed tools to help eat more difficult things like leftover scrap meet perhaps also to grind more course food to a finer consistency to cook with in a soup with the meat but there bones tell us more about the food they ate Simple minded traditional gathers stuck with an obsession that lasted for a million plus years 4 How do we know that the earliest stone tools were actually tools and not just naturally broken rocks A Experimental Archaeology Station 2 Skull and Pelvis comparison A Afarensis pelvis and skull human pelvis chimpanzee skull and pelvis 10 points 1 Compare each pelvis how are they similar or different A Overall surface area decreases in size from man down to Afarensis Slight variation in shape indicating different walking patterns 2 Which pelvis human or chimpanzee is most similar to the A Afarensis pelvis A Human as a smaller 2312 size 3 Aside from the pelvis what other parts of the skeleton indicate whether or not an individual walked upright A Spine Base of brain connection to spine at foot lack of knuckle wear femur 4 Compare the A Afarensis and chimpanzee skulls how are they similar or different A More defined brow ridge shorter snot on the A Afarensis Both have a very jetting out chin that is much more elongated than contemporary human face Anth 140 Hominin Lab Spring 2010 After completing the lab please type your answers on the answer sheet provided on RamCT This lab is due IN CLASS in HARD COPY on Tuesday February 23 Station 3 Australopithecines A Africanus A Boisei skulls 10 points 1 What are the key distinctions between the gracile and robust australopithecines A The teeth and jaw design increase in molar size and change by wider U shaped design 2 What function was served by the saggital crest on the skull of robust australopithecines A To hold the jaw muscle in place 3 Why did the robust australopithecines have such large molars A Strength for tougher diet nuts and such LAB CONTINUES ON THE BACK OF THIS PAGE Station 4 Earliest Homo fossils H Habilis H Erectus skulls10 points 1 How are the H Habilis and H Erectus skulls similar or different A Same general protection design theme being a round object Slight variation in skull size 2 Beginning with H Erectus what changes in the skeleton caused birthing problems and probably led to new kinds of social relationships A The shrinking of the pelvis combined with the increase in brain size especially in relation to the infant 3 What is the difference between the brain size of H Habilis H Erectus and modern humans A It varies in magnitude from 8001350 cc overall just smaller Station 5 Neanderthals Neanderthal and Modern Human skull and femur Archaic skull 10 points 1 How do the H Neanderthalensis and H Sapiens skulls differ Which one has the larger brain A NIarger flat chin aerodynamic large overbrow HTaller defined chin smaller structure more round pronounced forehead 2 How do the H Neanderthalensis and H Sapiens femurs differ Why A N Are very bowed from extreme continuous muscle tension to due sheer size of Neanderthalensis 3 What about the Neanderthal skeletal structure tells you that they were adapted to a cold environment and a rough way of life A They were very short stocky and very bulky in design this proves beneficial in terms of efficiency in energy conservation in such a structure as this 4 What features of the Archaic human skull distinguish it from the modern human skull Anth 140 Hominin Lab Spring 2010 After completing the lab please type your answers on the answer sheet provided on RamCT This lab is due IN CLASS in HARD COPY on Tuesday February 23 A The jaw shape teeth size skull size skeletal size General Questions for the Hominins Answer in a few sentences or a paragraph 10 points each 1 What are the major trends in human evolution and how are they re ected in the anatomy of hominids The consensus to me seems to be that the human evolution trend is re ected in the constantly increasing variation of body size shape detail It would appear that the human lineage plays along with the idea that the individuals who are best t to the context of the environment they currently exsist in prove thus best t to reproduce with exception of the sneaky fucker concept Assuming most men did not ght while the other male mates which is reasonable considering we have no material remains that suggest any such human behavior In a mean time what we do have is a lot of material evidence that the variation of current man did not in fact entail all of the sub hominids that comprised part of our ancestry rather some such as the Neanderthal have died off while others like the homo erg aster from Africa have interbred with the many variations across the world leaving most of today s lineage 2 Where geographically is each of the species we discussed in class found and when in time Beginning with earliest known species of Aegyptopithicus 3523 MYA After this we beggin to evolve more erect and change in size to increase ef ciency for distance into first hominins from Africa 86MYA Aridilapithicus 415 MYA 522MYA explosion of population known as radiation takes place with the Australapithicus Kenyanthrpus Paranthropus this is still all taking place relatively close or within a near proximity to the rift valley region 2 SMY A first stone tools appear Austrlopithicus afarensis in the east African hadar Ethiopia into Robustus 2l8MYA First homo genus as Homo habilis appears with smaller teeth and a larger brain and begins to explore more Followed shortly by homo erectus in Africa l9MYA250000 Post erectus the size of pelvis and brain reshape social structure for man l7MYA250000BP Archeluian tools are found Homo erectus is actually the erectus of Asia Homo ergaster is in Africa and for a time period Africa lVIiddle East Europe Indonesia evolve separately but almost guaranteed for our DNA to be like it is this would be the ergaster more than likely mated with most decedents combined with general interbreeding to result in today s contemporary gene pool Molleson Theya 1994 The Eloquent Bones of Abu Hureyra Scienti c American 271 2 7075 Where is the site of Abu Hureyra and when was it occupied and for how long What kinds of plants and animals did the people at Abu Hureyra eat Which domesticated plants did they eat What kinds of preparation did the domesticated foods require What kinds of physical activities and associated stress are eVident in the bones of the people of Abu Hureyra Why did these activities cause stress that shows up in bones How did cooking food in ceramic pots change the amount of wear found on people s teeth at Abu Hureyra EXPEDITION The University Museum Magazine Volume 29 of Archaeology Anthropology Number 2 University of Pennsylvania 1987 Editors Mary M Voigt Bernard Wailes Associate Editor Introduction 2 Jennifer Quick Production Manager Archaeology and Pseudo Archaeology Jennifer Quick B F Advisovzthomz ttee quotan agan t C aim 533693 The Cult of the Cave Bear 4 Stuart Fleming Kris Hardin Robert Harding Barbara Hayden Lee Home Christopher Jones Heather Peters Ruben Reina David Cilinan Romano Richard Zettler Graphic Design Martha Phillips Printing Science Press a Copyright n 6 University Museum 1988 Expedition ISSN 00144738 POSTMASTER Send change of address orders to The University Museum 33rd and Spruce Streets Philadelphia PA 191046324 Indexed in the Art Index and in the International Directory of Arts Cover King Arthur and his knights setting out in search of the Holy Grail From a 14th century Italian manuscript Ms Fr 343 Fol 8 Courtesy of the Bibliotheque Nationale Paris Prehistoric Rite or Scientific Myth Philip G Chase Scholars Will Call It Nonsense 12 The Structure of Erich von D iniken s Argument Stephen M Epstein Atlantis Lost and Found 19 The Ancient Aegean from Politics to Volcanoes Nicholas Hortmann The Misusable Past 27 Facts and Fantasies in North American Archaeology Bryce Little Solomon the Copper King 38 A Twentieth Century Myth James D Muhly The Life and Times of King Arthur 48 Janice B Klein The Curse of the Curse of 56 the Pharaohs David Silverman The use of fullcolor illustra tionsin this issue was funded in part by a generous grant to The University Museum by Mr McClure Kelley tion The Magazine of Archaeology Anthropology published three times a year by The University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania 33rd and S rune Streets Philadelphia PA 19104 All editorial inquiries articles and photographs should be addressed to The h 39 J quotcholariy Publications The University Museum Subscriptions 1200 per year 2200 for 2 k I L 1 A M tom the Editors upon request years foreign subscribers add 200 Single copy 450 Some back numbers are available from Scbohrly Publications all frown University Microfilm International 300 N Zeeb Road Ann Arbor MI 48106 Information for Anthem is available Expedition quotScholars Will Call It Nonsense The Structure of Erich von Diiniken s Argument STEPHEN M EPSTEIN In 1968 an obscure Swiss hotel manager published a book entitled Erinnerungen an die Zukunft An English edition appeared under the title Chariots of the Gods The hotel manager s name was Erich von Daniken He claimed that human history had been shaped by visitors from outer space and that human potential had been improved by cross breeding with these aliens The proof of these visits said von Daniken is clearly visible in the earth39s archaeological record This article will examine the structure of the argument presented in Chariots of the Gods rather than the substance of its evidence Taking such an approach will suggest some general intellectual principles that nonspecialists can use to evaluate any piece of popular ar chaeological literature The Scholar s Problem According to his paperback cover blurbs von Daniken has sold 7 million copies of Chariots of the Gods His total sales including later books have passed the 25 million mark in a market extending to 32 countries Depending on their temperaments archaeologists are saddened frightened or infuriated when they contemplate the fact that he has sold more books about archaeology than any archaeologist who ever lived His arguments seem selfevidently ridiculous to archaeologists Is it possible that his readers can take him seriously PLAYBOY When did you become convinced that these theories were true VON DANIKEN I guess only in recent years I wrote Chariots of the Gods in 1966 so for me it s an old book When I wrote it I was not at all convinced By the second book Gods from Outer Space I was more certain but not ab solutely The basic thing is to be convinced that the fundamental theory is right that we have been visited from outer space and those visitors altered our intelligence by artificial mutation Of this I have felt certain for the past four years or so Playboy 197456 If von Daniken is so persuasive that he can convince even himself his book sales indicate that his version of ancient human history might be the one most under held by the literate people of this planet Archaeologists attempting to re claim prehistory from you Daniken have pointed out that his argument is built on pathetically flawed logic and non existent evidence only to be stunned when they find that these shortcomings are conceded and forgiven by his public He raises so much smoke that many laypersons suspect the fire must be in there somewhere apparently forgetting that an infinite number of unsubstantial allegations does not constitute proof of anything Argument by Assertion Those of us who have grappled with von Daniken s arguments have come to realize the truth of an old Army saying When you re up to your neck in alligators it s very hard to drain the swamp Assertion after assertion springs from the pages of his books confounding any archaeologist who would try to address each item responsibly If we wrestle von Daniken39s myriad alligators one at a time we will never be able to fight free long enough to drain the swamp Furthermore not all of his alligators can be pinned A simple pair of photographs Fig la b can discredit his claim that we find stone giants belonging to the same style at both Easter Island 2300 miles west of the coast of Chile and Tiahuanaco in the Bolivian Andes von Daniken 197192 One can demonstrate the logical insignificance of the petri tied excrement possibly not of human origin found at Tepe Asiab 19715213 by pointing out modern examples on any city street Any one who believes that it is an absolute mystery to us why the Incas cultivated cotton in Peru in 3000 BCquot 197193 can be taken into The University Museum s Peru vian Gallery and led up to the case where 4500yearold cotton fishnet fragments from Huaca Prieta are displayed Such a visitor might also learn that the Incas did not appear on the South American scene until the 13th century AD or later But how can one disprove that cal culations of the weight of the earth were foundquot in the Great Pyramid of Khufu in Egypt 197177 If von Daniken s theories cannot be demolished by refuting the assoc 39 tions he uses in lieu of facts clearly another line of attack is needed Let s examine not his evidence butquot 4 j Vol 29 No 2 7 i W find stone giants belonging to the same style at T iahuanaco and Easter Island 197192 7 a 5A stone giant from Tiakuanaeo Bolivia This photograph was taken by Max Uhle for The University Museum in 1895 gs hese 10foot figures stand on a plain near Lake Titicaca They were carved between ca AD 500 aad woo UM neg 8777 1 one from Easter Island Claudio Cristina Ferrando took this photograph for the Museum in about 1968 Such games are called Moai They often reach 30 feet in height and were carved between AD 1100 and 1680 UM neg 38977 WA W 3911A 29 NH 3 We find stmu giants belonging 3 0 the same stylequot1t Tiahumzam and zxfl t39 Island 19l92 1a A stone giant from 39I iainmnum Bolivia This photograph was taken by Max 2 th for Thv nircrsity Muse mn 1n SSE5 Thaw 10foot mum s smut m a plain near Lake T z icaca They were Carved bcm cm ca AD 500 mu MON IV mu 1877 It And mm frmn Easter Isiaml Claudia Cristina Farmde took this photograph for the Musvzmz in ulmur 1315 Bur 1 statues m39 uffcd quotMauiquot Wavy aim mac 30 feet in height and wow Gi b f d fivz u vz n All 100 and 5 10 1 CU m 14 Expedition the logical structure of his evidence Using this approach we can quickly sort the tangled mass of his asser tions into two kinds of argument There is the quotlookslikeaspaceman tome type and then there is the sciencecannotexplainthis mystery sospacemen mustsberesponsible type The Palenque Sarcophagus Lid Maya Ruler or Ancient Astronaut Let s consider the lookslike a spacemantomequot type of argument by examining one of his most famous cases the relief of the rocket driving godquot at Palenque von Daniken 19712102 Palenque is a Late Classic Maya site in Chiapas Mexico In the caption to his illustration of this scene von Daniken identifies it as coming from another site Copan in Hon duras however in the text he gets its provenience right The stone relief is carved on the limestone sarcophagus lid of the ruler Pakal who died on August 31 AD 683 In this carving Fig 3 von Daniken sees a human figure appropriately garbed and antennaed reclining to manipulate the controls of a space craft whose thrusters are jetting smoke and flame 1971100 101 Maya scholars don t see a space ship They see Pakal the central figure falling backward into the jaws of the underworld Pakal teeters on the head of the Sun Monster who is depicted with a skeletal jaw but a eshed nose and eyes suggesting that he is poised halfway between the underworld and the living world that is at the moment of sunset From a point above Pakal s stomach grows the World Tree of Maya cosmology This is a tree that stands at the center of the universe like a fire man s pole penetrating through the underworld the middle world of everyday life and the heavens The heavens are marked by a Celestial Bird perched on the tree s topmost branch Pakal s sarcophagus lid then is a statement of the Maya belief that the death of a king was nourishment for the cosmic order It is an absolute mystery to us why the Incas cultivated cotton in Peru in 3000 BC 197193 2 The Incas first appeared during the 13th century AD But if they had been around in 3000 80 they might have used cotton to make fishnets like this one from Hosea Prieta Peru Photo of cotton fishnet 412XI454 reproduced courtesy of Dept of Anthropology American Museum of Natural History the lookslikea spacemantome line of argument treats the archaeological record as if it were a Rorschach test Schele and Miller 1986 If a 7th century Maya artist s carving of the death of his king fits a 20th century European s image of an astronaut flying a rocket is there a logical basis to consider this fact as evidence for von Daniken s case Envision a hypothetical situation Imagine that a young child comes to you and says Look That cloud looks like a doggiequot Has that child given you any information about clouds Has he given you inform ation about dogs Or has he given you information about himself If von Daniken writes that the sarco phagus lid of Pakal looks like a spaceman has he told you anything about Pakal Has he told you any thing about spacemen Or has he told you something about himself The lookslikeaspacemanto me line of argument treats the archaeo logical record as if it were a Rors schach test and provides as little evidence about our ancient history as a Rorschach provides about ink and paper or butterflies and dragons The Dehli Pillar Without a Trace of Rust Let us turn next to one of the mysteries which according to von Daniken science cannot explainquot In the courtyard of a temple in Delhi there exists a column made of welded iron parts that has been exposed to weathering for more L than 4000 years without showing a trace of rust In addition it is un affected by sulphur or phosphorus Here we have an unknown alloy from antiquity staring us in the face 197173 The Delhi Pillar Fig 4 is a shaft of wrought iron that weighs 6 tons and stands 22 feet high but extends only 20 additional inches into the earth According to local tradition the pillar was dhila or loose and so the place where it stood was named Dhili Even so it has proved stable enough both architecturally and chemically to resist the con turies not 40 centuries as claimed by von Daniken but 16 Chiseled into the column s western side is a sixline dedicatory text in Sanskrit datable to the Gupta Dynasty in the early 4th century AD The inscrip tion calls thepillar the arm of fame of Raja Dhava a worshipper of the god Vishnu and likens the letters cut into its shaft to the swordcuts he in icted upon his enemies Cun ningham 1871169175 Metallurgists analyzed the pillar in 1912 and found that it had been made by hammering 80 pound lumps of redvhot iron together Vol 29 No 2 7 elding them into a single piece e metal is composed of 9972 E ercent pure iron 01 percent phos horus and traces of two elements ntroduced during the manufac ring process carbon from the arcoal fire in which it was forged nd silica remaining from slag reduced when the iron was melted from its ore Sulphur is 39 tually absent at 0006 percent When present in iron phos horus inhibits rust Recent inves gations however have concluded at the preservative effect of the hosphorus incorporated within e Pillar was overshadowed by ther factors First the dry pure climate of Delhi provided some protection against rust moreover heat retention by such a large mass of metal would inhibit any con 39densation of moisture on its surface during cool nights Second the 039 pillar was protected by the pre sence of a thin layer of scale produced in forging it Additional protection may have been pro Vided by a coating over the sur lgj face built up by periodic cere quot menial applications of ghee clar ified butter or vegetable oil during the first 500 years of its existence Finally there is a natural tendency for a piece of iron to rust at an ever diminishing rate as corrosion prc ducts form on its surface and seal it To close the argument it is worth mentioning that although the pillar is in remarkably good condi tion the lower portion of the shaft has been pitted by mst Fig 5 ardgett and Stanners 1963 quot Thus the mystery that science cannot explain is purely the pro duct of von Daniken39s own sloppy scholarshipquot He doesn39t get the date right he s ignorant of the real gnificance of phosphorus in an on alloy he s oblivious to a entury of research by legitimate ientists and he s misinformed 39tes that science cannot explain mething he seems to mean that 1 doesn t know enough to account or it himself The problem is mined up by Carl Sagan Every e he yon Daniken sees some ing he can t understand he attri utes it to extraterrestrial intelli ence and since he understands 15 remarkably similar to a modem astronaut in his rocket 19717879 3 The sarcophagus lid of Pakal from the Maya site of Palenqoe Chiapas Mexico Scholars see in this carving a clear statement of the Maya belief that the death of a king nourished the world order Pakal falls backward into the underworld while the World Tree grows from his body Rubbing and photograph by Merle Greene Robertson reproduced with permissiou 0129 No 3 quot 39 welding them into 1 single piece The metal is composed of 9972 percent pure iron 0 1 percent phos phorus and trzu es of two elements if introduced during the manufac turing primes carbon from the chareoal fire in which it was forged and silica remaining from slag produeed when the iron was if smelted from its ore Sulphur is virtually absent at 0006 percent Hadfield 1912 her present in iron phos phorus inhibits rust Recent inves i tigations however have concluded 39 that the preservative effect of the phosphorus incorporated within the Pillar was overshadowed by 39Other factors First the dry pure i N 4 i t t I 32 an t 39 39 mum wt C lilllittt of Delhi provided some protection against rust moreover heat retention by sueh a large mass of metal would inhihit my eon densntion of moisture on its surface luring tml nights Seeond the pillar Wars protected by the pre senee of 1 thin layer of SCiilt produced in forging it Additional protection may lune been pro dded l39 u emitting over the sur face lNIlli up liy pei iodie cere moniul applications of ghee ltii itied butter or Vegetable oil during the first 500 years of its existence Finally there is 1 natural tendency for a pieee of iron to rust at an ever diminishingr rate as corrosion pro ducts form on its surface and seal it To close the argument it is Worth mentioning that although the pillar is in remarkably good nidl39 tion the lower portion of the shaft has been pitted by rust Fig 5 Bardgett and Stanners 968 Thus the mystery that science cannot explain is purely the pro duct of quotmi Diinihen s own sloppy scholarship lie doesn39t get the date right he39s ignorant of the real significance of phosphorus in an iron alloy he s oblivious to a century of research by legitimate scientists and he39s misinformed about the rust Vhen won Dz iniken writes that seienee cannot explain something he seems to mean that he doesn39t know enough to account for it himself The problem is summed up liy Iarl Sagan Every 394 time he won Diiuikenj sees some V thing he can39t understand he attri rbutes it to extraterrestrial intelli genec and since he understands rmnarkablg similar to 2 modern astronaut in his rocket 1971789l mt l 5 g E t E 9 wit The sarcophagus lid of Pakal from the Maya site of Paleuqmz numxs Mexico Scholars see in this carving a dear statement of the Maya lu lu39t rim the death of a king nourished the world order Palm falls bueku an into In underwortd while the l orid Tree grows from his body Rubbing and photograph by Merle Greene Robertson reproduced with permission t 16 Expedition almost nothing he sees evidence of extraterrestrial intelligence all over the planet Playboy 1974151 The Easter Island Mystery The Case of the Missing Facts So far it seems reasonable to state that von Daniken is either incapable of conducting objective research or too lazy to do so He can be charged with something worse in his discussion of the colossal stone statues of Easter Island Carving these 30foot 50ton giants from their quarries and hauling them to their stations overlooking the sea were impressive demonstrations of primitive engineering Von Daniken tries to set them up as another mystery which science cannot explain Even if people with lively ima ginations have tried to picture the Egyptian pyramids being built by a vast army of workers using the heaveho method a similar method would have been impossible on Easter Island for lack of manpower Even 2000 men working day and night would not be nearly enough to carve these colossal figures out of the steelhard volcanic stone with rudimentary tools 1971291 No trees grow on the island which is a tiny speck of volcanic stone The usual explanation that the stone giants were moved to their present sites on wooden rollers is not feasible Then who cut the statues out of the rock who carved them and trans ported them to their sites How were they moved across the country for miles without rollers How were they dressed pol ished and erected 197191 In this case von Daniken is not merely careless or ignorant Per fectly ordinary answers to these questions are clearly documented with photographs in Thor Heyer dahl s book on Easter Island Aku Aka This is not an obscure volume It appeared as the Bookof the Month Club Selection for Septem ber of 1958 and remained on the New York Times Best Seller List for the next 30 weeks Von Daniken An unknown alloy from antiquity staring us in the face 197173 4 The Delhi pittanA metallurgical analysis done in 1912 determined that the pillar was mode of 9932 percent pore iron ua39ih 01 percent phosphorus 0006 percent sulphur and traces of carbon and silica Photograph by Robert Raymond must have known of its contents because he specifically mentions Heyerdahl s archaeological re search and cites AkuAku in the bibliography of Chariots of the Gods p155 Thus in order to achieve his objectives he seems to 39 have been less than honest in setting the evidence before his readers In AkaAka Heyerdahl related the results of experiments he con ducted in order to determine how the statues were carved raised and transported Using handheld stone picks a group of six Easter Islanders chipped the outlines of a giant figure into the rockface of an ancient quarry splashing the stone with calabashes of water to soften it Fig 6 Based on their demon stration Heyerdahl concluded that two sixman teams working all day in shifts could carve a medium sized 15 foot statue in about a year s time Twelve Easter Islanders set a 25 ton statue upright in 18 days using nothing more than three 15foot wooden lovers to pry the giant upward a quarter of an inch at a time rocks to place under the rising figure and when it was high enough off the ground ropes to topple it into place Fig 39339 Trees to provide the wooden poles have grown around the crater lake at the southwestern tip of the island since before the first people set foot on Easter Island Over local protestations that the statues walked to their current locations Heyerdahl demonstrated they could have been simply dragged into position by roping a 15 ton figure to a crude wooden sledge pulled by 180 people While his experiment proved that the Easter Islanders had needed no extraterrestrial help with trans portation Heyerdahl himself was not satisfied Recently he an nounced the results of further re search on this question Based on the suggestion of a Czech engineer named Pavel Pavel he found that the upright monumental figures could indeed be made to walk by rocking and twisting them from side to side in the same way that a refrigerator can be walked into position According to Arne Skiplsvold Archaeological Field Director of the HeyerdathKonTiki Museum Expedition to Easter Island the statues have such a low center of gravity that they can be tilted up to 30 degrees without toppling per sonal communication 1986 Only 24 men and four ropes were needed to move a lO ton statue As con firming evidence the expedition also found a pattern of damage on the bases of Easter Island39s statues that suggests the wear and tear of their long walks Obviously von Daniken cannot be faulted for not writing in 1988 about ideas that have only come to l light in 1986 He is however ac I 16 almost nothing he sees evidence of cxtrnterrestriul intelligence all over the planet Plathog 1974215 The Easter Island Mystery The Case of the Missing Facts So far it seems reasonable to state that von Diiniken is either incapable of conducting objective research or too lazy to do so He can be charged with something worse in his discussion of the colossal stone statues of Easter Island Carving these 30foot 50ton giants from their quarries and hauling them to their stations overlooking the sea were impressive demonstrations of primitive engineering Von Diiniken tries to set them up as another invsterv which science cannot explain liven it people with lively ima ginations have tried to picture the ligvptiun pyramids being built h n vast army of workers using the heaveho method a similar method would have been impossible on Easter Island for hick of manpower Even 2000 men working day and night would not he nearly enough to curve these colossal figures out of the steelvhard volcanic stone with rtnlinientnr tools 197191 No trees grow on the island which is a tiny speck of volcanic stone The usual explanation that the stone giants were moved to their present sites on wooden rollers is not feasible Then who cut the statues out of the rock who carved them and trans ported them to their sites How were they moved across the country for miles without rollersquotJ How were they dressed pol ished and erected 197191 in this 2151 von Diiniken is not merely careless or ignorant Per fectly ordinary answers to these questions are clearly documented with photographs in Thor Heyer dahl s hook on Easter Island Akw Aim This is not an obscure volume It appeared as the Booleof the Month Iluh Selection for Septe1n ber of 1958 and remained on the New York Times Best Seller List for the next 30 weeks lnn Daniken An unknown alloy from antiquity staring as in the face 197773 4 The Delhi hitter A metallurgical analysis done in 1912 determined that the pillar was made of 9972 percent pure iron with 01 percent phosphorus 0006 percent sulphur and traces of carbon and silica Photograph by Robert Rug71mm must have known of its contents because he specifically mentions lieverdahl s archaeological re search and cites AkteAku in the bibliography of Chariots of the Gods p155 Thus in order to achieve his objectives he seems to have been less than honest in setting the evidence before his readers In AkaAim lleyerdahl related the results of experiments he con ducted in order to determine how the statues were carved raised and transported Using handheld stone picks a group of six Easter Islanders chipped the outlines of a giant figure into the rockface of an ipt39clitim tm sputunnn the tour with tiltil thllt x Ml 1 it39v39 to soltm it it ll 639 strution lttvcnlnhl t otn ludetl that two sivnmn tennis xx ltquotlltint1 all din in Slllilx oultl mine 2 medium sizetl liilout shoot 3 vean tnnv lwelve39 l instci lslgmslt h set it 23 dilt h tlt t1 llil st tl in then demon statue ll ton stutm upright in 1 s ltl39VS using nothing more thin three 15foot wooden lovers to n the giant upward u quarter oi in inch at a time rocks to plum under the rising Home nnrl hen tl was high enough ml the around ropes to topple It into place m 7 Trees to provide lllt mule poles have grown n null the trite lake at the southwestern tip ot th island since before the tint pewplw linster Isltmo he lmqil protestations that the statues walked t 39hwn current lHentiutis ll t i tlnlil ilcitmnstrzitetl lliev wold hin l t o simply lt ilLIiLMl nth paiklit ti l39v roping at lS ton tluiie ta wooden sledge pulled in lVt people Vlillc his experiment that the m t tlt tl no wt foot on r xl lkit gm l liilNlt l39 lliul evtiutertvst39ltil help v ith trons portntion lll t l39tltilt lmnwll wus not ltmc itlx he use turther rev linsetl in the Sliuucstiun tit it Txi39t ll engineer named liocl howl he tound that the upright munummittil figures could indeed in nude n walk by rocking and lillttu them from side to side in the snow was that 1 retrinemt it min in quotmilkedquot into position iccorunnz tn rm ijolsvolnl Archaeologiin liichl Director of the llt39vertlihl Kimlilvi luseum Expedition to lins ei Island the statues inn with i luv center of gravitv that he no lie lilit tl up 390 Jill degrees without toppling pee sonul eoinniunlultiiin Misti Only 24 men and tour ropes were needed to Hunt u llHon statue As Ctll firming ixidenu the expedition also loond A pattern vt damage on the times of liaisth slunth statues that suggests the u not uid tent of their lulu walks lsitintlcrs illli2t tl nouncetl ln results t i search it lltts tilllN39ls n liviomlv on litmilxcn cunlmt be faulted for not writing in 1955 about ideas that huv e only come 0 light in l rl iti lie is however atquot ountable for presenting the rele gmt facts contained in a book that claims to be familiar with Le a convicted fraud and embez 3 er influence whether or not people quot ten to what you have to say ON DANIKEN You know many eople who have been in jail say ey were not guilty I say the same 39ng I have never committed fraud r embezzlement although it is true have been convicted of those ings I was improperly convicted Tthree times but each time for the ame thing Playboy 19741513 A reader cannot trust von D miken he manufactures data and misrepresents data Sometimes this is due to his ignorance and some times it appears to be due to a 397 deliberate attempt to mislead Intel lectual consumers must realize that popular scientific literature contains exposed to weathering for more than 4000 years without showing a trace of rust 1971 73 he pillar which was erected only 0311600 years ago shows serious pitting at its base Photograph y Robert Raymond many dangerously defective pro ducts and must consciously take steps to protect themselves The first line of defense against yon Daniken or any other charlatan is a healthy skepticism Readers need to 17 remind themselves that asserting something to be true doesn t make it true and that printing the assertion doesn t make it any truer A second intellectual tool that belongs in the reader s defensive N0 2000 men alone could not have made the giant statues of Easter Island 1971 91 Six men are shown carving on Easter Island colossus in this photograph from Thor Heyerdahl s Aku Aku p 168 Their only tools are stone picks and celabashes of water to soften the stone Heyerdahl estimated that working in shifts they could have finished a statue in about a year Photograph reproduced courtesy of the KonoTilci M useet Oslo Norway 7 Twelve men using poles stones and ropes raised this statue into position in 18 days Hegerdahl Aku Aku pp 194 95 reproduced courtesy of the Kon Tiki Muscat Oslo N orway i V01 20 X0 2 M cormmhh lnr presenting thv r919 vant facts contained in a hunk that he claims in he fmiiiliur with An Intellectual Line of Defense PLA YB Y Slmuld the fart that you are a conx39ictvd fraud and embez zler influence whether or not peoplt39 listen to what you hemp in my VON DANIKIQN You know many people who haw hem in jail say they were nut guilty 1 say the same thing lhavc never unlimitth fraud or mnhwxlmnmit although it is trim I have been rm l39x39icivd if thew things I was impmpvrly convicted three timm but each lllllt for the same thing Playboy 19741151 A reader itliliiil trust I D inikon he iiizumfztrturvs dam and IDlSH pI CSUHtS data Snumtimvs this is duv to his ignoramux and some times it appuu s to hv luv to u dr lihrmtcattemptt1mislmul Intel lettun cummier must imilin that popular M lt illiill39 lilz mtnn minim exposed to wearwring for more Man 4000 years withrmi 110 wng a trace of rust 197173 The pilluri u izit39h u us wn39r39fe39rf only about 3600 gram ago ylmuns swrirms rust pitting at its lmxsh Photograph by Rabcrt Raymund many lungei misly defective pm ducth and must consciously take steps to protect themselves The first line of defense against um Dimikem or any other Charlatan is a healthy skeptivism Readers need to rmllinci thvmsrluw Li i quotn sriiiwtliii i tuhv U39lit ti uwn NHL true and that minim th ANNYE 3 luvsn t make it um tr m A second intvlhm ml ani m hvlrmgs in thv imui lv39in i 2000 men alone could not have made tlzr giant Sfatues of Easter Island 197191 Six mm m Silf lml ranting m Iiaxfr39r Islam r ulm xm in 1115 pig 1 gu39rie W Thur vacrdahl s AkaAka g 168 Their mfg 001861 xrznu39 gun in im altzbashm of water to softyquot 3365107142 Hryrrdalel 39xtinmful Hm I mkm Shifts hey 11135 have finishr d a sfatm39 in abuzz a ymr I39huzug 21 rcpmdm r d rati esy of thy KanTiki Musm t 0510 Nnrzmi Twelve men using poles SHHICS and mpr s raised this swim mrrw pr lum n 18 days Heyerdahl AkuvAku pp 19495 rcpmdur r rl mrri e39s g1 r fax Aim Tiki Muscat Oslo Norway 18 Expedition repertory is the principle known as Occam s Razor It was articulated by William of Occam an English philosopher who died in the year 1349 He warned Never postulate complexity unless it is necessaryquot Let us consider an example of what this actually means Suppose your son or daughter at the age of about 6 comes home from school in an unacceptably muddy condition You have the evidence of the child the mud and the wellknown af finity between the two You are free to draw your own inferences The least complex storyline that will connect all the points of evidence is that he or she was playing in a mud puddle and fell in You ask the child what happened The child says Well I was playing by a mud puddle and a dinosaur pushed me in Occam s Razor would suggest that your more economical hypoa thesis is true and the one offered by the child is less acceptable intellec tually Now suppose the child brings home a dinosaur You now have one more piece of data you have to fit into your explanation Von Daniken claims to bring home a dinosaur but his evidence for it is nothing more than his personal as surances that he saw a cloud that looked like one A third useful philosophical tool is the principle of uniformitarian ism the assumption that the unia verse was formed by the natural operation of forces that can be observed in action today A hun dred years ago archaeologists gee logists and biologists fought hard to establish this principle using it to explain features of the earth and its peoples that had previously been accounted for through a literal acceptance of the narrative in the Old Testament Within the context of this article this way of thinking would urge Don t postulate mir acles unless they are necessaryquot Like the Roman Catholic Church we should accept a miracle as such only after our own devil39s advocate has exhausted the natural explam ations for it In the case of the child and the mud and the dinosaur a uniformitarian analysis would high light the observable behavior of children in their interaction with mud and the demonstrable dearth of living dinosaurs Armed with these three intellec tual weapons a critical reader can test the quality of any piece of popular archaeological or scientific literature A good healthy skepti cism Occam39s Razor and uniformi tarianism are really nothing more than formal explicit statements of things that most thoughtful people already know Taken together these three principles have another name common sense The books of Erich von Daniken are an affront to common sense Nevertheless he and his ilk find widespread acceptance perhaps be cause people are eager to believe a good story At first glance he seems to be telling us of a glorious history of wonderful times when our planet was a place of importance in the universe and our ancestors walked with spacemen or gods or both The appeal of such a story would fade if readers would consider its depres sing implications It is based on the assumption that our ancestors were uncreative beings who could only be improved by crossbreeding with a better extraterrestrial stock It requires one to believe that art and science fell from outer Space instead of springing from the human heart and brain Von Daniken39s history is flawed because he has no respect for his facts and his fairy tales are flawed because he has no respect for his characters In his view the people who went before us were not fully human Archaeology is the story of our ties to our ancestors and its raw material includes every person family village city and nation that ever existed We will never know more than a tiny fraction of that story but the episodes we carefully piece together carry the hallmarks most prized by storytellers They really happened and they hap pened to people like us 24 Stephen Epstein is a doctoml candidate in Anthropology at the University of Pennsylvania now completing his dissertation on the discovery and reconstruction of an ancient copper smelting industry at Batan Grande Peru This site is the only proEuropean metal production installation so far identified in the New World In 1977 he earn d a Master39s degree in Archaeological Sciences at the Postgraduate School of Studies in Physics at the University of Bradford in Yorkshire Besides excavating in Peru he has dug in Ireland and Belize taught archaeology for two years at Rutgers University lectured in the Galapagos and on the Amazon and appeared in an episode of PBS television s Out of the Fiery Furnace His research interests are Andean archaeology the in uence of culture in shaping technology archaeometallurgy and archaeometry Bibliography Budgett W F and J F Stormers 1963 quotThe Delhi Pillar A Study of the Corrosion Aspectsquot Journal of The Iron and Steel Institute 91331310 Archaeological Survey of India Four Reports Made During the Years 11862836465 Vol I Simla Government Press Hadfield Sir Robert 1912 Sinhalese Iron and Steel of Ancient Origin Journal of The Iron and Steel Instituie 85134472 Heyerdahl Tho 1958 AkwAku New York Rand McNally and Company Playboy Magazine Playboy Interview Erich von Danikenquot Playboy augustlz5l64 151 Schelc Undo and Mary Ellen Miller 986 The Blood of Kings Dynasty and Ritual in Maya Art Fort Worth Kimbell Art Museum von Diniken Erich 1971 Chariots of the Gods Tr Michael Heron New York Bantam Original publication by Econ Verlag CmbH 1968 Adovasio J M So er Olga and Jake Page 2007 The Invisible Sex Haiper Collins New York Pl69l92 What kind of communal hunting is described in the narrative at the beginning of this chapter Who participates What is the evidence for this behavior Why does the old woman throw clay gurines into the re According to the authors of this text why did the gurines break in the re and was this by accident This reconstruction is based on nds from what ancient site in which modern country What evidence do the authors cite to support their assertion that Upper Paleolithic people were not engaged in widespread intensive mammoth hunting Are all of the venus gurines naked Ifnot what are some of them wearing q q u M oraradnstaxe Unwv HumeFaCa Gris a Vahnql Npme Mme Logln I Chase Dnhner Logan M Gma lrlnhwxrinz M Gmmlrlnbbxr arm Tm aimmm rag Wm mum 0mm Fwsv can cmvsmmg mane ma e m Earlsnahke l orgamsms mrmn UNCEVERINE THE TRUE RULES IF WBMEN IN PREHISTHRY 2007 THE FASHIONING OF WOMEN In which we visit a pleasant encampment full of Brooks Brothersstyle weaving and other wom anly creations the first fireworks mammoth non hunts and people who could be your neighbors THE PLACE A camp on the gentle grassy slope of a hill in today s Pavlov Hills from which three limestone outcrops rise above the broad south Moravian plain in the eastern region of today s Czech Republic The View to the north south and east stretches for miles over grassland and forest a broad valley that served people and Wildlife as a highway from the atlands of the mighty Danube into northern Europe The Pavlov Hills lie along the right bank of a river that ows into the Morava River a major tributary to the Danube To the north a month s march away lies the great wall of glacial ice Equally far to the southwest ice blan kets the great mountains known today as the Alps The village is not far above a swampy area fed by the river that courses through the plains its moisture supporting a variety of deciduous trees alder ash bitch groves ofwillows the occasional oak and beyond in drier soils the conifers pines spruce and others Off in the distance a few clusters of reindeer and small herds of horses head south Beyond a group of female marnmoths and their young plod northward THE TIME 26000 years ago The summer has ended and the nightly temperatures in these early autumn weeks reach near freezing It will get colder as the winter comes on but for now the days are relatively warm once the sun rises above the hills THE VILLAGE This is where several groups of people have come to I gether to spend the long fall winter and early spring just as they and their ancestors have done since longer than anyone can re member or compute The camp is about 200 yards upslope from the river at a place where natural mineral licks attract nutrient starved animals in the spring months especially mammoth fe males and their young There the weaker ones die leaving their bones for the people to use Over the eons people have made use of their bones and tusks as raw materials to build dWelJings and make tools and other objects Now they have erected ve tentlike structures over depressions in the ground they have cleaned out throwing away last year s broken int and bone and broken tools and other household trash Walls and roofs of skins sewed to gether are held up by wooden poles their edges held down against the force of the cold winds with rocks In the largest of these structures sitting in the middle of the camp ve hearths have been delineated with circles of rocks The others contain single hearths Upslope from the camp about 80 yards sits another structure with limestone slabs holding down walls of hide on three sides Inside this structure are layers of ashes and ceramic fragments x70 The Invisible SEX On this particular morning just as the eastern sky is begin ning to lighten awoman emerges from one of the tents and nods to the sleepy youth who is tending the re in the middle of the camp that burns through the night as a warning to predators She walks slowly and painfully up the slope to this small structure Taking sticks of wood from a pile she ordered her young grand children to make yesterday she builds a re The ames lick hun grily at the pine sticks reaching into the cold air Not pausing to Warm herself she piles more sticks larger ones on the ames and then retreats down the slope to her dwelling Moments later she reemerges carrying a tightly woven basket lled with water and a cloth carrying bag lled with dusty brown soil By now the re has rendered the fuel into glowing hot coals She nods ap provingly then sits down beside the kiln with a grunt about her complaining knee joints Making clay by mixing the ne dusty soil with water she fashions a tiny bear s head and body She sets that aside fashions legs and presses them into the body She in tones some words and throws the bear into the re In minutes the bear explodes with a sharp Crack and a cascade of sparks and pieces of the bear rattle off the walls of the kiln Thus does the old woman s day begin rendering their world as safe as she can for the rest of the people By now people are stepping outside their dwellings into the cold scratching yawning looking up at the sky for signs of the weather for this day Young children begin darting here and there yelping and shouting parents hissing at them to be quiet Two women each suckling a new baby stand together talking Some of the group s men stand in a circle chewing on narrow strips of rabbit jerky glancing out to the horse herds moving The Fashioning omenen 171 across the plains far away making plans From up the hillside at the kiln the sharp pops of the old woman s reworks are reassur ing sounds As the sun rises over the hills casting long shadows that reach down the slope activity in the camp begins to pick up Innumerable chores need doing Several men are soon engaged in replacing the tiny old blades af xed to the ivory foreshafts of their wooden spears with newly knapped int blades renewing the lethally sharp array These Weapons are for hunting horses and the small red deer out on the plains a task that could take several men an entire day and night and still result in failure Another man grinds a piece of gray slate into a pendant to replace the one that shattered the day before when he fell onto some rocks while running An older man his hands now gnarled and crooked slowly opens up a long hunting net unrolling it on the ground He then inspects it from one end 40 feet to the other end seeing that the knots are still all secure Satis ed he rolls it back up and places it on the ground near a lone tree that stands a few feet from the dwelling where he with his family sleeps Inside his daughter boils a mush ofvarious wild seeds in a tightly plaited basket with hardened clay inside The thickening gruel bubbles some of it slopping over the edge of the basket and falling into the hearth The young woman has been feeding this to her four year old daughter for a week now weaning her from the breast Earlier she and three other mothers sent their daugh ters off to collect the nettles that grow in the disturbed soil around the camp and are now ready to be processed The girls and their mothers will set about soaking the nettles to remove the outer cover and free up the ner bers inside The bers will 39 then be twisted into string of various plies I71 The Invisible SEX The Old Woman the oldest person in camp though she is still vigorous will supervise the making of the string and will take the nest as warps and wefts for her own work on her loom Last year she taught the young girls ve of the eight ways of twining some for making baskets and oor mats some for making the wall hangings that helped keep out the icy winds of winter and yet others for the ne mysteries of creating loom woven fabric to sew together into form tting warmweather clothes The Old Woman who is a bit scary for the girls because she is so powerful has chosen one of the girls as a special student she Will learn to sew the seams of ceremonial shirts She will show another girl the arts of the loom and one day perhaps this girl will become the Old Woman the weaver who makes the nest fabric for clothing for whoever in her lifetime emerges as the leader As the day goes on several of the men set out for the plains below bristling with flint knives and spears of wood tipped with ivory and stone blades sweating in the midday sun their hide shirts hanging from their belts They will be on the march most of the day camping near a place on the river favored by horses and some of the local deer Other men stay in camp a few telling exaggerated tales of hunting to the boys a few others digging up the loose dusty soil and carryng it up the hill in bags made of ber to the old woman at the kiln In the shade of one of the freeastanding trees three young women gossip and laugh as they grind the small tough seeds of certain prairie grasses It is a good day for a feast to celebrate the coming together here of these re lated families for the season By late afternoon each family s net has been unrolled and carefully inspected and tied together to form two long nets each The Fashioning ofWomen 173 some 80 feet across Now the children some of the women and men and a few elders set out With the nets The children carry sticks which they brandish bravely as they run along behind the adults Several of the adults carry clubs fashioned from fallen branches Led by the oldest in the party they pause after a half hour s walk on the slopes that are covered by underbrush Care fully the oldsters unfurl the nets unwinding them from the car rying poles which are then used to anchor the nets to the ground Several of the younger women the men and all the children si i lently circle around upslope until they reach nearly to the top of the hill There they form into a wide arc and on a signal begin the charge down the hill shrieking wildly whacking trees as they go by setting up a terrifying din Rabbits foxes and other small mammals emerge from the underbrush and dart back and forth trending downhill to escape the mayhem coming theirway Within minutes several dozen of these creatures have leaped into the nets to be quickly dispatched by people swinging their clubs As the sun drops down to the western horizon the people head back with more meat and fur than they will be able to use for days The camp bustles with activity as preparations for the feast get under way skinning the animals starting the hearth res and the outdoor re that will burn all night and performing in numerable other chores Meanwhile the old woman who was rst to greet the day has returned to the kiln up the slope with one of her youthful apprentices She has kneaded into existence a few dozen small clay pellets several animal gurines and most elaborate a gurine of a woman with broad hips and buttocks and pendulous breasts faceless footless with lines etched into 39 her back that suggest ample esh which bespeaks a prosperous 174 The Invisible SEX woman Carefully she places all these objects into her basket except for the gurine which she hands to the older of her two apprentices The girl grins widely at the honor and holds the g urine carefully in her hand and they set out for the camp below As the feasting proceeds into the night a few couples slip off into the dark heading for courting camps a short walk away in a copse of trees Others dance and chant while the old woman throws an occasional pellet or animal gure into the re as she sings a spe cial song to herself in a high keening voice and the clay gurines explode Toward the end of the festivities she instructs the sleepy apprentice to throw the gurine of the woman into the flames Most of the people in camp stop to watch as the girl ips the gu rine into the re and they wait silently for a minute or so until a loud crack signi es the end of the ritual of the feast of the day With that the people settle down for the night eyelids drooping stomachs full ceremonies properly done to celebrate the successful hunt ea good day indeed WHAT39S RIGHT AB UT THAT PICTURE How much of this scenario is guesswork and how much is certain What is the evidence that lies behind this view of a day spent at a site that would come to be known as Dolni Vestonice I This 1 and 39 J by gists over the last three quarters of a century and over this time site has been archaeolo has yielded up several startling discoveries Among the rst such was the gurine of the woman that we saw tossed into the central re of the camp at the end of the feast She was subsequently discovered on July 13 I 925 during the Moravian Museum s exca vation under the leadership of Karel Absolon The workers found Th Fashioning ofWamen x75 her in two unequal pieces less than a foot apart The Vestonice Venus as she came to be known became famous as the earliest ceramic object ever found A picture soon emerged indeed an actual illustration by Zdenek Burian showing an elderly man with disheveled white hair Wearing a sleeveless shirt of some animal skin with a necklace of teeth and other no doubt mean ingful objects around his neck carefully sculpting the gurine with a stick of animal bone It is more likely that the gurine was carved by a woman probably the priestess who used it gt At the time of its discovery one member of the crew noted what appeared to be a fragmentary ngerprint left on the Venus s spine before ring Recently this ngerprint was analyzed micro scopically to determine such features as the breadth of ridges which correlate with the age of the originator of the print It turns out that the person who held this gurine was between 7 and 15 years old and almost surely was not the maker of the gurine since it is unlikely that a beginner or a child could have made it On the other hand it was possible to call into question the actual ceramic skill of this rst ceramicist The site of the kiln upslope was rst looked into by archaeologists in the 19505 It yielded fragments of a total of 707 animal gurines and 14 human gurines all red clay In addition there were some 2000 small pellets This suggests two possibilities One the ceramicists were extremely incompetent Two they knew just what they were doing and had no interest in creating objects that W0uld remain intact but instead were making objects that would by design harden in the ames and explode This can be achieved by among other things adjusting the wetness of the clay The building of three walls of the kiln suggests that they knew ill Well that the 176 The Invisible SEX gurines would explode adding to the suggestion that a deliber ate effort was going on not only the rst ceramic objects ever known but also perhaps the rst example of a kind of reworks Our de5cription of this as embodying some sort of ritual is some thing of an imaginative leap but it seems unlikely that such onerous activity would be done out of sheer frivolity at a time when survival was a ill time job THE CRUCIAL ROLE IF THE FIBER ARTS More important probably than the presumably ritual use of ce ramics in Dolni Vestonice is the discovery that by 26000 years ago these Upper Paleolithic people of Eurasia were well along in what has been called the String Revolution a technological breakthrough better thought of as the Fiber Revolution that had profound effects on human destiny probably more proe found effects than any advance in the technique of making spear points knives scrapers and other tools out of stone The term String Revolution was evidently the original idea of Elizabeth Wayland Barber of Occidental College in California She wrote a lovely book Women s Work suggesting what a remarkable inven tion string was whenever it rst was used String s invention she wrote opened the door to an enormous array of new ways to labor and improve the odds of survival quot Comparing it to the steam engine she mentioned the need of string for weaving and said that on a far more basic leVel string can be used simply to tie things up to catch to hold to carry From these notions come snares and shlines tethers and leashes carrying nets han dles and packages not to mention a way of binding objects to gether to form more complex tools Indeed she thought so The Fashioning chomen r77 powerful was string in taming the world and to human will and ingenuity that it may well have made it possible for humans to populate virtually every niche they could reach So the ber arti facts found in those old Moravian sites were far more important than their humble appearance would have suggested Three certainties exist about ber artifacts Compared with things made out of stone bone antler shell and even in some cases wood ber items are highly perishable Because of this there simply aren t as many ber artifacts remaining in the ground as other kinds And there are even fewer ber artifacts in the archaeological record than have persisted in the ground be cause practically all archaeologists have not been trained to see them in the ground much less recover them often an extremely delicate and technical task There remain only a handful of ar chaeology departments here and abroad where such training is available particularly at the graduate level The other certain thing about ber artifacts is that in dry caves and other places where they do not deteriorate and disappear they have been found to outnumber stone artifacts by a factor of 20 to I In sev eral other situations places covered with water where aerobic bacteria cannot get to the artifacts and in permafrost ber and wood artifacts have been found to account for 95 percent of all artifacts recovered That amounts to a tremendous amount of information that archaeologists have missed in most parts of the world including Late Pleistocene Eurasia A third certainty about ber artifacts such as baskets is that unlike stone or bone artifacts or even pottery the method by which the artifact was made is apparent in the artifact itself Modern stone knappers who like to replicate old spear points 178 The Invisible SEX for example can do so with considerable skill and of course they know the steps they took to get to the nished product But the earlier steps made are not necessarily present in the point By contrast a practiced eye can perceive which of a nite number of logical steps the basket maker took Indeed no weaver of baskets and fabrics and other items makes such things exactly as anyone else does so one can actually glimpse a bit of the living individual craftswoman At the same time most basket makers of prehistory operated within an identi able cultural framework just as one sees tribal distinctions in the baskets say of Apache women as distinct from Paiute women And within such a tribal tradition one can also see what appears to be one generation or even one basket maker who taught those who came along afterward If one takes modern ethnographic studies of hunter gatherer societies as not wholly unrepresentative of Late Paleo lithic societies the work of most human beings especially women has been overlooked One result which we noted in Chapter One was that this left room for the picture to emerge of Upper Paleolithic society and economics dominated by the mighty hunters setting out to slaughter mammoths and other large animalsthough mammoths especially caught the imagi nation of those reconstructing these ancient lifeways There was some evidence for this but only a smidgin Most notably in a few places archaeologists found stone points among huge mammoth bone assemblages in Eurasia and also North America where we will go in a later chapter It appeared to many that astonish ingly ef cient and daring hunters were taking on entire herds and killing them for food The Fashionng of Women 179 But there was a problem here of specialization Paleontol ogists whose interest lay in the realm of prehistoric zoology rather than in the affairs of humans and hominids found numer ous similar assemblages of mammoth bones in Eurasia and smaller assemblages in Siberia and North America that had no stone points And even in those assemblages where stone points and other tools were found butchering marks were few and far between In other words over thousands of years and in various places such as mineral licks as at Dolni Vestonice where the remains of a hundred or so mammoths were found probosci39 dians died and created boneyards from which the people made what use diey could Ethnographic studies of modern people have turned up practically no instances of deliberate elephant hunting before the advent of the ivory trade in modern times There is no evidence of Upper Paleolithic assemblages of enough hunters maybe 40 or so to take down a mammoth much less the number needed to wipe out a herd It is dangerous enough in fact to go after any animal the size of a horse or a bison if one is armed with a spear Only the foolhardiest would attempt to kill an animal that stands 14 feet and has a notoriously bad temper when annoyed A statement that has been assigned to multiple originators suggests that it is more likely that every so often a Paleolithic hunter brought down an already wounded mammoth or one slowed down a bit in the mud of a swamp and then talked about it for the rest of his life The picture of Man the Mighty Hunter is now fading out of the annals of prehistory By far most of the animal remains found strewn about places like Dolni Vestonice consists 39 of the bones of small mammals like hares and foxes 180 The Invisible SEX The nds of perishable artifacts in Dolni Vestonice I and several other sites in Moravia haVe done much to blow the old picture of Upper Paleolithic life out of the water and with it the dominant gure of the mighty male hunter and replaced it with a picture something like the one with which this chapter began The rst of these nds was made in 1993 consisting of mysteri ous impressions in strange clay fragments in Dolni Vestonice I which turned out to be the imprints ofbasketry and textiles made from wild plants These were the earliest forms of the ber arts known indeed some 10000 years earlier than anything found before Just what the fragments themselves were is not clear They might have been pieces of ooring on which items of weav ing or basketty had been impressed and turned into hard evi dence when the place burned down In any event they and subsequent nds in these sites showed that people here were al ready weaving and making basketry with at least eight different styles of twining some of which remain common today Some of the fabrics were as ne as a Brooks Brothers shirt People had to have been weaving textiles on looms and making free standing basketry for a very long time to have developed such ability and diversity and sophistication of technique Just exactly What those people were making from all this weaving basketry and cordage is impossible to saywith certainty but given the excellence of technique there is reason to think that they were making baskets of various kinds and possibly mats for sleeping and wall hangings and clothing of various kinds such as shawls skirts sashes and shirts They used whipping stitches like those used today to sew two pieces of fabric together and that no doubt served the same end 26000 years ago The Fashiauing UfWomen 181 Figure 81 Fragment of netting at Zamisk showing clock wise om topaleft positive impression of the cast microphotograph afthe netting structure and schematic ofthe structure 0 SOYFER M ADOVASIO AND STEPHANIE SNYDER In addition to knots and other signs of weaving numerous tools were turned up over the many times these sites were exam ined that can now be seen as tools for weaving and other steps in the production of such materials One puzzling artifact made of mammoth ivory was shaped something like a boomerang but without the curve It makes perfect sense as a weaving batten and in fact is nearly identical to the battens still in use today among Navajo weavers Another tool basically a rod with a doughnut shaped end has been fairly commonly found through out the world dating from later times and has puzzled archae ologistswhose best idea for them is that they were used somehow to straighten spear and arrow shafts But when they are thought about in the context of Moravian weaving it seems that they would have been useful in the spinning of threads into string or 39 yarn for weaving Fairly large ivory needles were already known 182 The Invisible SEX from such places and the assumption was that they were used for Sewing together skins and furs for clothing but the proliferation of smaller needles found across Eurasia could not have been con veniently used for stitching such tough and unforgiving materi als except for the thinnest of leather They are the right size however for stitching together pieces of woven fabric Some of the ivory needles found are so ne that they would have permit ted embroidery The very diversity of styles and workmanship that emerges from all these perishable artifacts and their associated tools plus the fact that most of the stone used to make stone tools was not local all suggests that these were people who assembled here for part of the year perhaps a large part and separated into smaller groups probably near nuclear family groupsat other times It is reasonable to speculate that each such household might well have its her own favored techniques and brought them to the larger group thus accounting for much of the remarkable diver sity of products GROUP HUNTING Four of the fragments examined had impressions of cordage tied into sheet bends or weaver s knots and this along with what appear to be tools for measuring the spaces between knots strongly suggests that they were making nets for hunting rela tively small mammals as Well as string bags Earlier workers had noticed the abundance indeed prevalence of bones of such small mammals as hares and foxes in Upper Paleolithic camps in eastern and central Europe but came up with fairly weak suggestions for the means of hunting them Anyone who has The Fashioning afWamrn r83 watched these animals race and dart when threatened will nd it implausible in the extreme to imagine people chasing them down in the open and clubbing them or even throwing little spears at them both of which have been offered as serious explanations of course by male archaeologists The use of nets on the other hand as well as cordage snares easily explains the peoples suc cess They could obviously have made nets of wider mesh and thicker cordage for hunting larger animals as well but no evi dence of this has been found At the same time the large bone needles that were assumed to be used for sewing skins together would have also been handy tools for making the nets What then are the social implications of all thisgt First of all we know from such modern hunter gatherer societies as the Pygmies of the Ituri Forest in Africa s Congo region that net hunting is a communal affair involving women children and el derly people as well as adult males It engages essentially every one in the group as beaters clubbers or net holders and makes the acquisition of highaenergy and high protein food meat much less dangerous and more dependable By adjusting the mesh they could have caught even smaller forms of life birds even insects This would ease the problems involved in feeding a relatively larger aggregation of people by providing a mass har vest in a short time a surplus beyond their immediate need that in turn would make ceremonial feasts possible Such behavior is noted ethnographically Making things out of fiber is not the sole prerogative of either sex in ethnographic accounts of small bands or larger tribal societies More often than not for example men make sandals for themselves and their families and it is also fairly clear that in 184 The Invisible SEX such societies both men and women know how to produce sandals and other items that use basketry techniques and materials In many cases men probably do make things like baskets that they need for their own purposes but throughout the tribal world today women make most basketry But loom or frame weaving is a craft practiced almost exclusively by women in the tribal world as is the gathering and processing of plant products for such weaving This is the case in virtually all tribal societies where tex tiles and basketry are produced for domestic and communal needs and typically it breaks down only when such perishable products enter the domain of market exchange One rare excep tion to this among American Indian tribes is the Hopi of north eastern Arizona an agricultural society whose men do all the weaving restricted to ceremonial Wear such as sashes and kilts and costumery of brides made by their paternal uncles Next door to the Hopi as it were Navajo women do all the weav ing almost entirely rugs though the looms are often built by the husbands and a weaver s son inlaw is expected to supply her with some of the weaving tools In addinon from crossacultural studies throughout the world the making of ceramic items especially pottery in many societies that we are familiar with is chie y the province of women There are to be sure innumerable variations that people have invented over time for all such matters but even in the face of some scholarly quibbles it is safe to assume what could be called the default position that most if not all of the ceramics weaving basketry and clothing was made by women in the years that Dolni Vestonice and the other Moravian sites were inhabited And from that and other evidence notably the Venus gures Thc Fashioning of Women 185 it is safe to assume that the idea of gender the separate category with its associated roles and identities was now present In other words we see here the malleable social notion of gender as op posed to and in addition to the clear biological function of sex It is not clear from any particular archaeological evidence at these Moravian sites that the idea of man as opposed to male was prev alent There is virtually no iconography that suggests otherwise but Thurber s war of the sexes read gender would presumably soon begin In any event it is safe to say that some division of labor was in place and with it probably a set of family relatives with whom one identi ed and by whom one identi ed oneself on a permanent intergenerational basis a group in which every segment children men women elders stood to gain The population explosion that took place in this period seems to bear this out In other words here is one of the most vivid examples yet discovered of what we can safely call thoroughly recognizably behaviorally modern humans Does this seem to be a great deal to read into these frag ments of perishable items and ceramics along with a few intact tools In fact it isn t and new closer looks at those enigmatic Venus gurines that are so fascinating a feature of this Upper Paleolithic Eurasian society tend to strengthen this hypothesis and round out our picture of life in those days VENUSES Some 200 Venus gurines and gurine fragments from across Europe are the most representational three dimensional images made in the Gravettian period some 27000 to 22000 years ago I which of course includes the Moravian sites described above 186 The Invisible SEX Figure 8 2 Front and back View of the female gurine in ivory om Kostenki I O SOFFER Nothing is their equal before this period from anywhere in the world and thousands of years go by before anything comparable appears again As a result they have claimed the attention of am ateurs and professionals alike with almost the same continuing fascination certain scholars and most kids have for dinosaurs As We said in Chapter Six the Venus of Willendorf is surely the best known of all tl391e3e sculptures They remain in many ways enig matic mysterious even confusing They serve many purposes today including as RorSChach emblems for some of today s hang ups They obviously mean female and they probably mean woman which suggests that they are not simply representa tions of the reproductive function of the female human or gyne cological and obstetrical textbooks as one scholar put it At the The Fashioning ofWamcn 137 same time there is simply no denying that the sculptors of these gurines went to a great deal of trouble to show off the sexual and secondary sexual features of the female human even to the point of leaving the rest of the gure face feet arms and so forth either abstract or absent altogether There are exceptions to this of course but no exception in the entire matter is more obvious than the fact that there are only one or two examples of clearly male gurines from this region and period There are many gurines that are androgenous without visible sex What escaped many observers both male and female for many years was that some of these gurines were partly clad The Venus of Willendorf s head for example though faceless did have hair it seemed braided and wrapped around her head Others had little bits of decorations body bands bracelets minor bits and pieces of material of some sort But never mind they Were largely naked and had to represent fertility menstruation the godliead as goddess or giggle paleoporn Then in I998 coming off their discovery of the many ber artifacts from Moravian sites which many of their colleagues considered an important rearrangement of the picture of Upper Paleolithic society in Europe Adovasio and Soffer turned their attention to these gures To begin with a close inspection of the braids of the Venus of Willendorf showed that her hair was on the contrary a woven hat a radially hand woven item of apparel that was probably begun from a knotted center in the manner of certain coiled baskets made today by Hopi Apache and other American Indian tribes in which a exible element is wrapped with stem stitches as the spiral grows Seven circuits encircle the 39 head with two extra half circuits over the nape of the neck 188 The Invisible SEX Figure 83 Closeup gfthe coiling start of the basket hat depicted on the head qf the Venus of Willendoif 5 HOLLAND COURTESY 0F 0 SOFFER Indeed so precise is the carving of all this stitchery that it is not unreasonable to think that among the functions involved in this Upper Paleolithic masterpiece it served as a blueprint or instruc tion manual showing weavers how to make such hats Indeed anyone who has done any sculpting in stone or wood can tell you that the fashioning of the body while extremely closely realized would have been easy compared with the astounding control and staying power needed to render the stitching even a few splices of this hat so true and precise The carver had to have spent more time on just the hat than on the rest of the entire gurine Of all the scholars who have examined these gurines over the decades and there must be hundreds only one other Eliza beth Barber ever took notice of the ber accoutrements some of them were One British scholar who studied the Venuses in his youth never noticed any clothing because he recalled he never got past the breasts Several other such gurines from central and eastern Europe wear similarly detailed radial or spiral woven hats as well as some begun by interlacing grids Western European gurines tend to be more schematic such as the Venus of Brassempouy The Fashioning quamen 189 Figure 114 199 right and top views of the plaittd start of the basket hat depicted on the marl head of the female gurine from Kostenlu39 I S HOLLAND COURTESY O SOFFER whose hair maybe covered in a more abstract rendering by some sort of hairnet or snood One thing that seems fairly common to all the partly clad gurines is that when they wear hats or caps the facial details are absent This suggests a social importance to the headgear rather than an individual statement of personal identity In other words these various forms of headgear may speak to a particular status or rank enjoyed by at least some women Other forms of clothing or cloth decorations found on Ve nuses of this Gravettian period include straps wrapped around the gure often above the breasts and sometimes held there with over the shoulder straps Yet others wear belts often low on their hips sometimes connected to skirts of string The Venus of Lespugue for example she of the truly overwhelming hips Wears a back skirt carved with a remarkable attention to detail It 39 consists of eleven cords attached to a base cord that serves as a 190 The Invisible SEX belt The cords are secured to the belt by looping both ends of a single ply string over the belt and twisting the ends together with a nal Z twist On several of the cords the carver made 30 and 40 separate incisions to show the individual twists and she took great care to depict the progressive changes in angle of twist At the bottom of the skirt the angle of twist is much looser clearly suggesting that the cords were unraveling or fraying at the hem What is to be made of all this An important thing to note is that except for one sexually ambiguous fragment that has a belt such apparel appears only on gurines that are female Clearly as well the garments so carefully portrayed are not the normal daily wear of women in these times since they lived in climates where such clothing would be utterly insuf cient against the cold except of coutSe for the woven hats In the few known burials of the time people were interred fully clothed The body bands belts string skirts and so forth could have been for ritual purposes or they could have been signs of status perhaps worn over one s daily clothing or not in the case of ceremonial use Indeed they might have been imagined as with the halos de picted on icons of saints What they do suggest is that such ap parel was a woman thing not worn by males and that it served to immortalize at some great effort the fact that such apparel Set women or at least certain women apart in a social category of their own Much of the woven material from this period that was found imprinted on ceramic fragments is as nely done as any thing done later in the Bronze and Iron Ages and equal to much of the thin cotton and linen garments worn today Given the amount of effort involved in weaving such cloth and also in carv ing a replica of it in stone one can reasonably conclude that the Tlic Fashioning ofWamcn 19x Figure 85 The Venus ofBrassempoy carved 39om ivory S HOLLAND COURTESY O SOFFER cm pieces of apparel found on so many of the Gravettian Venuses were symbols of achievement or prestige And it is also fair to say that for those who were weavers or ceramicists the workaday world was more complex the daily round of chores tasks and roles more intense Who were they The precision with which the carvers of the Venuses rep resented woven items leads almost inevitably to the conclusion that they were created by the weavers themselves or at least under the sharpeeyecl tutelage of the weavers That it was almost surely women who did most of this ne weaving and basketry is one matter to which the ethnographic record appears to be a relie able guide 192 The Invisible SEX UNCUVERINE THE TRUE RULES UFWUMEN IN PREHISTURY 2007 a VL TlLE STOiFES WE HAVE BEEN TOLD m which the authors present tales of male Herring du and explicate their failures in accounts of the deep past along with a hit of tha history of science and the reasons why women have not been found in those old tales Since the beginning of archaeology Stories like the following three haw been told illustrated and taken as the true way in which our ancestors lived and worshipped and fed themselves The are in much the same vein as most museum dioramas of ancient times and are matched by most magazine and book il lustm39dons as well Warning these tales can be dangerous to your understanding of the human past THE PLACE A hill overlooking the Vezere Valley in southwestern France not far fmm a cave called the Gretta dc Rouf gnac THE TIME 14000 years ago A groug ofmen makes its way single le along a steep and narrow path that winds up a limestone hill It is dusk and the day has been stormy and dark Impatient gray clouds have commandxad the sky and 50m time to time they have sent spring rains down 39 a Aquot 39 Theweather is yet to feel the true onset of spring that day when the sun begins to warm the earth and the winds tum kind The men climb silently in the gathering dusk Some of them are slender in their teens Others are lled out in their turning the path to mud and making pn39me having lived thirty or even a few more years Among them are three boys alert and excited but subdued with apprehension They shiver though not from the remnant cold of Winter They know they face an ordeal but they have not found out its dimer sions yet which makes it all the scarier Tonight they will become mane Later they will learn the arts of hunting of mating of being responsible providers for their yet unborn sons and daughters Some of the men carry branches that will be used as torches once they have been surrounded by the oncoming dark Others carry spears with shafts of rare hardwoods topped with serrated bone points af xed with cord or sinew One of the men in the front of the line struggling up the path has a leather pouch slung across his shoulder It is full of red and black powders ground from local minerals like hematite or magnetite Another the oldest one with white in his hair carries a knife of int and a at soft stone with a depression hollowed out ofit In the depression animal fat has solidi ed In it lies a ber wick Vhen lit it will be the rst light into the depths of the sacred cave whose entrance they now are nearing Below them the last of the day s light glints off the river a shining serpent that lies along the length of die valley still brown with the Winter s dead grasses The three boys take their last glimpse ofthe valley and apprehensively follow the men into the 8 The Invisi lc SEX dark mouth of the cave the int knife gleaming in their minds eyes The older man has led the way his tiny ame glowing Behind him the man with the leather pouch walks gravely fob lowed by the men with torches who alternate with those carry ing spears Huge shadows leap Wildly on the rocky walls and a low chanting like a distant wind begins to ll the cave words the three boys can barely make out words they have not heard before For all they know it is the cave itself that sings They see the forms of animals emerging from the walls and the ceiling as the shadows dance past Deeper into the magic cave they go and the ceiling begins to come closer until the men ahead stoop over crouch their torches ames blackening the stones The smoke from the torches burns the eyes of the three boys but they say nothing Soon the ceiling has lowered to the point where everyone must crawl scraping their bellies along the mud and stone of the oor At last it seems a very long time but it has only been a short trip they reach a chamber where they can all stand the men in little groups The boys huddle in the middle All around them are the sweeping gures of the great bison graceful horses the grand mammoths all looming high above on the walls In the ickering light of the torches and the gathering murk of smoke they come alive They seem to move Preparations begin The oldest man selects an empty spot on the wall while the man with the leather pouch of powders the one they now start to call the Painter prepares his paints The boys are taken to the unpainted wall where the oldest man begins to sing His int knife is nowhere to be seen He sings a story about hunting about the habits and the wiles of the The Stories We Have Been Told 9 animals they hunt about great hunts Where everyone rejoiced in the bounty and about failures times when the hunters them selves were hunted and fell prey in the great and bloody exchange that sustains the world The old man sings of times when the animals left disappeared because the hunters forgot to honor their spirits and give due homage to the Owner of the Animals All the while the Pm mer works He takes the black mineral powder into his mouth mixes it with his saliva and blows a spat ter ofblack onto the wall making a dark line As the songs gather tnomentum and the hypnotic power of the chant turns the men to stomping and dancing the boys are amazed to see a mammoth materialize on the wall before their eyes The Singer carries on an insistent monotonous song that properly asks the Owner of the Animals to share them He chants the secrets and prayexs for killing the huge beasts tespect llly the mayors that these boys will memorize along with so much else this night The magical mammoth glistens on the Wall as suddenly along shriek arises in the gloom and the best of the group s hunters leaps forward to hurl a throwing spear at the image Its ivory point snaps A mark is gauged from the mam mothv a gouge that marks the beast s heathand the spear clat ters to the ground The old man the Singer hands it to one of the boys and bids him throw it The boy hesitates looks about him at the grinning men shrieks as best he can and throws The ritual continues until dawn Some time thereafter the boys emerge into the light on the hill overlooking their valley They hear the reddening welts and incisions of ritual they beat the beginning of the hunters wisdom and they have become men untested yet but men nonetheless IO The Invin vle SEX Home beckons and from the gzound amid the aroma of dew they can see that a small herd of reindeer seven in all has left the cover ofthe trees and in the esxly morning mist is drinkr ing om the river far below skittish lovely in the thin light of the rooming WH T39S WRHNG WITH THAT PICTURE The Grotto dc Rouf gnac is one of the richest sites of prehistoric images in Europe and the world It contains more than 250 en gravings and paintings of prehistoric animals the work of People who lived toward the end of the last Ice Age This astonishing exhibition extends some 500 yards tom the case s entrance into the labyrinths beyond One hundred and ftyrvfoux mammoths are pictured including one enormous specimen today called Grandfather Although the cave is privately owned the public is still welcome to visit it The story told here is typical of many that have arisen at least in outline from about a century and a half of study and guesswork about these astounding images found principally in western European caves Most scholars and most people call these images art we shall return to this topic later on Many scholars say that it is when these images began to appear about 30000 years ago that anatomically modern humans fmally reached the height of brain power and creativity that character izes today s human beings This is most likely true In this story there are of course no women present no girls being initiated For decades artistic achievement was seen as a man s world as was hunting the procurement of meat The pre sumption has been that the extraordinary caves like Lascaux and The Stories We Have Been Told n this one not far from the town of les Eyzies which some take as the capital of European Prehistory were a man s world The implication was and still is in many such accounts and illustrate tion that women of the period may well have never set foot in such places and if they did certainly were nor actively involved in their creation There is absolutely no evidence however that women and girls were not participanm Indeed there is not even any evidence that men were involved lHE PLRSE A promontory overlooking the confluence of two small rivers that a half day s walk toward Where the sun rises empty into a larger river known today as the Dnieper The landscaoe all around is flat hardly rising above the t rvetine ood plain in to day s Ukraine Steepsided ravines slice through the surrounding cold grasslands In the river valleys themselves stunted treesmostly pine and birch grow in stands For nine months a year this is a landscape of awesome desolation and temperate mes that can drop to 40 degrees below zero but in the three sometimes two months of summer it warms to the low 703 and teems with fecund life THE TIME 14000 years ago a late summer day when the breezes of morning foretell the long season of cold to come P601316 must now ensure that they have the needed stores of meat and cloth ing to see them through the dark cold days ahead Some I families have gathered in a group at the con uence of the two rivers They are dressed in their summer furs tailored garkalike tops with hoods thrown back and lightweight suede Is The Invisf le SEX trousers that end as form tting boots In the warmth some of the men have hared their bodies to the waist On the promonr tory shove several of the men keep a lookout lest the nearby herd ofmammoths moves down river The mammoths a herd ofsome 30 adults and younger animals graze on the lush grasses of the river s edge They rarely move far from a river needing mame moth amounts of water to quench their mammoth thirst and to cool down their shaggy bodies Below the lookouts the camp hustles with preparatory ac tivity Many of the men are going over their hunting gear making sure that their ivory throwing and thrusting Spears ate sharp and in order The Wedding edges are polished with pieces ofgneiss or sandstone One hunter an expert stonewotkex knaps chips long int blades from a specially prepared core These he will turn into keen39edgecl knives for skinning and butchering the animals killed There is an air of suppressed excitement among these hunters men in their prime and a few younger ones whose tasks Will call for less expertise than the experienced leaders of the hunt Another group of men is readying the bearers at mammoth shoulder and hip blades that the younger men will strike with long thin shin bones topped with hits ofsoft for The fearsome noise along with the aming torches some Will carry will drive the mammoths into the range of the great hunters once the sun has reached the height of the sky As planned the hand of hunters rises and moves stealthily in various directions down the river toward the unsuspecting herd Within the hour they have all taken up their positions sur rounding the herd each as closa as he can get without being detected by the naturally near sighted beasts The mammoths The Stones We Have Been Told I having drunk their 1511 from the river and feeling drowsy in the midday heat have earlier moved into the shade provided by the low trees along the river Torches are lit The drumming begins Fifteen screaming hunters leap up and race toward their prey closing in on the herd and driving it toward the nearby ravine The animals terri ed by the noise the re and the missiles that rain down on them charge ahead into the ravine tumbling thunderoule over one another bellowing in pain and fear legs broken helpless The then descend into the melee and with their powerfully built thrusting Spears deliver the coup de grace to mammoth after nmmmotb young and old until within an hour all the animals are dead Their warm carcasses lie ready for butchering By the end of the afternoon choice pieces of mammoth meat have been sliced may from the bones of a few of the dead beasts and a grand feast begins All in the groug some 730 people in all young and oldm ll their bellies with meat roasted over sizzling res While the hunters retell the drama of the chase the adrenaline lled thrusting and leapmg of the kill the spouting of warm blood Later that night stomachs full and hearts content the grout will sleep Tomorrow they will busy themselves hacking their bountiful harvest into smaller packets of meat that can be stored in pits dug for that purpose stores that will see them through yet another windswept freezing Winter The larger bones of the mammoths will be used to rebuild their bone houses others will feed the res that warm them in the cold Little will go to waste The prayers made so earnestlyquot to the Owner of the Animals have been meted and the people will survive another year in this place 14 The Invisible SEX WHAT S WRONG WITH THAT STORY The village built of mammoth bone houses on the promontory above the two small rivers the Ros and the Rossava was dis covered by archaeologists in 1966 and called Mezhm39ch The site is still under said but the remains of some 150 mammoths were found in the vicinity Adult mammoths weighed in at about three tons ofwhich more than a ton was pure animal protein The rst atchaeologists at this site assumed that the Paleolithic people of Mezhitich with their specialized mmmothvhunting culture lived in this same place for as much as an entire generation so plentiful were herds of mammoths and other large prey animals in the neighborhood of the rivers In other river valleys in this large region they assumed either the hunters were not as adept or the herds were less plentiful and thoso Ice Age groups needed to move more often leaving behind less impressive ruins for the archaeologists to discover Today one can see dioramas of such hunting Villages With mammoth bone houses in many museums including the Ameri can Museum of Natural History in New York Chicago s Field Museum the Hot Springs Museum in South Dakota and Le Thot in the Dordogne region of France The rst such house excavated has been reconstructed in the Museum of Paleontolv ogyin Ukraine In hunting scenes such as the story above and the dimer mas there is little sense that women are present except as passive consumers That they might have assisted in the butchering if not the hunting itself was not considered until recently But more to the point we will see later in the course of this book that such hunts in which huge numbers of these enormous beasts are slaughtered The Staries Vie Have Btcti Told 15 probably never happened Such hunts appear now to be mythv making on the pan of the paleoanthropological community THE PLACE A narrow rocky canyon in the foothills east of the Grand Tetons in presenteday Wyoming THE TIME 11000 years ago Seven men stride into the mouth of a canyon and descend into the shade It is midsummer hot and the men wear only skins around their loins They carry long thrusting spears tipped with nely chipped points of chert some longer than a marfs hand The hunters are an advance party headed north exploring new country Where they luvs come from farther to the south the game has grown sparse No longer do the great elephantine mmr moths still roam in large herds and with the rapid drying of the world in the south the vast herds of giant bison have all moved north It has been some time now since these men have enjoyed a successful hunt and the women and children they left on a Promontory a few miles back have been complaining for days The canyon narrows as it deepens and an even narrower side canyon opens to the north a slight trickle ofwarer re ecting the sun The men slow down chatter quietly among themselves and then turn up the side canyon They have seen the droppings of mountain sheep and horses alongside the water Some 5 min utes later they reach a glaze Where the canyon turns west toward the mountains Cautious now lowing seen the whitening bones of a few bison and sheep they follow the canyon west and 39 are brought up short by the sight of a huge bear lying in the shade 6 The Invisible SEX Figure 11 Pre isfm c hunters in America battling a gr am bear ANDRE numncue National Geographic Inge Collection Image ID 6x30 below the canan wall gnawing on the carcass ofwllat appears to be a freshly ldlled bighorn ram In a brief whisoered conference the men decide to Scare the bear away from its prey They approach silently bare feet on red ducking behind boulders moving forward Now within some 30 yards of the beat and his distinctive pungent musk smell they leap out as one screaming rushing at the creature Enraged the bear rears up and roars His huge head with its wide mouth rises some 14 feet he towers over the attacking band of hunters A huge paw at the end ofa long and slender arm slashes the lead hunter across the chest sending him hurtling backward The Stories W Have Bea 7235 17 onto the rocks The other arm reaches for another attacker who jams his spear at the bear s stomach and the other hunters leap and duck fainting thrusting Screaming WHAT39S WROHE Wllll TH STURY Tlus advance party is know today as Clovis Man from the ex quisitely made spear points that were rst discovered near the town of Clovis New Mexico in the 19305 Clovis Man arrived in North America it seemed 11500 years ago and his points and other weapons and tools have since been found sporadically throughout the lower 48 states Until recently it was almost uni versally believed that Clovis Man was the rst entrant into the New World the greatest and fastestvmoving hunter to appear anywhere on earth Within less than a millennium proliferating Clovis hunters had managed to reach the southernmost tip of South America and along the way had sent some goodd genera not species but genera of large mammals to oblivion The absolute ePitome of this Clovis myth for that is What it has turned out to be is embodied in this story and in the are companying illustration So feroeious was Clovis Man that with out much thought to their safety a handful of them would supposedly have attacked an animal we call the great shortfaced bear known to science as Arctodus simus On all fours this bear stood as as the shoulder ofa moose and its long limbs prob ably gave it the capability of short bursts of horselike speed It Was almost surely the continent s ultimate carr vore standing at the very pinnacle ofthe food chain and capable of bringing down any grey except perhaps an adult mammoth That any group of hmnans armed with only spears would ever attack such a creature 18 The Invisible SEX is of course ludicrous They would instead have exercised all their w es to stay out of the way of such a profoundly dangerous killer Yet the very reverse image leaped into the imaginations of people who had convinced themselves that these supposed rst Ameriv cans were pretematurally gifted hunters capable of fears now known only from the special effects departments of Hollywood was How does such a notion come about There is no known evi deuce of any kind that humans took on these huge hears but we have modem illustrations of such activity not for pulp magazines and penny dreadfuls but by respected scienti c illustxators and published in such places as National Geographic The roots of this fantasy can be traced at least as far back as the midelgth century and a popular French sculptor Emmanuel fremiet who pror duced a lifevsized sculpture in 1850 of a gladiator ghting a bear But after Darwin s book was published and prehistory was dis covered Premier s hear39 ghting gladiator became a Stone Age man engaged in mortal combat with a bear and the two were intertwined from then on Across the Atlantic artist Charles Knight emerged as the premier painter of extinct animals in the rst half of the 20th century In addition to illustrating numerous books both techni cal and popular he decorated several of the major United States natural history museums with murals of prehistoric beasts from the dinosaurs to the giant Ice Age mammals Since his time Americans have tended to see the lost worlds of the planet largely through his eyes and most popular illustrators of prehistory have followed his lead By the turn of the 20th century illustrators The Stories We Have Been Told 19 including Knight were augmenting the bear39versusnman theme until it became a largely unquestioned assumption in many minds that Clovis hunters in amazingly romantic and dramatic ent counters took on even the great shortfaced bear It goes With39 out saying that women played no role in any of theSe depictions except perhaps to stand off in the distance looking desperately alarmed or in a few instances eeing King Kong and a scream39 ing Fay Vlz taywere not far behind How is it possible that the largely femalerless world char acterized by our three stories could have arisen It is a world of male hunters and huge game animals awotld where women chil dren and old people are barely present By inference women bore children tended them and gathered a few edible roots and tubers the extent of their contribution to the battle for survival It is as if 203300 years from now archaeologists were to discover the rst few sites dating back to the gist century and all of them it turns out are locker rooms in the remains of those axenas where the National Football League held its contests The archaeologists would nd What were clearly helmets and the pad ding of gladiators of some sott as well as a few decayed bits of cloth some of which appeared to be designed to shield the tee productive organs and others hearing numbers that may have represented the order in which the gladiators were to ght or perhaps to be sacri ced Of course it would be an all male affair as has been our general take on life in the Ice Age or what is more properly thought of as the Pleistocene Where did this testosterone drenched macho memonly world come from Until recently in Christian countries including most of 39 Europe the Bible described and circumscribed all of history It so The Divisible 5 EX began with the Word and proceeded through a long series of hegats to the present the beginning of things being pegged to the year 40 04 before the birth of Christ God had created the earth and everything upon it living and inert pretty much all at once and all living creatures the many species of animals and plantsw were immutable To think that something like a whole species could have gone extinct was mken as a heretical insult to God s planning and execution of his plans To he sure there Was a certain amount of 111qu in the ear liest of times since much of the thencurrent world had been rearranged from an earlier pre Flood world the Flood being the one which Noah and his ark survived but later becoming seV eral oods By as late as the middle of the 19th century a few geologists still attributed such phenomena as huge round boul ders sitting totally out ofplace up in the Alps to the propel lant power of that great watery catastrophe rather than to the advance and retreat of glaciers The major features ofthe planet to the extent ther were studied and understood were conceived to be the result of sudden catastrophes for the most part great oods But by this time the notion of so young an age for the world as speci ed by parsing the Bible was beginning to come apart at the seams An English geologist named James Hutton suggested toward the end of the 18th century that processes like erosion which were visibly taking place in his time had always been the prime forces shaping the earth This came to he called Uruformitariaw ism and it Was soon championed by Charles Lyell an Englishman considered the true size of modem geology in his multivolume tome published between 1831 and 1833 Principle queology The Swiss We Have Bees Told in By this time woolly mammoths had already entered the scenedead ones that is fossils As early as the 18th century fossil mammoth bones were a hot research topic much as genes are today By the close of that century the great French naturalist Georges Cuvier had positively and blasphemously identi ed them as the remains of extinct mammals Thomas Jefferson ap parently did not believe in animal extinction and he instructed Lewis and Clark to look for live mammoth specimens out west during their famous expedition from St Lonis to the Paci c Jef lemon also was a bit miffed by European assertions that the New World s fauna was poorer and smaller than that of the Old World Before too long the idea that mammoths and some other beasts had become extinct became more palatable but these extinctions had no doubt taken place well before the pre Noah Flood and therefore it was not possible that hmnans had lived alongside them Then in 1837 a French customs of cial and amateur name rahst Boucher de Perthes began turning up chipped ints he found associated with extinct animals including mammoths from the gravel beds near Abbeville on the Somme River Even earlier in England other naturalists had seen similar associav tions but these were in caves and the stratigrath of caves was at the time considered impossible to sort out De Perthes asset tions were greeted with derision until the site was visited in 1859 by a committee of distinguished English geologists who pro nounced him right Humans had indeed coexisted with nmnmoths regardless of theologians views on the subject Human prehistory had e 39 nally been discovered located in the gravel beds of the Somme 22 Tke Invisz lzle SEX At this point a crucial assumption was made the geological asv sedation between the int tools and the mammoth bones was taken as proof not only of contemporaneity but also that the mammoths had been slain by humans Thus arose the nearly ine delible picture of Early Man the Mighty Hunter from an error no rstyear statistics student would be allowed to make today cor relation equals causation One can show this fallacy by noting a correlation between more city streets being illuminated and a rise in street crime Do street lights cause crime Of course not In any event the image of the Woolly Mammoth and the Mighty Hunter has been with us ever since As Bjorn Kuxtcn the great Finnish galeontologist of the Pleistocene wrote the mammoth became the embodiment of the ice age Long may it live in our imagination a black toprheavy shape looming up in the m irling snow great rusks gleaming to our forefathers perhaps a demie god More recently French historian of science Claudine Cohen iterated the thought in her superb book The Fate qfrhe Mammoth The mammoth She Wrote is the totem animal of vertebrate par homology but it plays the same role in human prehistory Hunters With the skill to bring down such enormous beasts standing some 14 feet at the shoulder would surely have been talented enough to produce so much protein for their families that women and children would have played only a minor role in human evolution and the development of human culture This was the prevailing View until quite recently and it is no mere cor relation that archaeology for its rst hundred or so years as a professional eld was essentially the exclusive province ofmales just as so many other elds of endeavor were As a matter of fact signs that women played anytlung but The Sam s We Have Been Told 23 a minor role in prehistory were hard to nd in a eld where the record consists of what often amount to mysterious dead silent scraps of any kind of evidence Most of the artifacts that have come to us from the last Ice Age were made of stone and bone materials that can exist in the ground for along time It has been assumed that stone and bone chopping tools especially projec le points were made and used for the most part by men Beyond that the remains of materials used for the most Part it is as sumed by women such as Willow for making baskets and COI Cl A age for making bags and other useful items are plant remains and therefore preservationally fragile Things made of plants do not last Very long in the ground except in the most extraordinary circumstances Such as in extremely caves or submerged in anaerobic bogs They belong to a class of objects called perishables which also includes leather for and other organic materials So mostly male archaeologists found almost entirely stone tools and weapons and assumed that it was a man s world back in the Pleistocene and earlier Women were largely ignored Not until recently were some archaeologists even trained to look for much else besides stone and bone tools so they tended to miss or dismiss whatever evidence of the woman s role had survived The bias was in a sense selfr ll lling but it was more an unconr scious bias than a deliberate and nasty plot against Women That scientists like all other human beings are products of their times can hardly come as a surprise to people living in the gist century Today most scientists male and female are aware of the exise tense themselves of such unexamined assumptions and they try to take them into account at least when they do sci ence New archaeological techniques and technologies have also 2 The Invisible SEX recently emerged that make perishable artifacts and other items more accessible to scmtiny What is far more decisive however is that women have recently joined the archaeological and Pale ontological workforce in far greater numbers than ever before In x994 the chief organi zation representing archaeologists in the United Statesgt the Society for American Archaeology made a census of the eld At the undergraduate level 31 percent of the students majoring in archaeology were women At the graduate level women also formed a slight majority In some uni versities such as the University of Arizona and Arizona State University women accounted for some 70 percent of recent PhDs in the subject Set against these gures however as women enter the archaeological workforce there is a precipitous falleoff Sixtyfour percent of archaeology Professors are male the same percentage as in the overall archaeological workforce This is not a pipeline problem that will even itself out over time Part of the problem is the matter of combining family and career that is often faced by professional women It is also that womerx in are chaeology are more likely to obtain positions in less prestigious seams of the azchaeology profession museum work governe ment work or private archaeological work once called salvage archaeology but now called CRM Cultural Resource Manage ment The aristocracy of archaeologists usually consists of those who run or have run large multidisciplinary excevations comglex operations entailing large numbers of different kinds of special ists and costing a great deal of money Most such big shots are men by far A classic example of all ofthis is that since its found ing the Society for American Archaeology has been presided over by 61 individuals ofwhom only ve have been women The Stories We Have Been Told 2s Modem feminism the movement that exploded on the scene in the 19605 and 1970swas late reaching prehistoric as opposed to classical archaeology It arrived only in I984 with the publication ofawidely read article in macadamia volume on manly ads and theory Entitled Archaeology and the Study of Gender the article s authors Meg Conkey of the University of California at Berkeley and Janet Spector of the University of Minnesom brought attention to the invisibility of women in our reconstruc tions of the past01 all those women who were neither queens hm goddesses Since then the attention oflarge numbers of pref historic archaeologists has been refocused onto issues of genderl Gender in this wage is a cultural value that humans have imposed on top of biological di erenms Each category presum39 ably came to ezmlmclr certain duties and responsibilities each had proper Ways of acting feeling and being In the doe 2351 there is no sure way to get a glimpse of gender We can seegt and infer males and females as biological entities but the roles they played are largely invisible until the world of the Upper Paleolithic which begins about 432000 years ago 26 The Invisible SEX Anth 140 section 2 questions for readings Week 2 Connor Steve 2008 The Neanderthal murder mystery The Independent Friday August 8 pp 14 L V 4 V According to the article is it likely or unlikely that Neanderthals interbred frequently with modern humans What kind of DNA eVidence did scientists use to study Neanderthal genes and why is this kind of DNA especially useful for such studies According to the study did Neanderthals form a small or large population and what number gure does the article give According to the study how long ago did modern humans and Neanderthals share a common ancestor LESSONS FROM THE PAST An Introductory Reader in Archaeology Kenneth L Feder Central Connecticut State University Mayfield Publishing Company if 3 Mountain View California q London 0 Toronto 5 4 The Worst Mistake in the History of the Human Race Jared Diamond Jared Diamond is not an archaeologist he is a biologist whose specialty is ornithology But Diamond is also a polymath and a generalist who sees the connections between all the disciplines of science Using that ability Diamond makes a provocative argument here that the economic strategy that has made modern life possible is as the title maintains quotthe worst mistake our species has ever made o o a a o c t a o o c o n o u u o o o o a o n u o o a o o o o e u a a o a o c o o o n o o o a o a o o u u a c o u o o o o n a a o a a a o Q I a I o o o a o c o c a o s a c o Q o o o a o o c o u u o o o u o a a a o a n o n c n o c o c o o v u a o a o a t a o o a o c o a u t a c o o o g o a u n n n o n c s o g o n o o c o a n o a o u o o a n o t n o p o a o o a o n a o n o n o o a o u o q u o a o o g o n p a p o a o n a o g u o a o a a o n o n n o u n u a t n o o u o a a o o I o n c Points to consider when reading this article 1 What is the progressivist View of the agricul tural revolution 2 Is agriculture easier than a hunting and gathering mode of subsistence Is it safer more secure more productive 3 As Diamond sees it what were the negative con sequences of the adoption of agriculture 4 If agriculture caused so many problems why did it fairly quickly 8000 years is a relatively short period of human history become the domi nant mode of subsistence across almost the en tire world Most of us take it for granted that our agricultural economy is the most sensible economic efficient and secure subsistence system any human group has yet devised No living handtomouth for us no having to traipse through the jungle to fill our larders Food is produced in prodigious quantities by specialist farm ers enabling the rest of us to engage in more interest ing pursuits like say archaeology Certainly agriculture developed by our species a little more than 10000 years ago and now the domi nant subsistence mode on the planet provides us with more food than the hunting and gathering that characterized the first 999 of human antiquity ever could But Jared Diamond asks at what cost He sees an agricultural way of life as the root of many of the ills that af ict the modern world Diamond makes a good point but it is a tough call Agriculture may be at the root of many diseases defi ciencies and even war but without a system that al lows the production of huge quantities of food far fewer human beings could survive on this planet Though we may be justifiably ambivalent about the size of the world s human population and the impacts that popu lation has had on the Earth s many ecosystems we should not forget this important point Each one of us is a part of that population Without agriculture there might never have been avaricious nation states war poverty racism or heart disease Then again there likely would have been no me no you and I imagine no Jared Diamond o o o a a o n n a a I c o o o n o c o c o c a o a a o a n o a o c o o a u o o o o a o c n o n n n a o o a c o a o I o a c o a o Q I o a o o a o a o o o p u u o c p o n c A o n a a o a o I a o o c u a c o c o c a o p o o o u u o s b o o u b o o o o a u n u n c o I o n o n o a o u o c a o u o a o a a a n I o c b u v o u o o o o a o a I A n a I n o o o u o u o t o o s o s o a o o a o u a o a u a u o a o o a a o a o n n a i a a u o n u o a o c o o t v o a o 9 t o o a n a c c o a o o o o o o o u o no To science we owe dramatic changes in our smug selfimage Astronomy taught us that our earth isn t the center of the universe but merely one of billions of heavenly bodies From biology we learned that we From Discover May 1987 Jared Diamond Reprinted with permission of Discover 20 weren t specially created by God but evolved along with millions of other species Now archaeology is de molishing another sacred belief that human history over the past million years has been a long tale of progress In particular recent discoveries suggest that the adoption of agriculture supposedly our most de cisive step toward a better life was in many ways a catastrophe from which we have never recovered With agriculture came the gross social and sexual in THE WORST MISTAKE IN THE HISTORY OF THE HUMAN RACE 21 equality the disease and despotism that curse our existence At first the evidence against this revisionist inter pretation will strike twentieth century Americans as ir refutable We re better off in almost every respect than the people of the Middle Ages who in turn had it eas ier than cavemen who in turn were better off than apes Just count our advantages We enjoy the most abundant and varied foods the best tools and material goods some of the longest and healthiest lives in his tory Most of us are safe from starvation and predators We get our energy from oil and machines not from our sweat What neoLuddite among us would trade his life for that of a medieval peasant a caveman or an ape For most of our history we supported ourselves by hunting and gathering we hunted wild animals and foraged for wild plants It s a life that philosophers have traditionally regarded as nasty brutish and short Since no food is grown and little is stored there is in this view no respite from the struggle that starts anew each day to find wild foods and avoid starving Our es cape from this misery was facilitated only 10000 years ago when in different parts of the world people began to domesticate plants and animals The agricultural revolution gradually spread until today it s nearly uni versal and few tribes of huntergatherers survive From the progressivist perspective on which I was brought up to ask Why did almost all our hunter gatherer ancestors adopt agriculture is silly Of course they adopted it because agriculture is an efficient way to get more food for less work Planted crops yield far more tons per acre than roots and berries Just imagine a band of savages exhausted from searching for nuts or chasing wild animals suddenly gazing for the first time at a fruitladen orchard or a pasture full of sheep How many milliseconds do you think it would take them to appreciate the advantages of agriculture The progressivist party line sometimes even goes so far as to credit agriculture with the remarkable flow ering of art that has taken place over the past few thousand years Since crops can be stored and since it takes less time to pick food from a garden than to find it in the wild agriculture gave us free time that huntergatherers never had Thus it was agriculture that enabled us to build the Parthenon and compose the Bminor Mass While the case for the progressivist view seems overwhelming it s hard to prove How do you show that the lives of people 10000 years ago got better when they abandoned hunting and gathering for farm ing Until recently archaeologists had to resort to indi rect tests whose results surprisingly failed to support the progressivist view Here s one example of an indi rect test Are twentieth century huntergatherers really worse off than farmers Scattered throughout the world several dozen groups of socalled primitive people like the Kalahari Bushmen continue to support themselves that way It turns out that these people have plenty of leisure time sleep a good deal and work less hard than their farming neighbors For instance the average time devoted each week to obtaining food is only 12 to 19 hours for one group of Bushmen 14 hours or less for the Hadza nomads of Tanzania One Bushman when asked why he hadn t emulated neighboring tribes by adopting agriculture replied quotWhy should we when there are so many mongongo nuts in the world While farmers concentrate on highcarbohydrate crops like rice and potatoes the mix of wild plants and animals in the diets of surviving huntergatherers pro vides more protein and a better balance of other nutri ents In one study the Bushmen s average daily food intake during a month when food was plentiful was 2140 calories and 93 grams of protein considerably greater than the recommended daily allowance for peo ple of their size It s almost inconceivable that Bushmen who eat 75 or so wild plants could die of starvation the way hundreds of thousands of Irish farmers and their families did during the potato famine of the 18408 So the lives of at least the surviving huntergatherers aren t nasty and brutish even though farmers have pushed them into some of the world s worst real es tate But modern huntergatherer societies that have rubbed shoulders with farming societies for thousands of years don t tell us about conditions before the agri cultural revolution The progressivist view is really making a claim about the distant past that the lives of primitive people improved when they switched from gathering to farming Archaeologists can date that switch by distinguishing remains of wild plants and animals from those of domesticated ones in prehistoric garbage dumps How can one deduce the health of the prehistoric garbage makers and thereby directly test the progres sivist view That question has become answerable only in recent years in part through the newly emerging techniques of paleopathology the study of signs of disease in the remains of ancient peoples In some lucky situations the paleopathologist has almost as much material to study as a pathologist to day For example archaeologists in the Chilean deserts found well preserved mummies whose medical condi tions at time of death could be determined by autopsy And feces of longdead Indians who lived in dry caves in Nevada remain sufficiently well preserved to be ex amined for hookworm and other parasites Usually the only human remains available for study are skeletons but they permit a surprising num ber of deductions To begin with a skeleton reveals its owner s sex weight and approximate age In the few 22 THE PAST 18 THE KEY TO THE PRESENT cases where there are many skeletons one can construct mortality tables like the ones life insurance companies use to calculate expected life span and risk of death at any given age Paleopathologists can also calculate growth rates by measuring bones of people of different ages examine teeth for enamel defects signs of child hood malnutrition and recognize scars left on bones by anemia tuberculosis leprosy and other diseases One straightforward example of what paleopathol ogists have learned from skeletons concerns historical changes in height Skeletons from Greece and Turkey show that the average height of hunter gatherers to ward the end of the ice ages was a generous 5 9 for men 5 5 for women With the adoption of agricul ture height crashed and by 3000 BC had reached a low of only 5 3 for men 5 for women By classical times heights were very slowly on the rise again but modern Greeks and Turks have still not regained the average height of their distant ancestors Another example of paleopathology at work is the study of Indian skeletons from burial mounds in the Illinois and Ohio river valleys At Dickson Mounds lo cated near the con uence of the Spoon and Illinois rivers archaeologists have excavated some 800 skele tons that paint a picture of the health changes that occurred when a huntergatherer culture gave way to intensive maize farming around AD 1150 Studies by George Armelagos and his colleagues then at the Uni versity of Massachusetts show these early farmers paid a price for their newfound livelihood Compared to the huntergatherers who preceded them the farmers had a nearly 50 per cent increase in enamel defects indicative of malnutrition a fourfold increase in iron deficiency anemia evidenced by a bone condition called porotic hyperostosis a threefold rise in bone lesions re ecting infectious disease in general and an increase in degenerative conditions of the spine probably re ecting a lot of hard physical labor Life expectancy at birth in the preagricultural community was about twentysix years says Armelagos but in the post agricultural community it was nineteen years So these episodes of nutritional stress and infectious disease were seriously affecting their ability to survive The evidence suggests that the Indians at Dickson Mounds like many other primitive peoples took up farming not by choice but from necessity in order to feed their constantly growing numbers quotI don t think most hunter gatherers farmed until they had to and when they switched to farming they traded quality for quantity says Mark Cohen of the State University of New York at Plattsburgh coeditor with Armelagos of one of the seminal books in the field Paleopathology at the Origins of Agriculture quotWhen I first started mak ing that argument ten years ago not many people agreed with me Now it s become a respectable albeit controversial side of the debate There are at least three sets of reasons to explain the findings that agriculture was bad for health First huntergatherers enjoyed a varied diet while early farmers obtained most of their food from one or a few starchy crops The farmers gained cheap calories at the cost of poor nutrition Today just three high carbohydrate plants wheat rice and corn provide the bulk of the calories consumed by the human species yet each one is deficient in certain vitamins or amino acids essential to life Second because of dependence on a limited number of crops farmers ran the risk of starvation if one crop failed Finally the mere fact that agriculture encouraged people to clump together in crowded societies many of which then carried on trade with other crowded societies led to the spread of para sites and infectious disease Some archaeologists think it was crowding rather than agriculture that promoted disease but this is a chickenandegg argument because crowding encourages agriculture and vice versa Epi demics couldn t take hold when populations were scat tered in small bands that constantly shifted camp Tuberculosis and diarrheal disease had to await the rise of farming measles and bubonic plague the appearance of large cities Besides malnutrition starvation and epidemic dis eases farrning helped bring another curse upon hu manity deep class divisions Hunter gatherers have little or no stored food and no concentrated food sources like an orchard or a herd of cows they live off the wild plants and animals they obtain each day Therefore there can be no kings no class of social par asites who grow fat on food seized from others Only in farming populations could a healthy nonproducing elite set itself above the diseaseridden masses Skele tons from Greek tombs at Mycenae C 1500 BC suggest that royals enjoyed a better diet than commoners since the royal skeletons were two or three inches taller and had better teeth on the average one instead of six cav ities or missing teeth Among Chilean mummies from 2 AD 1000 the elite were distinguished not only by ornaments and gold hair clips but also by a fourfold lower rate of bone lesions caused by disease Similar contrasts in nutrition and health persist on a global scale today To people in rich countries like the US it sounds ridiculous to extol the virtues of hunting and gathering But Americans are an lite dependent on oil and minerals that must often be imported from countries with poorer health and nutrition If one could choose between being a peasant farmer in Ethiopia or a Bushman gatherer in the Kalahari which do you think would be the better choice Farming may have encouraged inequality between the sexes as well Freed from the need to transport their babies during a nomadic existence and under pressure to produce more hands to till the fields farming women tended to have more frequent pregnancies THE WORST MISTAKE IN THE HISTORY OF THE HUMAN RACE 23 than their hunter gatherer counterparts with conse quent drains on their health Among the Chilean mum mies for example more women than men had bone lesions from infectious disease Women in agricultural societies were sometimes made beasts of burden In New Guinea farming com munities today I often see women staggering under loads of vegetables and firewood while the men walk emptyhanded Once while on a field trip there study ing birds I offered to pay some Villagers to carry supplies from an airstrip to my mountain camp The heaviest item was a 110pound bag of rice which I lashed to a pole and assigned to a team of four men to shoulder together When I eventually caught up with the villagers the men were carrying light loads while one small woman weighing less than the bag of rice was bent under it supporting its weight by a cord across her temples As for the claim that agriculture encouraged the flowering of art by providing us with leisure time mod ern huntergatherers have at least as much free time as do farmers The whole emphasis on leisure time as a critical factor seems to be misguided Gorillas have had ample free time to build their own Parthenon had they wanted to While postagricultural technological advances did make new art forms possible and preser vation of art easier great paintings and sculptures were already being produced by huntergatherers 15000 years ago and were still being produced as recently as the last century by such huntergatherers as some Eski mos and the Indians of the Pacific Northwest Thus with the advent of agriculture an elite be came better off but most people became worse off In stead of swallowing the progressivist party line that we chose agriculture because it was good for us we must ask how we got trapped by it despite its pitfalls One answer boils down to the adage quotMight makes right Farming could support many more people than hunting albeit with a poorer quality of life Popula tion densities of huntergatherers are rarely over one person per ten square miles while farmers average 100 times that Partly this is because a field planted entirely in edible crops lets one feed far more mouths than a forest with scattered edible plants Partly too it s because nomadic huntergatherers have to keep their children spaced at fouryear intervals by infanti cide and other means since a mother must carry her toddler until it s old enough to keep up with the adults Because farm women don t have that burden they can and often do bear a child every two years As population densities of huntergatherers slowly rose at the end of the ice ages bands had to choose be tween feeding more mouths by taking the first steps toward agriculture or else finding ways to limit growth Some bands chose the former solution unable to an ticipate the evils of farming and seduced by the tran sient abundance they enjoyed until population growth caught up with increased food production Such bands outbred and then drove off or killed the bands that chose to remain huntergatherers because a hundred malnourished farmers can still outfight one healthy hunter It s not that huntergatherers abandoned their life style but that those sensible enough not to aban don it were forced out of all areas except the ones farm ers didn t want At this point it s instructive to recall the common complaint that archaeology is a luxury concerned with the remote past and offering no lessons for the present Archaeologists studying the rise of farming have re constructed a crucial stage at which we made the worst mistake in human history Forced to choose between limiting population or trying to increase food produc tion we chose the latter and ended up with starvation warfare and tyranny Huntergatherers practiced the most successful and longestlasting life style in human history In con trast we re still struggling with the mess into which agriculture has tumbled us and it39s unclear whether we can solve it Suppose that an archaeologist who had visited us from outer space were trying to explain hu man history to his fellow spacelings He might illus trate the results of his digs by a 24 hour clock on which one hour represents 100000 years of real past time If the history of the human race began at midnight then we would now be almost at the end of our first day We lived as huntergatherers for nearly the whole of that day from midnight through dawn noon and sunset Finally at 1154 PM we adopted agriculture As our second midnight approaches will the plight of famine stricken peasants gradually spread to engulf us all Or will we somehow achieve those seductive blessings that we imagine behind agriculture s glittering facade and that have so far eluded us FAIR WARNING labs are due in class on Tuesday March 30 All portions of this assignment should be turned in as typed printed hard copies ie not handwritten not digital les attached to email Late papers will not be accepted and you will receive a m 0 for the assignment Plan ahead and mark the date Lab 3 Domestication and Agriculture The purpose of this lab is to give you an opportunity to review and examine critically the issue of domestication and agriculture in several cultures that we are studying this semester The lab consists of a worksheetchart on which you ll in information and a 2page essay Worksheet To complete the chart download the le from RamCT and type your answers into the spreadsheet boxes which are set to wraptext automatically the grid box will automatically resize as you type so that the text is Visible on the page and will print instead of disappearing at the grid box border You will need Microsoft excel to ll in the worksheet If you do not have a copy of excel I suggest that you write your answers on paper and then use the CSU library computers to transfer your hand written info to the file and then print the chart The information necessary to complete the worksheet can be found in the textbook and your lecture notes My For the essay compare and contrast domestication and the adoption of agriculture in the Near East and Mesoamerica the Near East and South America or the Near East and Eastern North America choose one set of comparisons to write about How is the process similar or different in each region Which plants and animals were domesticated in each region and what purpose did they serve how were they used What push or pull factors contributed to the domestication of plants and animals in each region Were people sedentary before or after domestication in each region and why do you think that is the case How much time elapsed between the rst domestication of plants and animals and the adoption of fulltime agriculture and why do you think that this is the case What social cultural and political changes accompanied the adoption of agriculture How could you explain the domestication of plants and animals in each region Finally how might optimal foraging theory help explain the process or not in each region see your textbook pp 240241 for an explanation of optimal foraging theory You should address each of these questionsissues in a synthetic 2page essay not a list of answers to questions To t all this information into a 2page essay you need to focus on concise statements of the facts and move on to your interpretation and argument Avoid lengthy summaries derived from the textbook or other sources 7 get to the meat of the paper right away Also avoid lengthy quotquot 39 J quot and 39 39 39 that this is just atwo page paper and while r you need to situate your essay with an introductory statement about what you are doing and what you will conclude about domestication you should not devote a lot of space to an extended intro or restatement conclusion Finally to practice your research skills you should reference cite at least 1 source other than in addition to the textbook for each region for a total of 2 sources plus the textbook These other sources must be legitimate scholarly publications such as journal articles not encyclopedia entries such as Wikipedia Encyclopedias are a good place to nd references to scholarly articles but they should not be used as one of your cited sources If you are unsure of the quality of your chosen sources send the titleinfo to Andy Jason or Jen for review Citations should follow the format described below Essay Format For the essay page counts do not include the space for your name title etc so adjust the length accordingly points will be deducted for short papers Note you do NOT need to submit a formal title page but should add text to the end of the paper to make up for title and name info on page 1 Works cited should be stated clearly and in a proper format see below The format for each paper is as follows tvped l margins 12pt New Times Roman font with double spaced numbered pages Papers that ignore these requirements will lose points Citations When you refer to a specific passage or quote from your outside sources or course readings you need to give a citation and you should also cite the textbook if you use material from there Citations should follow this format Author last name Year pages EG Smith argues that although the earliest carbondated domesticated beans date to 4000 BP beans were probably domesticated as early 10000 BP Smith 1992 16 You may find that you need to quote from an a1ticle or the textbook in your essay and that is fine but do not quote more than a sentence or two at a time and do not string together multiple lists of quotations to make your point You should be constructing your discussion or argument primarily with your own words using quotations only as necessary to highlight particular points Quotations that are longer than 2 lines of text should be single spaced Beware summaries and essays that make excessive use of quotations and fail to appropriately counter and contextualize them with their own ideas and discussion will lose credit Writng Suggestions I suggest that you write a draft well in advance of the assignment due date Good short essays generally begin with a brief opening statement of the problem to be addressed and a couple sentence summary of the way in which the paper will approach the problem After moving through the various issues as you see fit you should be sure to pull together your thoughts into a concluding statement that ties things up and completes the essay Next run spelling and grammar check to identify errors but be aware that some of the terms from this assignment will not be recognized by spell check and grammar check often gives you options from which you must choose the appropriate usage based on sentence context After you ve cleaned up any errors give your essay draft to a friend to read andor take it to the CSU writing center for feedback See if they can understand what you did and your discussion of these things What did they find interesting Confusing Did they find it difficult to read because of odd sentence structure or confusing ideas or did they find it smooth and easy to follow Finally take the suggestions of your friend and move to the final stage revising your draft Incorporate your reviewer s comments if you see fit proofread the text at least 2X and print the final draft Breath in relax you are finished and you can take a break Grading Rubric Worksheet Chart 15 points Formatting 10 points Spelling grammar citations 10 points Content 60 points Overall quality 5 points Watson Patty Jo 1995 Explaining the Transition to Agriculture In Last H unters First Farmers New Perspectives on the Prehistoric Transition to Agriculture edited by Douglas T Price and Anne Birgitte Gebauer 2335 Santa Fe School of American Research For each of the theoriesmodels of domestication presented in this article consider the following questions 1 When was the model developed 2 Is it a push or pull model push something pressured humans to domesticate pull some good opportunity or circumstance pulled humans into domestication 3 What is the role of human intentions versus chance in the model 4 How might the processes of plant domestication differ from animal domestication see page 3435 Gordon Childe oasis theory of domestication Robert Braidwood the hilly anks theory of domestication Lewis Binford Kent Flannery the marginality theory of domestication Henry Wright Ofer BarYosef and others Levantine Primacy theories of domestication David Rindos social theories of domestication Bellwood Peter S 2005 The first farmers the origins of agricultural societies Malden MA Blackwell pages 2122 This article excerpt addresses two models of domestication Brian Hayden a social model of domestication Mark Cohen a population stress model of domestication For each of the theoriesmodels of domestication consider the following questions 1 When was the model developed 2 Is it a push or pull model push something pressured humans to domesticate pull some good opportunity or circumstance pulled humans into domestication 3 What is the role of human intentions versus chance in the model ARCHAEOLOGY NEWS OF THE WEEK I DNA From Fossil Feces Breaks Clovis Barrier cans dogs coyotes or wolves or canidsmayhave 439 groups 39 Rut iftb e L L l erenot excar ally 39 L 39 gantly 39 39 r th 439 th teamwas 39 39 L L L 39 39 39 conr way around The DNA could be from the about 13000 years ago But since the late origin 39 39 1990 39 39 39 quot L L N t39 rvt r39 UN quotThe ilar contamination both Americas has steadily accumulated ow in a Science paper published online was not from sim researchers analyzed the mtDNA of all coprolites are the same size and shape as uman and canid feces and less than half of i i p an reports What some experts con sider the strongest evidence yet against e Clovis Firstquot posir tion 14000 earrold ancient NA from fossilized human excrement coprolites found in caves in southrcentIal Orer gon quotThisisthesmoking gun for an earlier colonization of where s arch p 149 human presence onthe tmentby rstAmertr 1 000ye sagoquotsaysgeoarr chaeologist Michael Waters of Texas AampM University in College Station All dates are given in calibrated calendar years ut some members ofboth camps caur the possibility of modern contamination or that the feces were left by dogs rather opologist Thomas Dillehay of Vander it University in Nashville Tenr nessee whose excavations at a 14500 earr old Chilean site also challenge the Clovis First paradigm e 14 coprolites were found in 2002 and 2003 during excavations in Oregons Paisley C S V 39 Tenlzin nf Prehistoric pDDp captnlitesttnm Oregnn39s Paisley Caves tinsel push hark dates at the ans American signatures Next the team called in two other Wellrknown ancient DNA labs which 39 erir fiedthe findings Finally two leading labs radior L a a u v least three were A agenda for future researchquot says ancient versity ofNevada Reno eam members reject this explanation and offer yet more data as evidence They tested for and found human proteins in three coprolites including two dated to about 14000 years ago This nongenetic test man proteinthan can be the coprolites too Whether the coprolites are human r canine is irrelevant since for a allow human hair people had to be present in that environment he says an ay f nne out across the United States in as little as 100 years quotThe N A A 39 Tfm Frland on of the University of Oregon Eugene quotBut DNA researcher sity ofManchester UK 1 am convincedthat v Erlandson Waters and others say the e human DNA they detected is not mode erncontaminationquot dd nthr at 39t le of first Americans came east from Asia they ave the University of Oregon Eugene From the Davis L 39 i 39 39 39 it bould aninlandrmlt t39 b ts team concluded that they had been produced However Brown along with leading prer would have mostly blocked the inland path 39 39 r l 39 0 nt39 39 of the 39 39 by humans with ancient DNA specialists Eske Willersley andThomas Gilbert of the University of Copenhagen in Denmark Science 5 July n is 39 39 39 human mitochondrial DNA mtDNA With F M r cxzmrs DENMSL JENKWS a 3 Louis Berger Group inWashington D 5 case for prerCloyis occupation That s rw 39rL L It archaeological details have been scarce Says Jenk39 s l m first Americans but if we are going to search for them 39 MICHAEl BAUER wwwsclencemagorg SCIENCE VOL320 AAPRlLZOUS PublishedbyAAAS Downloaded 39om MMsciencemagorg on August 24 2008 J J A httpww m 39 39 quot in the mvths of time 676747html Lost in the myths of time Recent evolutionary theories based on DNA research have grabbed the headlines but asks Chris Stringer do they even come near the truth Thursday 5 July 2001 A few weeks ago I had a rather surprising experience My colleagues and I published what we thought was a significant note about ancient human DNA in the journal Science and the Natural History Museum sent out a press release But with one 39 r 39 this I I it made about as much impact as the Conservatives managed at the last election Why The fact that an election was about to happen certainly didn t help nor did Science publishing a paper in the same issue describing a huge dinosaur nd from Egypt But the most relevant factor was probably the nature of the note itself In January there had been widespread publicity over research claiming that ancient DNA had been recovered from the 60000yearold Mungo skeleton from Australia It was further claimed that the results challenged the widely held theory known as quotOut of Africaquot 7 that our species had a recent African origin Our note based on experience with European fossils raised the uncomfortable possibility that the published DNA resulted from contamination and that even if the reported DNA was authentic the results raised no serious challenge to Out of Africa at all The original authors maintained that they had probably recovered genuine ancient human DNA but agreed that their results did not really challenge Out of Africa This situation where a sensational challenge to orthodoxy generates extensive publicity but the ensuing return to reality is virtually ignored is a familiar one to many scientists 7 and one that Ihave witnessed several times recently To examine some of these cases in more detail Ineed to outline the debate about modern human origins The idea that we all have an African origin appears in Darwin39s writings some 50 years before evidence began to emerge to con rm it But when was our common African origin Over the past 20 years two evolutionary models have dominated the debate The first Multiregional Evolution argues that the common ancestral population lived in Africa about two million years ago Soon after that early humans spread from Africa for the first time and so began the evolution of our species The descendant populations evolved in each inhabited area of the world and exchanged their genes through interbreeding so that the features of modern humans gradually accumulated in each of the populations Under Multiregional evolution nonmodern people such as the Neanderthals who lived in Europe about 50000 years ago could have been ancestral to the CroMagnons the succeeding modern humans and thus ancestral to recent Europeans In contrast the Out of Africa model argues that while there was indeed a spread of early humans from Africa nearly two million years ago followed by further evolution there was only one region where evolution produced modern humans 7 Africa About 100000 years ago these early modems began to spread to the rest of the world replacing the older lineages elsewhere such as the Neanderthals So Out of Africa is also known as the Replacement Theory As those early modems spread out they carried with them modern behaviour such as complex technologies language symbolism and art Multiregional Evolution and Out of Africa were rst developed some 20 years ago from the fossil evidence but in 1987 a new factor entered the debate 7 DNA Data from our genes initially just a trickle of pioneering studies has become a ood that has threatened to overwhelm fossil studies based as they are on fragmentary and disputed evidence In particular the Multiregional Model has suffered from the attention of the geneticists since most of the DNA studies have tended to support the idea of a recent African origin for our species DNA has been extracted from three Neanderthal fossils and its structure confirms that they represent a separate evolutionary lineage from our own one that apparently began to diverge from our African ancestors about 500000 years ago Thus over the last 15 years Out of Africa has moved from a peripheral to a central position in the debate about our origins But in the last few years several seemingly serious challenges to the new Out of Africa orthodoxy have been thrown up In 1996 it was claimed that an Australian site called Jinmium showed that nonmodem humans were the first to arrive in Australia perhaps 150000 years ago and so could have been ancestral to the Aborigines Three years later the Mungo 3 burial in southeast Australia was dated to 60000 years ago suggesting that the symbolic burial of a modern human had taken place there long before any were known from Africa or Europe That news was featured in Scienti c American under the headline quotIs Out of Africa going out the doorquot This burial was reported to contain DNA that contradicted Out of Africa All of these claims have since been reevaluated with minimal publicity In the case of Jinmium new studies showed that the site had not been dated properly and the evidence of human occupation was actually less than 10000 years old In the case of Mungo 3 scientists have suggested that this burial was also wrongly dated I prefer to argue that it is evidence of one of the earliest dispersals of modern humans and modern behaviour from Africa The form of the skeleton is quite unlike that of its local nonmodem predecessors but can be linked to early modern predecessors in Africa and the Middle East As for the Mungo DNA our Science note showed the need for the results to be independently replicated when their significance might become clearer Europe has also thrown up highly publicised challenges to Out of Africa In 1995 it was claimed that a bone ute made by Neanderthals had been discovered in Slovenia suggesting that they rather than modern humans were the first to make music In 1999 it was announced that a child39s skeleton with mixed NeanderthalCroMagnon features had been discovered in Portugal demonstrating that Neanderthals were part of the ancestry of modern Europeans And in the last few months it was claimed that the gene for ginger hair in Europeans had been inherited from Neanderthals 7 leading Simon Heffer to write an article in the Daily Mail headlined quotWhy I m proud to be a Neanderthal To no publicity at all two separate studies have shown that the shape and holes of the Neanderthal quot utequot were probably the result of chewing by cave bears 7 there was no evidence that a Neanderthal had ever touched it On further examination it emerged that the gene for ginger hair probably appeared about 50000 years ago when modern humans were establishing themselves outside Africa But since DNA extracted from Neanderthals suggests that they began to diverge from our lineage about 500000 years ago the fact that the ginger gene is much younger is an indication that it emerged within modern humans rather than arriving via Neanderthal admixture As for the hybrid until detailed studies of the skeleton are published the jury is out on whether this was an unusually stocky CroMagnon child or one showing the results of Neanderthal genes If it is a hybrid will this prove Multiregional evolution and disprove Out of Africa It would certainly show that a 100 per cent replacement model must be wrong but other versions of Out of Africa do allow for a little interbreeding with the natives as early modems spread from Africa But if it turns out not to be a hybrid I will wait with interest to see how much media coverage that story gets The writer is head ofHumari Origins at the Natural History Museum in London F I l39f 2cie es FAR M E R5 Peter Bellwood 77 095 39 Blackwell Publishing One school of thought favors a primacy of social stress perhaps better termed social encouragement in this context fueled by competition between individuals and groups Developments toward agriculture in resourceerich environments could have been stimulated by conscious striving for oppormni es and rewards including the reward of increased community population size and strength visa vis other comv munities Cowgill 1975 In similar vein many have suggested that competitive social demands for increased food supplies could have led to food productionS We would The Origins and Dispersals of Agriculture Same Operational Considerations 21 expect such developments to occur in societies that valued competitive feasting or an accumulation of exotic valuables via exchanges involving food to validate status Brian Hayden 1990 stresses that such developments would have occurred in relat ively rich environments in which groups would have been allowed to circumvent the strong ethic of interfamily food sharing that characterizes many ethnographic huntergatherers In foodrich environments families could have stored food for their own use under conditions of relatively high sedentism thus leading to the individual or family accumulation of wealth that a system of competitive feasting demands In poor and continually stressful environments such accumulation would have been replaced by more survivaloriented modes of sharing and these form structural impediments to any shift to food production and consequent private accu mulation of surplus Other authorities have stressed the signi cance of demographic stress rather than social encouragement or competition The clearest statement of this is by Mark Cohen 1977a foreshadowed in part by Philip Smith 1972 and Ester Boserup 1965 Cohen s model focuses on continuous population growth during improving environmental conditions in the later Pleistocene leading to dietary shifts into more productive but less palatable resources for instance from large game meat toward marine resources cereals and small game Eventually people were obliged to shift into plant cultivation essentially to feed growing populations Population packing led via necessity to increased sedentism thus further promoting a higher birth rate and a gradual snowballing of everincreasing population density The adoption of agriculture by Cohen s model was a gradual process but one occurring in varying environments around the world whenever and wherever food production became demographically necessary Animal domestication followed later as wild meat re sources declined REPLACEMENT OR CONTINUITY or hybridization 7k indum 7quot Iv ldt fn Mndvul n 7i lodcm M39rimm iiu rupem i x39wifll39m Austrillidnu I I CONTINUITY W 7 mm H Malawi whim U Indonesian African V i fumpean 39rL t39Pl39i39i n39ll c39frlsi L n39t39Ll39ih UL39L he HYBRID Modem T a i dvm Mndwm Modem quotI irimnr MI mpmna i i a n 39139 1l s39t lliliil REPLACEMENT Kinsiuclvrinla I Vl jgand 1 u Mrinm Eurupmn simian indnnmism H u39iufir 39iln gm5is Hi i nfir ii rgmSis Hi m39rrmi H cn rrrir I139vfriilc39l39grrim Nuclear DNA nherited from both parents Genes rearranged during recombination Chromosome Mitochondrial DNA Copies itself exactly Mutations occur at a known rate Passed through female line nucleus mitochondria EVOLUTION OF MODERN HOMO SAPIENS IN AFRICA Early archaic Homo sapiens 200000 BP Late archaic Homo sapiens 200000 BP100000 BP Anatomically modern Homo sapiens after 125000 BP African versus European time periods Africa Middle Stone Age ca 250000 40000 BP Africa Late Stone Age 40000 15000 BP Europe Middle Paleolithic 250000 40000 BP Europe Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition 48000 30000 BP Europe Upper Paleolithic 40000 10000 BP African Middle Stone Age 250000 40000 BP Acheulian industry is replaced by a wide variety of tool traditions using Levallois technique many bone tools In transition to modern humans Brain exceeds 1350 cc Reduced robusticity Teeth get smaller Loss of prominent brow ridge Relatively vertical forehead Relatively flat nonprojecting face tucked in below frontal lobe Development of chin Sexual dimorphism reduces to modern levels UP Europe Climate cold and dry fluctuating ice sheets north steppegrassland in south some stands of trees Fauna Bison horses reindeer mountain goats in rugged areas Mammmoth woolly rhinoceros and wild ox open steppe also fox rabbit fish etc Flora blueberries raspberries acorns hazelnuts Broad spectrum diet by 27000 BP 50 diet riverine hunter gatherer fisher UP How are people living Small mobile groups 30 50 people Some larger agglomerations some semisedentary storage pits France over 90 of sites located by streams or riverbanks Population growth site density increases over time Acheulian 003 sites 1000 years end of UP 12 sites 1000 years Cultural Historical Period 1914 1960 Archaeology recovering and classifying artifacts Goals 1 Build chronologies 2 Describe what happened in the past 3 Reconstruct culture histories 4 Define culture areas New or Processual Archaeoloqv Lewis Binford American 1 Processual about process nowjust what happened but how and why 2 Archaeology must be like hard science test hypotheses 3 Ask questions of our data archaeology as anthropology 4 Use statistics to control data 5 Culture is about adapting to the environment we cannot study ideology or meaning Etic approach Page 50 Induction drawing general inferences on the basis of available data Deduction drawing particular inferences from general laws and models Involves hypothesis testing The return of context the rise of meaning Post Processual Archaeoloqv 1980 lan Hodder British 1 Reaction against processual archaeology 2 Archaeology more like history than physics 3 Culture about people s actions decisions Emic perspective We can study meaning 4 Context is the critical variable 5 Some interpretations better than others hermeneutics and the role of politics and our preconceived notions Hermeneutic interpretation is an openended cycle of continual inqu39ry FIGURE 244 The Hermeneutic Spiral Widerlntsnreta nn of Other Sites Mid Materiat Overaii Int Ipretatinn A um iaiysi39s Exta tinns A Previuus Excava ans K uwisdge Assump uns Questions Diamond Jared 1999 The Worst Mistake in the History of the Human Race In Lessons from the Past edited by Kenneth L Feder pp 2023 Toronto May eld For this article complete the questions on page 20 at the start of the article SCIENTIFIC AM E CAN Augusf 1994 Volume 271 Number 2 The Eloquent Bones of Abu Hureyra The daily grind in an early Near Eastern agricultural community left revealing marks on the skeletons 0f the inhabitants econstructing how people lived Rim ancient times is like detective work clues are scarce Inferenc es must be made from spotty evidence such as bones durable artifacts and the ruins of habitations In my work as a paleontologist at the Natural History Museum in London I knew that a col lection of early Neolithic human bones had been brought to England from ex cavations at Abu Hureyra in what is now northern Syria The archaeologi cal work was done in 1972 and 1973 by Theya Molleson shortly before the site was due to be ooded by the reservoir behind the new Tabqa dam by Andrew M T Moore then at the University of Oxford see A PreNeolithic Farmers Village on the Eu phratesquot by Andrew M T Moore SCI ENTIZFIC AMERICAN August 1979 The skeletal remains of about 162 individu als 7S ch dren and 87 adults of whom 44 were female 27 male and 16 of un determined sex have been identified from seven trenches dug at Abu Hurey ra The deposits span about 3000 years It seemed to me and my colleagues that the bones might reveal details of the daily life of the Abu Hureyra people and therefore that of other Neolithic groups whose members had made the transition from hunting and gathering to an agricultural economy The marks of life experience some wrought by disease some by work can be imprint ed on the bones and teeth of the skele ton Close study has indeed yielded a fund of information that might not oth erwise have been discovered particular ly about the women of the community Abu Hureyra was inhabited in two different times The first one was frorfi roughly 11500 to 10000 years ago just preceding the development of agricul ture The preNeolithic people of this settlement gathered a wide range of wild seeds including lentils einkorn rye barley hackberries and pistachios They also hunted the gazelles that mi grated toward the Euphrates in the spring The second settlement followed an unexplained hiatus of 200 years The early Neolithic people of the later set tlement cultivated a range of domestic cereals emmer einkorn oats barley chickpeas and lentils All these plants required preparation before they could be eaten The preparation took much labor and time The record of this effort can be read in the bones of the people of Abu Hu reyra One of the first skeletal traits we noticed were signs of extra and some times excessive strains caused by the carrying of loads most likely game grain and building materials The evi dence was most conspicuous among the young If adolescents are required to labor in this way one can expect changes in the shape of the upper ver tebrae That is what we found It is also probable that the loads were carried on the head the hookshaped parts of the vertebrae in the neck are enlarged indi cating that the bones developed a but tressing support Otherwise the neck might have wobbled under the weight of a heavy burden In some individuals we found degenerative changes in the neck vertebrae that may have arisen from injuries sustained by bearing weight These cases were not common In fact the general health of the people appears to have been good except for THEYA MOLLESON works in the paleontology department of the Natural History Mu seum in London where she does research on the effects of the environment on the hu man skeleton both in life and after burial She also lectures on human osteology at Birkbeck College of the University of London Molleson studied geology at the Universi 39 ty of London and social anthropology at the University of Edinburgh bone deformities that turned up repeat edly collapsed vertebrae always the last dorsal one and grossly arthritic big toes These malformations were associ ated with evidence of muscular arms and legs Clearly the bones bespoke a demanding physical activity that was also injurious For a time we actually entertained the idea that the people of Abu Hureyra had engaged in some sport or athletics but crippled ballerinas seemed unlikely to have appeared during the Neolithic We remained mystified until a colleague who was vacationing in Egypt noticed that the kneeling suppliants depicted on temple walls always had their toes curled forward This observation sug gested that some activity that involved kneeling had produced the pathology that we observed among the residents of Abu Hureyra During the excavations Moore had found saddle querns in the rooms of the houses abandoned after they had last been used A quern is a primitive stone mill for grinding grain by hand a saddle quern is so named because it re sembles a saddle in shape I was con vinced that the kneeling action consist ed of long hours spent grinding cereal grains on the saddle quern Gordon Hillman of the University of London who had worked on the plant remains from the site was not so sure He point ed out that removing the outer husk of the seeds by pounding them with a pes tle in a mortar another chore done while kneeling would have been an essential step in preparing the grains Probably both tasks were involved in creating the vertebral deformities but it is unlikely that mortar and pestle work caused the toe deformities the laborer could have changed positions while pounding but not while grinding for eating that was the most de manding and laborintensive ac tivity of the settlement as it still is in many places The grain had to be pound ed every day because the seeds would not keep once they were dehusked The dehusking with mortar and pestle and the subsequent grinding in a saddle quern would have taken many hours What we had found on the bones then were the telltale signs of long hours spent at such labor Also evident were marks of injuries perhaps caused by using the saddle quern with too much enthusiasm or haste Querns and rubbing stones found at Abu Hureyra suggest how such wear and tear came about The querns were set directly on the ground rather than mounted on a plinth or other raised structure a practice followed in later times debris surrounding the querns supports the conclusion that each was found where it had been used Thus the individual using the quern would have had to kneel Picture the operation The grinder puts the grain on the quern and holds S o it was the preparation of grain GRINDING GRAIN on a saddle quern a daily task for Abu Hureyra females put strain on several of the joints On her knees the woman repeatedly pushed the rubbing stone for ward and then pulled back to her starting position The activ ity taking up several hours a day affected particularly the bones shown above the big toe the spine and the leg The toe is hyper exed and damaged the spine shows bony growths of the vertebrae the leg pictured with the femur thigh bone at the top and the tibia shin bone below it has a buttress along the shaft of the femur and bony growths at the knee SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN August 1994 71 the rubbing stone with both hands On her knees yes it was women s work as we shall see with toes bent forward she pushes the stone toward the far end of the quern ending the stroke with her upper body almost parallel to the ground so her arms are at or near the level of her head On reaching the far end of the quern she jerks back to her starting position I call this part of the grinding action the recoil The movement that raises the arms as the grinder pushes forward employs the deltoid muscles of the shoulder Dur ing this stroke the arms also turn in ward a motion accomplished by the bi ceps muscles It is precisely the places where the deltoid muscles attach to the humerus the long bone of the upper arm and the biceps muscles to the radius one of the two forearm bones that are mark edly developed in these individuals The overdevelopment of the muscles was symmetrical affecting both arms equal ly On the forearm of these individuals the radial tuberosity the bulged area of the radius where the biceps muscle LOAD BEARING attaches is particularly noticeable Kneeling for many hours strains the toes and knees whereas grinding puts additional pressure on the hips and es pecially the lower back The character istic injuries we found on the last dor sal vertebra were disk damage and crushing Such injuries could occur if the grinder overshot the far end of the saddle quern during the forward push or recoiled to the starting position too quickly or vigorously During grinding the body pivots alternately around the knee and hip joints The movement subjects the fe murs thigh bones to considerable bending stresses These bones thus de velop a distinct buttress along the back to counteract the bending moments im posed from the hip and the knee as the weight of the body swings back and forth across the saddle quern The knee also takes a lot of pressure because it serves as the pivot for the movement Thus the joint surfaces enlarge All these effects appear on a set of bones we studied The femurs were curved and buttressed The knees show bony extensions on their articular surfaces The feet are also subjected to heavy pressure as one grinds grain on a quern The toes are curled forward to provide leverage which is supplied in large part by the big toes In the remains from Abu Hureyra the first metatarsal joints of the toes are enlarged and often in jured There are also signs of cartilage damage smooth polished surfaces at the metatarsal joint indicate that bone had rubbed on bone In some individu als a gross osteoarthritis had devel oped ln one case the right big toe is much more severely affected than the left Although an infective origin for this condition cannot be ruled out perhaps the grinder was in the habit of resting one foot on the other to relieve the pain Just such a position is shown in a mod el illustrated in J H Breasted s Egyp tian Servant Statues of an Egyptian woman using a quern The changes to the arm thigh and toe bones that we observed affected the overall bone morphology This result would come about only if the stresses had been applied to the bones for long BONE ABNORMALITIES appeared among the people of Abu Hureyra as a result of the activities depicted here Carrying loads on the head deformed the bones of the upper spine the pitting on the vertebra indicates disk damage Pounding grain in a mortar and pestle and operating a quern strongly developed the arm muscles as re ected by the bulging in the two humerus upper arm bones top of photograph USING MORTAR AND PESTLE SQUATTING AT REST USING QUERN hours daily while the individual was still growing Travelers have observed such activity quite recently Michael Aster writes in A Desert Dies Life in the Saharan oasis seemed to grind on at its own pace For the women this was literally true for they spent much of their time grinding grain on their hand I often watched Hawa as she placed a few grains at a time on the stonebase and let them trickle down as she ground them sweeping the our into a bowl every few minutes After an hour or so her little daughter aged about nine would take over and begin grinding furiously It might take several hours to produce enough our for one meal e wanted to know whether members of both sexes ground grain at Abu Hureyra Finding the answer proved difficult The skele tons were so fragmented that we had V to devise a way of determining the sex of an individual from the speci c bones that showed the changes we believed resulted from using a saddle quern where the deltoid muscles attach and in the two radius forearm bones bottom where the biceps muscles attach Squatting to rest put strain on the knee resulting in this notched patella kneecap Using a quern damaged the last dorsal vertebra wedging and pitting indicate crush ing and disk damage Also affected were the bones of the big toe here there is wear near the right end of the upper toe bone and severe osteoarthritis near the right end of the lower bone Measurements of the rst metatarsal bone of the foot demonstrated that it was generally larger in males and by this means we could see that most of the bones showing the saddlequern ef fects were from females We concluded that the grain was usu ally prepared by the women and girls in the household A rather loose division of roles thus appears among these ear ly Neolithic people The inhabitants of Abu Hureyra must soon have discov ered that the most ef cient way to op erate was to divide up the work of sup plying food We can assume that the men hunted and with the advent of agriculture cultivated food plants The women of the household took on the job of grain preparation a laborious task or rather a series of tasks that oc cupied many hours a day and could lead to back knee and toe injuries These are the repetitive stress injuries of the Neo lithic There is no need to assume that this division of roles implies any in equality between the sexes or between roles that comes later The women were not the only ones to suffer The coarsely ground grain had an appalling effect on everyone s teeth One precaution necessary with all grain products except sifted our is careful sorting to remove hard kernels and small stones The number of fractured teeth among the early Neolithic people of Abu Hureyra bears witness to a fail ure to do this sorting effectively and probably to an absence of sieves For the same reason awns or glumes from the outer covering of the grains re mained in the our and occasionally be came lodged between the teeth causing gum infection On the other hand car ies tooth decay was rare Apparently the our was not suf ciently re ned or cooked if it was cooked to provide the right environment for the bacteria that cause cavities Fracturing was only one problem The grains even after being pounded and ground yielded a hard meal that was exceedingly abrasive Apart from the damage caused by rock powder from the grindstone the our itself rapidly wore down the teeth Many people lost teeth at an early age Moreover scan ning electron micrographs of teeth from Abu Hureyra show pits comparable in size to those that date stones and other hard ob jects make on the teeth of nonhuman primates Something had to be done about the horrendous wear on the teeth The ar chaeologists at Abu Hurey ra had occasionally noticed the imprints of woven mats in plaster from later levels of the settlement This nd ing was evidence that the people had by then mas tered the skills of weaving The invention of the sieve an application of the prin ciples of weaving would have meant that grain could be sifted from grit and coarse chaff Women in the Near East today can oper ate a sieve so deftly that they produce three piles on it stones chaff and grains They then ip the stones into the palm of the hand The result is fewer frac tured teeth We have no di rect evidence of sieves at Abu Hureyra but tooth wear is notably less severe in the later times Some way also had to be found to contain the har Baskets may have been the solution We noted strange grooves on the front teeth of individuals from the later lev els at Abu Hureyra In making a basket three canes have to be maneuvered at once Because the hands39are occupied holding the rst staves of the basket the teeth are used to control the work ing canes Clark S Larsen of the Univer sity of North Carolina at Chapel Hill has illustrated how a modern Paiute In dian woman holds the canes between her teeth The habit of weaving in this way forms grooves on the surface of the front teeth The grooves are almost identical to those we have observed on the teeth from Abu Hureyra The skeletal evidence for weaving and basket making is rare among the bones we studied presumably because the skills for those crafts were con ned to a few people Those individu als are all from one part of the settle ment which suggests a craft area Such specialization would be a natural out come of any division of roles Role spe cialization allows the development of expertise speed and improved technol ogy If an expert is relieved of the need to produce her own food she can man ufacture more than enough sieves or baskets to supply the community Any surplus can be used in trade From a different part of the settle EATING ment came evidence for another group of craftswomen We noticed that sever al jaws found there have enormously enlarged joint surfaces together with extremely uneven wear on the teeth To display this pattern of wear the teeth must have been subjected to immense crushing forces that abraded the lower teeth on the outside and the upper teeth on the inside In some cases the wear extends right down to the root Tetsuya Kamegai of Iwate Medical University in Japan has found similar changes among Maori people who chew plant stems to make ber string Some years ago J D Jennings of the Universi ty of Utah described the marks on quids chewed by worn teeth The quids made by people of the same epoch as the Abu Hureyra community are found by the thousands at Danger Cave in Utah The cave yielded pieces of cord made of chewed bulrush stems and mats bound with the cord I believe mats were be ing made in a similar way at Abu Hu reyra a View also supported by the im pressions of matting found during the excavation nology of pottery making brought great changes to the community Pottery vessels provided a container in which grains could be soaked and S ome 7300 years ago the new tech WEAVING 74 SCIENTIFIC AlVfERICAN August 1994 cooked That made the cereals so much softer that wear on the teeth was sig nificantly reduced as can be seen in scanning electron micrographs Cooked cereal is also tastier and eas ier to digest Cooking releases the car bohydrates from the grain and makes them easy for the digestive system to absorb One result was porridge which soon had a dramatic effect on the com munity s population structure A single consequence is evident in the unmend ed fracture of a woman s jaw it is un likely that she could have survived if a nutritious gruel or porridge were not available Much more signi cant is that once porridge was available women could give it to infants in place of breast milk The mothers too consumed a diet quite rich in carbohydrates The result of early weaning and better nourish ment was to increase fertility substan tially by reducing the interval between births This effect can be seen in the much larger proportion of infant skeletons recovered from the pottery levels com pared with their percentage in the earli er strata The proportion is so high as to suggest that infants were at increased risk of dying from disease presumably because the rising population density gave more opportunity for pathogens to spread from one person to another Some of the children have a thickening and pitting of the eye sockets known as cribra orbitalia that probably was the result of anemia followirig long term infection by parasites It is from the pottery levels that we nd evidence of dental caries The change in food preparation with greater emphasis on cooked cereals made into bread and porridge created sticky foods that adhere to the teeth and provide a medium for the growth of the bacteria that cause caries bu Hureyra was abandoned about 7000 years ago as were many other Neolithic sites in the Near East One cannot say why disease fam ine and climatic change are all possibil ities Abu Hureyra although it was a structured society remained egalitari an to the end at least in terms of buri al practices But during the Neolithic roles probably became more de ned and more circumscribed The incorporation of role in the so TOOTH WEAR was severe among the early Neolithic people of Abu Hureyra The coarse our produced by grinding on a quern abraded teeth Pulling canes through the teeth while making baskets resulted in deep grooves YEARS BEFORE PRESENT ECONOMY TYPE OF VILLAGE 7000 F CEREAL SHEEP MUDBRICK MIXED FARMING AND PULSE AND GOAT POTTERY HOUSES OPEN CULTIVATION HUSBANDRY SPACES 7500 Z CLUSTERED o MUDBRICK d t HOUSES E 8000 1 F 1 1 quot Iquot CEREAL AND PULSE CULTIVATION O D 2 8500 T O 0 DJ 0 CLUSTERED 9000 MUDBRICK HOUSES 9500 r10000 Z o TIMBER AND I REED HUTS at 10500 D O O o 395 11000 A L E q I g LL I I I 777quot h r PLANT GATHERING GAZELLE HUNTING P39T DWELL39NGS 11500 i ABU HUREYRA S CHRONOLOGY extended through two differ ent occupations of the site over some 4500 years The rst oc cupants were preNeolithic people who lived primitiver and cial fabric is re ected in the burial prac tices The dead were buried under the oors of the houses or in pits in the yards outside Many more women than men are buried in the rooms This was their domain where they had lived and worked The women it seems had spe cific parts Of space bounded by the lim its of the house their territory was a frame for their activities John Gold Of Oxford Brookes University sees this ter ritoriality as a fundamental expression of social organization The role bound aries established in life were maintained after death The skeletal changes indi cating how women spent their days grinding spinning making baskets and mats re ect a commitment in terms of time and economics that constitutes role specialization The very division of roles may have encouraged people not immediately immersed in preparing food to develop crafts Crop cultivation in fact created its own challenges Water had to be con veyed to seedlings for irrigation ani mals had to be kept from destroying the crops and harvested grain had to be transported These problems provoked the exploration Of technologies to solve them Vessels fences and baskets were devised and certain people became ex pert in making them At Abu Hureyra we see a progres sion of changes that can be understood in the light of such innovations The did not farm Early Neolithic people of the second occupation gradually came to the cultivation of crops the domestication of animals and such crafts as pottery and basket making improvements brought problems that called for further innovations There was a constant progress toward a bet ter life a striving that continues to this day Abu Hureyra represents the first step on the path toward civilization But signs of wealth class elite institutions and scholarship have not been found in this settlement We must look for them elsewhere THE EXCAVATION OF TELL ABU HUREYRA IN SYRIA A PRELIMINARY REPORT AMT Moore in Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society Vol 41 pages 50 77 December 1975 DENTAL MODIFICATIONS AND TOOL USE IN THE WESTERN GREAT BASIN Clark Spencer Larsen in American Journal of Physical Anthropology Vol 67 NO 4 pages 393 402 August 1985 SEED PREPARATION IN THE MESOLITHIC THE OSTEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE T Molle son in Antiquity Vol 63 NO 239 pages I FURTHER READING 356 362 June 1989 DENTAL EVIDENCE FOR DIETARY CHANGE AT ABU HUREYRA Theya Molleson and Karen Jones in Journal of Archaeologi cal Science V01 18 NO 5 pages 525 539 September 1991 DIETARY CHANGE AND THE EFFECTS OF FOOD PREPARATION ON MICROWEAR PATTERNS IN THE LATE NEOIITHIC OF ABU HUREYRA NORTHERN SYRIA T Mol leson K Jones and S Jones in Journal of Human Evolution V01 24 No 6 pag es 45 5 468 June 1993 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN August 1994 7S httpww 39 J J m 39 39 ethe thal murder mVsterv 888276html The Neanderthal murder mystery The Independent Why did Neanderthal man become extinct Was it interbreeding with humans Or did our ancestors wipe them out Steve Connor reports on a fossil that may solve the puzzle Friday 8August 2008 A study of DNA from a fossilised bone of a Neanderthal man suggests they did not interbreed with humans The mystery of what killed off the Neanderthals about 30000 years ago comes a step closer to being solved with a study suggesting that they formed a tiny population that had been teetering on the brink of extinction Neanderthals rst appeared in Europe at least 300000 years ago but they disappeared after the arrival of anatomically modern humans Homo sapiens who first arrived in Europe 50000 years ago This has led to speculation about whether the Neanderthals interbred with the new arrivals to form a hybrid population that became submerged in the human gene pool or were instead wiped out by them either through competition for resources or by violence The latest evidence an analysis of DNA recovered from a 38000yearold fossilised thigh bone suggests the Neanderthals did not interbreed with modern humans but were eradicated by them DNA extracted from an adult Neanderthal man who lived near caves in what is now Croatia also revealed that the Neanderthals in Europe probably never numbered more than 10000 individuals at any one time 7 a precariously small population size The new evidence about the demise of the Neanderthals comes from the complete sequence of DNA within tiny cellular structures known as mitochondria This mitochondrial DNA is maternally inherited and is easier to isolate from ancient bones than the conventional DNA found within the cell nucleus The scientists repeatedly decoded the mitochondrial DNA from the 38000yearold Neanderthal bone 35 times to make sure that they had the correct genetic sequence so that they could use it as an accurate comparison against the mitochondrial DNA of modern humans and chimpanzees 7 man39s closest living relative quotFor the first time we39ve built a sequence from ancient DNA that is essentially without errorquot said Richard Green who led the investigation at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig Germany quotIt is still an open question for the future whether this small group of Neanderthals was a general feature or was this caused by some bottleneck in their population size that happened late in the gamequot said Dr Green Archaeological evidence shows that Neanderthals and anatomically modern humans known as CroMagnon man occupied the same habitats and sites at overlapping periods of time but there is no hard evidence that there was any direct contact between the two last species of humans to share living space quotThere s no proof that they saw each other only that they inhabited the same place at about the same time but I think it s likely that they came across one anotherquot said Adrian Briggs a researcher at the Max Planck Institute who was part of the study quotWhat we39ve done is confirm that the mitochondrial DNA of Neanderthals and modern humans was so different that it forms powerful evidence that there was very little if any interbreeding between the two speciesquot said Dr Briggs quotWe have also got tantalising evidence that the Neanderthals formed a small population and we can only speculate as to what happened to them Small population sizes are always more prone to extinction and they have a greater chance of something going wrongquot Speculation about who the Neanderthals were and what happened to them has raged ever since the first Neanderthal skull was excavated from the Neander Valley near Dusseldorf in 1856 It is now generally agreed that they were not the direct ancestors of modern humans but a side branch on man39s extensive family tree However some anthropologists have clung to the belief that they must have interbred with humans at some stage in their history which means that there is a little bit of Neanderthal in us all However a number of DNA studies including the latest published in the journal Cell have found little to support that theory Whenever it has been possible to analyze the sequence of heavily degraded DNA fragments extracted from Neanderthal bone it shows that the genetic variation lies well outside the variation seen in modern humans The latest study suggests for instance that the Neanderthals last shared a common ancestor with modern humans some 660000 years ago 7 long before the emergence in Africa of Homo sapiens as a distinct species about 100000 years ago However the scientists who carried out the study emphasised that their work cannot as yet completely rule out the possibility that there was some limited smallscale interbreeding between Neanderthals and modern humans at some place between the Caucasus and western Europe 7the geographic range of the Neanderthals One of the best bits of evidence in support of that idea emerged about a decade ago when scientists found the skeleton of a young boy who had died about 25000 years ago in what is now Spain His thickset features suggested he was hybrid of Neanderthal and CroMagnon 7 but other scientists believed he was just an unusually stocky lad There is little doubt that Neanderthals would have looked very different from the new arrivals in Europe Their rib cage ared out so they would have had no waists which would have exaggerated their thickset appearance Heavy jaws a double arch over the eyebrow resulting in a beetle brow and strong muscles added to the overall thuggish look But despite the reputation for being thick Neanderthals were intelligent 7 they used quite sophisticated stone tools controlled fire wore animal skins and buried their dead The presence of a hyoid bone in their throats also suggested they could speak although few experts believe that they were capable of the sophisticated language being developed at the time by early modern humans Professor Chris Stringer head of human origins at the Natural History Museum in London believes that the long period of separation 7 and genetic isolation 7 between the Neanderthals and early modern humans meant that profound physical and mental differences had evolved between them quotThe question then is whether when the populations met they regarded each other as simply people enemies aliens or even prey he said quotWe simply don t know the answer and the answer may have varied from one time and place to another especially given the vagaries of human behaviour quot We may never know what happened when modern humans came to live in the same space inhabited by the Neanderthals They may simply have avoided one another with Neanderthals retreating to their last stronghold in Europe 7 a cave system in Gibraltar where the most recent Neanderthal bones have been found Or the two species might have engaged in the sort of brutal con ict that has been the hallmark of human history throughout time Genetic differences Neanderthal Man Heavy jawbone and beetle brow would have made him look like a rugby player on steroids Flared rib cage meant he did not have a de ned waistline Strong muscles would have added to his thickset appearance Used stone tools controlled re and buried his dead but little evidence for more symbolic behaviour Presence of hyoid bone in the throat suggests the use of speech but experts doubt that language was sophisticated Well adapted to cold conditions with short limbs and heavy torso which would have helped to survive the successive ice ages in Europe Modern Man Graceful chin and jaw and lack of a double arch over the eyebrow gives his face a softer appearance Tapering rib cage separated the lower abdomen from the chest giving a marked waistline Used sophisticated stone tools controlled fire and buried their dead with ritual Indicates the development of symbolic thought and being able to plan for the future Hyoid bone indicates speech as an important feature in terms of social organisation Gracile limbs and body indicates adaptation to a warm climate gtmd I C Zm 7 Wm mgtwgtgtm Wm 23 vmmem jltmm OZ Im vwmISl OE AnnZSIIOZ O gtDZACW CWm 32 3 A UOCorym Edam gtZU gtZZm 201 omwgtcmn m IOOr Ow gtgtgtmE gtZ wag n vxmmm 992 mm Zmltltgtgtmx O mm h 2 EXPLAINING THE TRANSITION TO AGRICULTURE PATTY JO WATSON RAPHAEL PUMPELLY V GORDON CHILDE AND THE OASIS THEORY Although V Gordon Childe s oasis theory concerning the origins of agriculture in the Near East provides the traditional starting point for a comparative discussion it was actually Rafael Pumpelly director of an interdisciplinary archaeological expedition to Central Asia in 1904 who rst referred to postPleistocene desiccation as impelling human beings to domesticate plants in the oases where plants and people had taken refuge Pumpelly 190865 66 Watson 199134 Childe s earliest explicit accounts are in his books The Most An cient East 1928 and Man Makes Himself 1936 On pages 66 85 of Man Makes Himself he refers to the beginnings of plant cultivation and also presents his version of what is often called the oasis or propinquity theory Basing his remarks on what was then known or believed about late Pleistocene early Holocene climate in Western Asia eg Brooks 1926 Pumpelly 1908 Childe suggests that the region experienced in creasing desiccation following the last Ice Age People and animals were crowded together at the few permanent water sources rivers and oases and eventually the human populations with the aid of grain and stubble from their crop lands tamed some of the animal species 50 in contrast to Pumpelly Childe refers to climatic change and oasis refuges in the context of animal domestication he is less clear about the beginnings of plant domestication Many later writers in dis cussing Childe s ideas about the Neolithic Revolution attribute both plant and animal domestication to the propinquity situation But in his first detailed account chapter V The Neolithic Revolution in Mom Makes Himself Childe is clearly concerned only with animals He thinks that plant domestication preceded the appearance of domes ticated animals and that it may have taken place somewhere along the Nile valley Childe 193674 75 or in Palestine 193669 Childe refers to the Natufians as perhaps the earliest plant cultivators then known and his discussion clearly indicates that he thinks plant domestication 23 WATSON preceded animal domestication and the enforced early Holocene pro pinquity The CL structure of Childe s explanation its basic assumptions and premises can be rendered as follows I Human technologies and economies have evolved or cumula tively progressed through time from simpler to more complex enabling human populations to increase in size and density 2 Preindustrialized and preagricultural societies are closely de pendent upon their physical environments and are radically af fected quite directly by extreme changes in those environments 3 Food producing economies are superior to foraging or hunting gathering economies human groups in circumstances amenable to domesticating plant and animal species will seize the oppor tunity to do so 4 Once agriculture and pastoralism have been invented by one human group these economies will spread rapidly to other groups Thus it is to be expected that early postPleistocene human groups in association with useful wild plants as in the Nile valley and or Pales tine would domesticate them Nor is it surprising that under stress progressive drought and desiccation with resulting enforced propin quity at water points they would also tame various species of animals Food producing communities would be expected to increase in size and density and the new foodproducing economy would diffuse over the entire Near East and adjacent territory Childe s explanation seemed plausible to working scientists at the time but little could be said about the adequacy of the evidence be cause there was so little relevant empirical information No more than the sketchiest notion of the chronology of the Neolithic Revolution was available no archaeological evidence was then known that pertained to early stages of food production in the Near East or the Nile valley The desire to obtain such information led Robert Braidwood to initiate an archaeological project in northern Iraq that has in uenced agricultural origins research to the present day 39 ROBERT BRAIDWOOD AND THE HILLY FLAN KS THEORY In 1948 Robert and Linda Braidwood of the Oriental Institute Uni versity of Chicago launched a longterm archaeological investigation 24 EXPLAI NING THE TRANSITION the IraqJarmo project to recover primary evidence for the earliest foodproducing economies in the Near East They began their work in 1950 51 at the site of Jarmo previously located by the Iraqi antiqui ties service The results of the rst Jarmo season including a few C14 dates obtained from Willard Libby s brand new radiocarbon laboratory at the University of Chicago indicated to Braidwood that the earliest food producing economies had probably not been in lowland oasis and riverine situations as Childe had suggested but rather in the better watered upland regions that Braidwood called the hilly anks of the Fertile Crescent In this habitat zone he postulated the wild ancestors of wheat barley legumes sheep goats and cattle would all have been found as well as early foodproducing Villages like Jarmo In 1954 55 Braidwood went back to Jarmo with an interdisci plinary National Science Foundation supported team that included a geologist Herbert E Wright jr a paleoethnobotanist Hans Hel baek and a zoologist Charles Reed as well as several archaeologists They were successful in nding the kind of evidence Braidwood was seeking Because of the political climate in Iraq Braidwood never returned to Jarmo after the spring of 1955 but he has continued research on early foodproducing economies in western Iran and southeastern Turkey The explanation he devised during the 19503 and early 19603 for the beginnings of food production in the Near East eg Braidwood 1960 is often called the hilly anks theory and runs as follows Geomorphological and paleoclimatological evidence examined by Wright during the 19503 provides no support for Pumpelly s and Childe s suggestions about the desiccation of the early Holocene Near East There had been mountain glaciers in the Zagros range where Jarmo is located and they had increased in size during the last Ice Age but there is no geological indication of major climatic differences between the early food production era and the present Consequently Braidwood utilized cultural rather than environmental factors in formulating an alternative to Childe s ideas He argued that as human technology and human knowledge about the physical environment grew more complex and more sophisticated through time human populations colonizing and settling into an environment like that of the hilly anks of the Fertile Crescent would eventually realize the potential inherent in the local ora and fauna and would exploit that potential by domesticating the appropriate species Although new archaeological and geological data enabled Braid wood to propose an explanation for the beginnings of food production 25 WATSON that was very different from Childe s its logic and basic assumptions are the same Braidwood s account is also a kind of propinquity thesis The major difference is the physical setting in which the original do mesticatory events take place Given the same premises as Childe s but with new environmental and archaeological information Braidwood s conclusion is that it is to be expected that the earliest food producing villages appeared in the optimal habitat zone for the wild ancestors of the rst domesticates LEWIS BINFORD KENT FLANNERY AND THE MARGINALITY THEORY In 1968 Lewis Binford published a discussion of the same general problem the origins of food production in which he concluded that Braidwood like Childe was mistaken about the locale for the earliest food producing communities Drawing upon thenrecent ethnographic and demographic literature Binford postulated that human groups colo nizing optimal zones such as the hilly flanks would maintain a dynamic equilibrium between population size and natural resources below the re gional carrying capacity This equilibrium however could be disturbed by any environmental change that decreased the available food supply or by any demographic change that caused one group to impinge on the territory of another Binford 1968328 Binford focused upon the demographic issue He thought that semisedentary human groups occu pying optimal zones in the post Pleistocene period would increase in size but would ssion before they approached the regional carrying capacity The ssionedoff groups would impinge upon the indigenous inhabi tants outside the optimum zone putting pressure on food resources The consequent disequilibrium would cause some of these groups to inten sify their subsistence practices in the direction of domesticating plants and animals Flannery 1969 used Binford s model as an explanatory frame work for the archaeological and ecological data he and Frank Hole were obtaining in the Deh Luran region of western Iran He modi ed Binford s account of the development of food production to include a stage he referred to as the broad spectrum revolution emphasiz ing the eclectic nature of many Upper Paleolithic and early Holocene economies and those characteristics of such economies that he believed to be preadapted to the origins of food production Flannery agreed with Binford that the rst food producing economies in the Near East would develop in marginal areas outside optimal zones He suggested 26 EXPLAlNlNC THE TRANSITTON that plant cultivation may have begun as a deliberate attempt to produce arti cially around the optimalzone margins cereal stands as dense as those within the optimal zone These formulations by Binford and Flannery are often referred to jointly as the marginality or edge hypothesis The Binford and Flannery account differs from Childe s and Braidwood s because it in cludes explicit attention to causal factors such as stress which is lacking in Childe s discussion of plant domestication and absent from Braid wood s formulation Binford and Flannery s attention to causal factors derives primarily from their emphasis on population growth as an im portant variable They would reword the last part of basic assumption 1 of Childe s argument to align it with a Boserupian perspective Bose rup 1965 and they would modify the second clause of 3 to emphasize coercion or stress as causal in initiating food producing economies They also question the intrinsic or selfevident superiority of agriculture over huntinggathering foraging and conclude that only under a signi cant amount of stress would one expect some of those marginalized communities to domesticate suitable wild plant and animal populations Braidwood s and Binford s and Flannery s formulations were all consciously devised to take account of thencurrent archaeologi cal paleoenvironmental and ethnographic information Braidwood s account improves on Childe s and Binford s and Flannery s on Braid wood s All these explanations conform to the logical structure of the CL model and Childe s and IIBraidwood s Views are based on the same premises One of the basic assumptions underlying Binford s and Plan nery s constructs is the same as Childe s and Braidwood s a but I and 4 are modi ed to include causal stress resulting from popula tion growth in an optimal physical environment and the initial clause in 3 is denied LEVANTINE PRIMACY PALYNOLOGlCAL STUDIES OF THE 19605 AND 19705 Beginning in 1960 H E Wright Jr with a number of collaborators and colleagues began collecting and analyzing the pollen preserved in sediments from lakes in the Iranian Zagros and other Near Eastern locales van Zeist and Wright 1963 Wright 1968 I977 The initial results substantiated by subsequent research in western Asia and south eastern Europe demonstrated that the late Pleistocene early Holocene 27 WATSON climate in the Near East was very different from the modern one These ndingsquot overturned Wright s own earlier conclusions based on geo morphological evidence for mountain glaciation and initially seemed to pose a signi cant conundrum regarding the distribution of wild cere als The Zagros cores show an absence from these mountains of oak and Mediterranean type woodland until the sixth millennium bp Be cause the wild grasses especially emmer are part of that community it seemed that they were lacking and hence could not have been locally domesticated until rather late in prehistory More samples and more analyses now indicate that there were indeed profound climatic oral and faunal changes between 40000 and 10000 bp over the entire Near East there were apparently marked regional differences as well Baruch and Bottema 1991 Nevertheless the Mediterranean woodland was robustly present in the Levant and in fact extended much farther south and east at about 12000 bp than it does now van Zeist and Bottema 1991 van Zeist and Woldring 1980 Several scholars have combined these new paleoclimatic data with a Boserupian View of the relationship between human population growth and agriculture in a series of explanatory formulations appli cable to the Zagros region Smith and Young 1983 and to the Levant BarYosef and BelferCohen 1989 1992 BarYosef and Kislev 1989 Henry 1989 McCorriston and Hole 1991 Moore 1985 I refer rst to the formulation of BarYosef and his colleagues as presented in a series of accounts over the past few years eg Bar Yosef and Belfer Cohen 1989 1992 Bar Yosef and Kislev 1989 see also Bar Yosef and Meadow this volume Bar Yosef and his collaborators describe the paleoenvironmental conditions pertaining in the Levant at the relevant time period 14500 to 9000 bp Between 13000 and 12800 bp drier conditions began to replace the previously favorable climate in the region bordering the Mediterranean coastal zone forcing hunter gatherer populations westward to join those already inhabit ing the Mediterranean parkland The consequent population increase there resulted in reduced mobility a broadspectrum economy and the establishing of large aggregated sites in ecotones These sedentary Natu an communities were then transformed into farming villages at or just after 10000 bp The major explanatory factors adduced are environmental change with resulting population aggregation increase in population density following sedentarism in aggregated communities and the presence as early as the Geometric Kebaran which preceded the Natu an and ended about 12800 bp of tools and techniques for processing small or hardseeded grasses The 28 EXPLAI NINC TH E TRANSITION Natu ans greatly elaborated these tools and in the central Levant were the rst to use chert sickle blades BarYosef and BelferCohen 1989470 The abrupt climatic changes of the terminal Pleistocene around 10 soc10000 bp from wetter to drier conditions coupled with the development of large communities in which social complexity required organizational changes forced the Late Natu ans to adopt systematic cultivation of cereals and pulses BarYosef and Kislev 1989 634 But the aridity of the mid thirteenth millennium bp did not encourage widespread cultivation The knowledge of cultivation or its inven tion as a new technique for food production became applicable 39 with the onset of the wet conditions during the late eleventh and early tenth millennia bp BarYosef and BelferCohen 1989 489 This formulation like those of Henry and Moore mis based on premises similar to those of Binford s and Flannery s accounts The primary explanatory factors are sedentarism and population growth under optimal conditions with stress subsequently resulting from envi ronmental deterioration and population movements Also included are inferences about the rather complex social organization postulated to have developed in some Natu an communities The inclusion of an in ternal social imperative together with environmental change and popu lation growth distinguishes the accounts of Bar Yosef and his coauthors of Henry and of Moore from those of Childe Braidwood Binford and Flannery 39 Another version of these Levantine primacy theories is that re cently published by McCorriston and Hole 1991 They stress the determining effects of early Holocene environmental change as the Mediterranean climate ora and fauna developed and were variously affected by shifts in meteorological phenomena such as monsoonal circulation But they also refer to the importance of anthropogenic processes cutting trees and shrubbery setting brush res trampling as well as technology and technological practices longterm storage seed grinding and processing and the settlement organization long term sedentarism characteristic of many Natu an communities Much of what they highlight about early Holocene climate and environment is also discussed by BarYosef and his coworkers and by Henry 1989 29 WATSON unintentional and unconscious are such red ags in this context that we should look at them very carefully I think Rindos is merely em phasizing the rather obvious point that an agricultural economy could not have been foreseen let alone consciously and instantaneously cre ated or invented by one or a small group of prehistoric human beings But in stressing this point so thoroughly he rejects or at least deflects attention from deliberate actions by human beings that were often perhaps always crucial to the coevolutionary domesticatory process INTENTIONALITY IN EARLY PLANT CULTIVATION Hillman and Davies 1992 provide an excellent example of intention ality in early cultivation when they demonstrate the implications of different cultivation methods for the domestication of wild einkorn wheat If wild wheat stands were persistently harvested with sickles or by uprooting the plants when they were partially or nearly ripe and if some 25 percent of the harvest were planted to produce the succeeding year s crop then these would become domestic stands within a few de cades That is they would change from brittle rachised selfdispersing wild stands with occasional toughrachised nonselfdispersing mu tant plants to tough rachised non selfdispersing stands dependent on humans for reproduction Hillman and Davies 19922124 are quite clear that the selection occurring during this process which ultimately results in stands of domesticated plants is not consciously guided by the human cultivators But it is equally clear that the humans must consciously plant the next year s crop using seed saved from the current harvest that is they must be cultivating the wild grain by planting a certain percentage of it as well as harvesting it in speci c ways The authors distinguish between predomestication cultivation cultivation proce dures that will result in domesticated wheat stands and nondomes tication cultivation procedures that will not result in domesticated stands Nondomestication cultivation of wild einkorn wheat includes har vesting ripe cereals by beating harvesting unripe wild stands and har vesting wild stands by any means but eating the entire harvest without planting Predomestication cultivation for wild einkorn wheat com prises harvesting by cutting with sickles or by uprooting nearly ripe or partially ripe grain and then using some 25 percent of the harvest as seed for the next year Insofar as the wild Wheat example is concerned the various im plications and connotations of conscious and unconscious planting and 32 EXPLAININC TH E TRANSITION SELECTION NONE UNCONSCIOUS CONSCIOUS Incidental domestication Rindos NONE Nondomesticarion Nondomesticanon Nondomesticanon cultivation cultivation cultivation Hillman and Davies Hillman and Davies Hillman and Davies Incidental domestication Specialized and Rindos agricultural domestication Rindos UNCONSCIOUSquot Nondomestication Predomestication cultivation cultivation Hillman and Davies Hillman and Davies Incidental domestication Specialized and Rindos agricultural domestication CONSCIOUS Rindos Nondomestication Predomestication cultivation cultivation Hilltnan and Davies Hillman and Davies If selection occurs then by definition isolation is present Figure 21 Trivariate table summarizing the outcomes of various hypothe sized combinations among intentional and unintentional or conscious and unconscious selection and planting behaviors of human populations selection may be diagrammed as in gure 21 The diagram illustrates at least two things I the separability of planting and selection and so the importance of paying attention to both either of which can take place deliberately and intentionally consciously or accidentally and unintentionally unconsciously and a the seeming importance of conscious planting in Hillman and Davies s model It should be noted however that at least one expert Ladzinsky 1989381 85 thinks that 33 Anth 140 Spring 2010 Exam 3 study guide Note The exam will use a scantron answer sheet Please bring a good 2 pencil or 2 Also bring your student id to show as you turn in your exam Fair warning I provide this guide as to assist you with preparing for the exam This guide does not exclude any topic that may appear on the exam As always you are responsible for the full contents of the lectures and readings unless otherwise noted in class In other words this guide is NOT a substitute for studying your notes and the readings this list is not all you need to know for the exam but a selected group of things that pertain to the core topics of the course Exam format Note the exam format may be modi ed between now and the time of the exam but it is unlikely to change signi cantly The exam consists of the following sections I Mapping match the site to its map location 10 questions 10 points II Matching match terms or issues 10 questions 10 points III Multiple choice choose the correct answer from four or ve possible answers 40 questions 80 points How to study for the exam Details are important but don t forget the significance of synthesis as the information is best understood and remembered by how it ts together Use the chapter summaries and term lists at the end of each chapter as guides If you cannot nd something consult the textbook index RamCT readings or references such as internet search engines Review Outside readings Don t forget the outside readings which expand upon and reinforce central topics of the course I suggest that you review the study questions for each outside reading Review Course notes Don t forget to review whatever course notes or tips are posted on RamCT for each week Theories of the origins of Cities and States know the basic features of each and who proposed them Gordon Childe Urban Revolution and trait lists Karl Wittfogel Hydraulic Hypothesis Robert Cameiro warfare and circumscription William Rathje Colin Renfrew Henry Wright exchange hypotheses need for resources Robert McC Adams systems model feedback multiVariable Complex societies Since the last exam we focused on several complex societies Maya Mesopotamia Shang China Egypt Indus J ennej eno Inca and Aztec For each of these societies be sure to know their basic characteristics and how they are similar or different from one another And don t forget related or antecedent culturescities examples such as Moche Olmec Ubaid Longshan Teotihuacan etc Where are they located When did they ourish Does their basic political unit contain multiple cities a single city or a lack of classic cities Ifmore than one what are some of their major settlements How were their capital settlements organized 7 in large gridded city blocks like Teotihuacan or with dispersed dwellings around a ceremonial center like the Maya What was 1 their major resource base and how did they intensify this to support their polity eg barley and irrigation in S Mesopotamia What role did their rulers play in society and with respect to religion eg Egyptian pharaoh as a god versus invisible Indus rulers What were the sources of elite power in the society e g Divination in Shang China What was the role of religion warfare writing human sacri ce and trade in the polity Important termsissues Know the signi cance of each for this class That is be able to de ne or relate each item to the topics of the course Halaf Demotic Djozer Ubaid Bantu Migration Ma at Uruk Secondary State Chicha Ziggurat Moche Ball courts Royal tomb of Ur Akhenaten Bonampak murals Ebla Nazca Aztec Gods Olmec Kanchas Coyolxauhqui Narmer Khipu Coatlicue Maya Longshan Tlaloc Hieroglyphics Inti Inca Sun God Tomb of Lady Hao Chicha L ongshan Nomes Atawallpa perlod culture Narmer Scribes E an 0ds Niuheliang Tzompantli gyp Hfms 39Pharoah Mastaba Oracle bones Anubis Hieroglyphics WereJaguar embalming Chinampas Xia Shang and Zhou Thoth scribe Hieratic dynasties Sites For the map section of the exam you will be required to match selected sites to maps of the world 7 the same maps provided on RamCT Be sure to know the basics about these sites where when and why they are signi cant for the course Be able to locate these sites nd their general location 7 on a map of the world Find these sites by consulting the index of your textbook or the RamCT readings If you still cannot nd them I suggest checking the intemet but be aware that there may be multiple sites with the same name so make sure the info about them on the web matches what we went over in class La Venta Zhengzhou Harappa Deir elMedina Mehrgarh Mohenjo Daro Uruk An Yang Amama Texcoco Hierakonpolis Nazca Tlacopan J enneJ eno Giza Ebla Memphis Tenochtitlan Ur Ebla Kahun Teotihuacan Cuzco Kahun Tikal REPLACEMENT OR CONTINUITY Ind crn 10d urn Ind cm L indcrn Afrmms lfumpvum Axial ustrmns CONTI N UITY t M ULTI REG IONAL Manama V 1 gain quotlg African 7 7 7 7 7 European 7 7 7 7 7 Asian 7 7 7 7 ludunminn H L39u39dl39h H z39J39L39tHh H I39c39LHM H L rt39t39frh ind cm Ind crn Ind 0 m A Ind v m Mrimns Europeans 1 mlt Australian REPLACEMENT X In 139rt I V Wind 1 1 39 OUT OF AFRICA I 3 quot 3 MODEL African Eu rnpmn Asian Indoncsi an H hu39 dtlh39l gr lhis H Irviri rlh rgrnsr s H mm hm H vra39fm Im39drlhrrgmsilt MODERN NEANDERTHAL Large brow ridges Receding forehead Occipital bun No Chin Low flat braincase Sapiens BRAIN CAPACITY MORE THAN MODERN HUMANS Neanderthal WIDE SHOULDERS RIB CAGE HIPS THICKER BONES LARGE SHOULDER ELBOW HIP KNEE JOINT SHORT LOWE R LEG WIDE STRONG TOE BONES LEVALLOIS TECHNIQUE prepared core x 39 x large ccnbble ef The cebee is percussien One side is percussien brittle fracturing reck flalzed areund its perimeter flaked te preduce a feg flint is selected te prepare the care terteise shell shape if A heat1r percussien blew at This Levalleis flal ce is new ene end efthe cebble remeves ready te be used immediately a large flake that is cerwex en fer scraping and cutting er te be ene side and flat en the ether shaped inte a specialized teel 1 pound of flint From a pound of flint The pebble tool had 3 inches Zlorn habir39s of cutting edge ml Ion years ago 25 MYA earliest 17 MYA earliest The handaxe had about 12 inches tagsooeorggtus of cutting edge 0 years ago Neanderthals and Mousterian flake tools provided contemporaries about 30 inches of cutting swam c 100000 years agol Upper Paleolithic blade production resulted in up to Homo sapiens sapiens 30 feet of cutting edge 039 30000 years ago Nuclear DNA nherited from both parents Genes rearranged during recombination Adenine Cymsino The four bases Guanine Chromosome 39 1 f MQ Called DNA 0 Mitochondrial DNA Copies itself exactly Mutations occur at a known rate Passed through female line rn ochond a nudeus
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