Human Origins and Variation (GT
Human Origins and Variation (GT ANTH 120
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Justus Roberts on Tuesday September 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 120 at Colorado State University taught by Michelle Glantz in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see /class/210203/anth-120-colorado-state-university in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 09/22/15
Review Sheet for Anthropology 120 1st Midterm Biocultural perspective Evolution Linneaus Darwin Lamarck Thomas Huxley Cuvier Julian Huxley Natural Selection Catastrophism Mutation Genetic drift Gene ow Founder effect Bottleneck effect Mechanisms of evolution 4 of them Alleles Allele frequency Mendel Dominant and recessive Codominant DNA Replication Transcription Translation mRNA tRNA Ribosomes Protein synthesis Amino acids Proteins Nucleic acids Base pair rules Protein Gene chromosome meiosis mitosis Codon Anticodon Population Deme Taxonomy Phylogeny Kingdom phylum class order family Binomial nomenclature Speciation Adaptive radiation Allopatric speciation Anagenesis Cladogenesis Ancestral vs derived traits Heterodont Homodont Mammalian characteristics Fish amphibian reptiles Primitive limb system Gradualism vs punctuationalism Paleospecies Haploid diploid sex cells somatic cells Sickle Cell Anemia Sickle cell trait and all the information That goes along with that BioCultural perspective Biology makes culture possible but culture in turn influences biological evolution Linneaus Invented a form of taxanomy binomial nomenclature or classification of living things Lamarck 151 man to try and explain evolution ie Suggested a dynamic relationship between species and the environment Thomas Huxley Invented the term agnostic and was the major reason evolution was learned across all people Cuvier Founded catastrophism which used world wide catastrophise to explain what made extinction of these species possible Genetic drift Random factor in evolution direct function of population size Drift occurs because the population is small Gene Flow The exchange of genes between populations Founder Effect founders leave parents and form own colony Bottleneck Effect Small group leaves to colonize a new area so that population size decreases and genetic variation is reduced Mechanisms of EvolutionNS gene flow gene drift Locus position on a chromosome where a given gene occurs Alleles Alternate forms of a gene Can express the traite it replaced differntly Allele frequency Percentage of all the alleles at a locus accounted for by one specific allele Codominant The expression of two alleles in heterozygotes Phenotype The observable or detectable physical characteristics of an organism Transcription The process of writting DNA code into RNA language TranslationRibosomes are made of a small and large subunit which surrounds the mRNA n translation messenger RNA mRNA is decoded to produce a specific polypeptide according to the rules specified by the genetic code This uses an mRNA sequence as a template to guide the synthesis of a chain ofm ds that form a protein Many types of transcribed RNA such as transfer RNA ribosomal RNA and small nuclear RNA are not necessarily translated into an amino acid sequence Translation proceeds in four phases activation initiation elongation and termination all describing the growth of the amino acid chain or polypeptide that is the product of translation Amino acids are brought to ribosomes and assembled into proteins tRNA Study the process by watching a video on it RibosomesThe ribosome functions in the expression of the genetic code from nucleic acid into protein in a process called translation Ribosomes do this by catalyzing the assembly of individual amino acids into polypeptide chains this involves binding a messenger RNA and then using this as a template to join together the correct sequence of amino acids This reaction uses adapters called transfer RNA molecules which read the sequence of the messenger RNA and are attached to the amino acids Protiens Proteins are large organic compounds made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain and joined together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of adjacent amino acid residues The sequence of amino acids in a protein is de ned by a g and encoded in the genetic code Nucleic Acid DNA RNA MiosisMitosis Study process watch video Condon the three nucleic acids AUG CGT AGT Anticodon mRNA language Deme a deme is another word for a local population of organisms of one species that actively interbreed with one another and share a distinct gene pool If demes are isolated for a long time they can become distinct subspecies or species See also population genetics and memetics Taxonomy Study charts in book the classi cation of organisms according to similarity Kingdom Phylum or Division Class Order Family Genus and Species each of which may have several super or subgroupings Phylogeny study of evolutionary relatedness among various groups of organisms Binomial Nomenclature is the formal system of naming speci c species is the evolutionary process by which new biological species arise There are four modes of natural speciation based on the extent to which speciating populations are geographically isolated from one another allopatric peripatric parapatric and sympatric Speciation may also be induced arti cially through animal husbandry or laboratory experiments a rapid evolutionarv radiation characterized by an increase in the morphological and ecological diversity of a single rapidly diversifying lineage Phenotypes adapt in response to the environment with new and useful traits arisingm This is an evolutiona process driven by natural selection also known as geographic speciation is the phenomenon whereby biological populations are physically isolated by an extrinsic barrier and evolve intrinsic genetic reproductive isolation such that if the barrier breaks down individuals of the populations can no longer interbreed Evolutiona biologists agree that allopatry is a common method by which new species arise also known as quotphyletic changequot is the evolution of species involving a change in gene frequency in an entire population rather than a branching event as in cladogenesis When enough mutations reach xation in a population to signi cantly differentiate from an ancestral population a new species name may be assigned A key point is that the entire population is different from the ancestral population such that the ancestral population can be considered extinct is an evolutionary splitting event in which each branch and its smaller branches forms a quotcladequot an evolutionary mechanism and a process of adaptive evolution that leads to the development of a greater variety of sister organisms This event usually occurs when a few organisms end up in new often distant areas or when environmental changes cause several extinctions opening up ecological niches for the survivors A great example of cladogenesis today is the Hawaiian archipelago to which stray organisms traveled across the ocean via ocean currents and winds Most of the species on the islands are not found anywhere else on Earth due to evolutionary divergence Cladogenesis is often contrasted with anagenesis where gradual changes in an ancestral species lead to its eventual quotreplacementquot Ancesteral vrs Derived traits check book Homodont reptiles trait of having similar shaped teeth Heterodont Having different kinds of teeth characteristic of mammals whose teeth consist of incisors canines premolars and molars Mammilian Characteristics All mammals are warm blooded Most young are born alive They have hair or fur on their bodies Every mammal is a vertebrate All mammals have lungs to breathe air Mammals feed milk to their babies Gradulism vrs Punctualism check book Paleospecies Species de ned from fossil evidence often covering a long time span Haploid A set of chromosomes containing only one member of each chromosome pair The sperm and g are haploid and in humans have 23 chromosomes Diploid A 11 or an organism consisting of two sets of chromosomes usually one set from the mother and another set from the father In a diploid state the haploid number is doubled thus this condition is also known as 2n Think of drawing in notebook Somatic Cells are any cells forming the body of an organism Reread Sickle cell traits in text
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