Introduction to Cultural Anthropology (GT
Introduction to Cultural Anthropology (GT ANTH 100
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Justus Roberts on Tuesday September 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 100 at Colorado State University taught by Suzanne Kent in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see /class/210204/anth-100-colorado-state-university in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Colorado State University.
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Terms List Exam 2 CLAS SCASTERACEETHNICITY Ethnicity perceived differences in culture by which people are distinguished Essentialism ethnic groups are distinguished by essential historically rooted and emotionally experienced cultural differences Constructionism position or outlook is adopted Ethnicity amp the observer used by academics to make sense and explain people being studied Assimilation adopt or conform to host culture Plural society when subgroups do not assimilate Multiculturalism diversity is good and wanted Ethnic con ict can be political or economic due to resources Ethnocide attempt to destroy a culture Forced assimilation forced cultural modification Ethnic expulsion removal of certain groups Genocide rid a group by warfare or murder Stratification can be along the lines of gender religion caste class ethnicity race etc All intersect Ascribed status born into positions Achieved status earned Caste a system of stratification based on birth in which movement from one stratum to another is not possible Caste system in India Ascribed closed a Brahmin b Ksheatriya c Vaisyas d Shudras e Untouchables Untouchables or dalits preform symbolically polluting work Open amp closed systems based on achievementascription Class a group that shares similar economic resources power and prestige Socioeconomic status SES ANTH 100 Spring 2013 Egalitarian a group where no individual has more power or access to resources than another Race as a sociocultural construct means it is made u Ancestry and Geography better concepts to distinguish a person Problems w classi cation system non concordance environment the way we group people varies there is 0100 difference between all hum ans ignore behaviorbiology race is not a human universal Nonconcordance traits that are used in the US to group races are not concordant which is needed to be accurate Genes and environment factors of environment can affect development in the womb nutrients drugs etc History of race in US slavery and eugenics movement Crosscultural understandings of diff Slavery scientifically backed motivated by SES Tom Jeff had slaves Eugenics inheritance of desirable traits Intersectionality FILM Race the power of an illusionThe House We Live in Terms List Exam 2 ANTHRO amp HEALTH Genetics and health it can seem like race and disease are linked but it is overstated Trends in CO Greater ethnic morality gap AfAm higher infant mortality rate cancer kidneys diabetes due to SES Problems w genetic explanationsit is easier distracts from structural causes encourages stereotyping Structure and health made up of institutions histories power politics Haiti exploited by France for slave labor Paul Farrner prevents stupid deaths Structural violence epidemic disease HR violations crime genocide Resistance and agency the capacity of individuals to make decisions and act freely Structural solutions making necessities available to everyone FILM Collateral Damage US relationship with Marshal Islands have made huge impact because oftheir atomic testing It is a crowded environment poverty stricken and most are malnourished This could be solved by improved living conditions and better food ANTH 100 Spring 2013 Terms List ANTH 100 Exam 2 Spring 2013 LOST BOYS Sudanese Civil war Assimilation to Muslim religion South vs West Darfur rebels took up arms in Darfur attacked govt Khartoum has northern monopoly south and west are poor Janjaweed militias equipped by govt targeted rebellion Variables underlying con icts South Sudan Independence Refugees in Horn of Africa problems in neighboring countries have put pressure on Sudan insurgent groups vulnerable Relocation process multiple agencies UNHCR US takes many refugees FILM God Grew Tired of Us Terms List ANTH 100 Exam 2 Spring 2013 LANGAUGE ETC Features of Language arbitrary and displacement Open system of communication humans can create new sounds or words Closed system of communication non human Pidgin language of contact features of original and new Creole pidgin oflater generations Language families groupings of related languages shared ancestrally Universal Grammar language tells us something about our brains SapirWhorf hypothesis a person s language determines perception and view of the wor Modified Whor sm language can affect but not direct perception of reality Doublespeak euphemisms Chronemics how culture understand time and use it to communicate Nonverbal communication varies based on getures 23 of communication Diglossia formal vs informal language Dialects regional or class variations of language mutually intelligible Kinesics communication through body movement and facial expressions Language and culture culturally diverse Language loss by culture language is knowledge Terms List ANTH 100 Exam 2 Spring 2013 COLONIAL PHST Conquest and expansion movement of Europeans to America Africa and Asia Dutch East India Company had monopoly on all Dutch trade with societies and could make treaties occupy land etc Pillage amp resource extraction precious metals Monoculture plantations sugar cotton indigo spices etc exported to Europe Forced labor Indigenous people to slavery and indentured servitude Colonialismwhen one nation establishes political domination over geographic areas and populations DecolonizationIndependence end of colonial rule Colonies today Britain French and US have territories Resource extraction Cash crops factories impediment to local needs people land energy Dumping ground ewaste nuclear waste atomic testing and waste Neocolonialism persisting relationships and institutions despite end of formal dominance World System most or all people are part of a global capitalist economic and political system Hierarchies iwealthy and poor Terms List Exam 2 GLOBALIZATION Prezi and ows Neoliberalism eliminates barriers to trade such as subsidies tariffs quotas Tariffs tax on import or export Privatization transfer of a company or business from government to a privately owned one Subsidies a grant or other nancial assistance given by one party for the support or development of another NAFTA and CAFTA set of neoliberal policies Inequality socially destabilizing because it leads to crime and revolution Offshoring industry or service moved to another country local wages Race to the bottom VIDEO iCambodia s garment industry MNCs shareholders and profits vs general populace impacts on policy GDP vs Genuine Progress Indicator up good alternative to GDPmeasures more than money flow Hunger most ofthose that are hungry live in global south Farmers and neoliberalism suffering in many ways displacement climate change debts etc Food sovereignty local decision making prioritizing local need cash crops and export cause local neglect Globalization amp culture Cultural homogenization cultures becoming the same Westerniz ation Cultural imperialism bulldozed by western cultures Westernization Americanization McDonaldization Cultural hybridization mixing of cultures Transnational production of consumers problem of globalization makes more consumers Competitive consumption collectivist society I i amp A I a I footprints water scarcity ANTH 100 Spring 2013 Sustainability extent of which needs of current pop Are met without com promising needs of the future Ecological footprint resources used and waste produced Water very scarce needed for a Climate change earth is warming affect industries like ag and tourism decreases fresh water and cause drought Fossil fuels linked to global warming concerns with nonrenewablity economic impact air health e waste How to tackle problems understand where it came from and where its going think before you upgrade does it make you happy reuse Globalization and people ows migration tourism refuges study abroad biz family reunification Refugees displaced due to war Labor mobility for work Transnational migration people who maintain ties with home Diasporas 7 groups of people disperserd in 2 or more places dream of homeland Remittances money migrants send home Push amp pull factors 7 violence underemployment natural disasters opportunity Terms List ANTH 100 Exam 2 Spring 2013 McMahon concepts themes topics DiDingai isolated tribal group in South Sudan animists or Christian pastoralist speak Arabic or Muslim no centralized authorit Cattle cattle riding cattle song Bull bull song Bull song Civil war Khartoum Time calendars scheduling Language mining Transhumance Gender Agesetsagegrade system arrlor Hybrid identity e igion Subsistence practices Nyakereket Kinesthetic imagination Performance D1 Interethnictribal con icts and tensions Lost girls Cultural conservation Anthropology the study ofppl origins changes over times amp contemporary variations The Nacirema Subfields cultural biological archaeology linguistic Ethnographydescription of a culture Ethnologycomparison of cultures to find regularities or shared patterns Emic insider native s view Eticoutsider s view anthropologist Ethnocentrism viewing amp understanding customs of other societies using the lens of one s own culture Cultural relativism cultural traits best understood when viewed w in cultural context ofwhich they are a part Culturepatterns of behavior and meaning learned symbolic partially adaptive everchanging shared Normsshared ideas about the ways things should be done Valuessets ofideas about what is true right amp beautiful National CulturesMembers may share language history religion ancestry or territory Subculturessub groups win a national culture share some features w larger group but differ in ways Dominant culturegreater wealthpower more able to impose values amp norms on subcultures institutions key to this power International culture cultural groups that extend beyond confines of a nation eg religion Enculturation process by which humans learn culture much not explicitly taught culture taken for granted Culture amp Adaptationmajor amp unique way humans adapt to habitat in order to thrive as a species Societygroup ofppl who depend on one another we HAVE a culture we BELONG to a society Social or cultural constructionsmuch of what we take for granted as naturalnormalbiological is something humans created Fieldwork anthropologist is immersed in daily life of culture to collect data Tacit culture knowledge of which pplare aware but less able to discuss Explicit culture the culture ppl can talk ab out amp which they are aware Participant Observation the fieldwork technique that involves gathering cultural data by observing people s behavior amp participating in their lives Ethics Theory set ofpropositions about critical aspects of culture how they should be studied what the goal of studying them should be wrestling w meaning amp implications Functionalists a theoretical position in anthro common in the 1st half of the 20th century focuses on finding general laws that identify diff elements of society show how they relate to each other amp demonstrate their role in maintaining social order Feminist Anthro document women amp activities research gender inequality cultural variations in roles more than just women in the discipline Practice theory impact of 39system on practice or impact ofpractice on the 39system Postmodernism began in 1980s rejection of modernism amp ideas rooted in Enlightenment rationality amp progress questioned truthknowledgeobjectivity biases in sciences eXperience is subjective emphasis on power privilege USEuropean white male anthropologists must deconstruct that which is taken for granted Discourse analysis spoken written lang amp gestures that re ect amp CONSTRU CT meaning tool for identifying power Margaret Mead student of Boas Samoa field site adolescence is happy amp enjoyable Franz Boas 18581942 German scientist cultural relativist emphasized fieldwork Inuit Eskimo amp natives of Pacific NW Bronislaw Malinowski 18841942 Great Britain organic analogy culture is similar to a biological organism parts work together to make the whole function prolonged time in field Trobriand Islands argued importance of 39the natives point of view functionalist Victor Turner 19201983symbolic anthropology British ritual symbols amp social solidarity primarily descriptive Marvin Harris 19272001 US economic explanations for behaviors that might otherwise seem irrational Clifford Geertz 19262006 interpretive anthropology US 39thick description emphasized emic Sally Slocum women the gatherer male bias in anthro 1975 evolution better explained by forgaginamp motherinfant bonds Eleanor Leacock many assumptions made about gender relations after Western contact tribal organization as a result of redefinition by Europeans amp unification for defense Marriage the customs rules amp obligations that establish a special relationship bw sexually cohabitating adults The Na of China Incest taboo prohibitions on sexual relations bw relatives Exogamy should marry outside socialkin groups encourages expansions to other kin groups Endogamy marry win defined social group maintains or strengthens ties Arranged marriage selection of the spouse is outside control of the bride or groom union of 2 kind groups Preferential cousin marriage preferred form of marriage b w either parallel or cross cousins Cross cousins children of one s mother s brother or father s sister more common Parallel cousins children of one s mother s sister or father s brother Levirate man marries the widow ofa deceased brother can equal social security for widow amp kids eg India Sororate woman marries the husband of her deceased sister Monogamy only one spouse at a time Serial monogamy a succession of marriage partners but only one at a time Polygyny marriage ofa man to 2 or more women at the same time permitted in 710 cultures Polyandry marriage ofa woman to 2 more men at the same time Bridewealth transfer of goods from the groom s lineage to bride s lineage to legitimize marriage Bride service work performed for bride s family by groom Dowry transfer of goods or from bride s fam to groom s fam in order to legitimize marriage Reciprocal exchange equal exchange of gifts bw families ofboth bride amp groom to legitimize a marriage Family of orientation Family of procreation Kinship a culturally defined relationship established through blood ties or marriage Unilineal descent a rule specifying that membership in a descent group is based on links through either the maternal line or the paternal line but not both Patrilineal descent a rule that affiliates a person to kin of both sexes related through males only Matrilineal descent a rule that affiliates a person to kin of both sexes through females only Bilateral descent individuals are equally affiliated w their mother samp father s descent groups Eskimo system Hawaiian system Sex biological differences bw male amp female Gender meanings given to physical amp biological traits by society Intersectionality components of identity which intersect to situate an individual win hierarchies IntersexDSD congenital conditions development of chromosomal gonadal or anatomical sex is atypical disorders of sex development Sexuality variations in rules practices who when why etc Sexual orientation sexual attraction to persons of opposite same or either sex Twospirits or male and female variants N American Indians variant not complete crossover to the opposite gender role twospirit gender determined by occupationdress amp demeanorsexuality male may engage in domestic activities masculinity not equal warrior not a niche for cowardly man female rejects domestic work instead playshunts w boys can be warriors Hijra an alternative gender role in India conceptualized as neither man nor woman pg 170180 Gender stratification system of unequal access to resources and control of resources based on sex Patriarchy male domination of women in political economic legal amp religious terms Double day work then mother role for women Domestic and public spheres Division of labor Reproductive responsibilities Religion a social institution characterized by sacred stories symbols amp symbolism the proposed existence od immeasurable beings powers states places amp qualities Origins Cargo cults Animism the notion that all objects living ampnonliving are imbued w spirits Polytheism belief in many gods Monotheism belief in a single god Ancestors Myths sacred stories stories of historical events heroes gods spirits amp creation that are held to be holy amp true by members of a religious tradition Symbols something that stands for something else central to culture Individualistic religions Shamanistic an individual socially recognized as being able to mediate bw the world of humanity amp the world of gods or spirits but who is not a recognized official of any religious organization Communal Ecclesiastical Vision quest Rites of passage Female genital operations Rites of intensification Ritual a patterned act that involves manipulation of religious symbols Magic Religion vs magic witchcraft Psychological functions of religion social functions of religion Conversion Syncretism Revitalization Foraging societies Horticulture Pastoralism Transhumance Nomadic Neolithic revolution Slash amp burnswidden Agriculture Peasants Industrialized Agriculture Local foods movement Economics production mode of production M0P Kinordered M0P Capitalist M0P Subsistence accumulation Cash crops Wage work Modes of exchange Reciprocity generalized balanced negative Redistribution goods ow to a central pt then are redistributed important in horticulture societies eveling mechanisms unwritten culturally embedded rules that prevent an individual from becoming wealthier or more powerful Bands small related groups acephalous informal leaders can t impose will consensus among decision making Acephalous no centralized gov t Tribes egalitarian acephalous headmanheadwoman horticulturalist amp pastoralists age grades amp age sets bigmen Age grades series of statuses eg childhood warrior adult elder Age sets group moves through age grades together Chiefdoms more complex w technology single political authority communites differ in rank amp status centralized amp perm Power States most complex hierarchical agriculture taxes cities foreign trade leader authority through monopoly of force or control over ideology sPower Authority Social Control Hegemony Ideological control