Introduction to Prehistory (GT
Introduction to Prehistory (GT ANTH 140
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Anthropology 140 Introduction to Prehistory Subject 14 INTRODUCTION In the final lecture we exam the rise of Mesoamerican cultural practices typically ascribed to the Mayan and Aztec cultures In fact the behaviors are much older and evidence continuity over time The story parallels that of the Andean cultures Lecture Outline PART 1 Mesoamerica s Three Sisters When we think of Mesoamerican archaeology the Aztec amp the Maya leap to mind But both were the product of earlier Mesoamerican cultures and developments The most important of the earlier developments was the remarkable Mesoamerican diet based almost entirely on domesticated plants So 7 how did Mesoamericans get protein Mesoamerican Three Sisters 9 Squash Corn amp Beans Corn amp beans have complementary amino acids that combine to form a complete protein and squash contains an enzyme that makes beans more digestible The Three Sisters provided enough nutrients to support large population sizes in Mesoamerica The rst major farming center arose in Oaxaca region 7 which is also where the rst major population centers arose PART 2 San Jos Mogote 35 kya Over several hundred years 25 farming settlements arose in the Oaxaca Valley But at 35 kya San Jose Mogote was the oldest and largest of the early settlements at times over 1000 residents By 3l kya the settlement included craft specialists who produced mirrors Mirrors were manufactured from black magnetite rock which were traded with distant populations for exotic materials turtle shell sea shells bird feathers used to make ceremonial objects By 3 kya ritual amp ceremony became extremely important as public buildings were enhanced amp enlarged San Jose Mogote Mound l was an arti cial hill built about 50 ft above the settlement topped by adobe brick amp stone ceremonial bldgs One building included a agstone at its entrance that is particularly important The agstone provides the earliest evidence of MESOAMERICAN HUMAN SACRIFICE The agstone at San Jose Mogote was decorated with the carved image of a man with his heart cut out The agstone also offers the rstknown use of a MESOAMERICAN CALENDAR GLYPH For the record there is some debate about whether the agstone was moved to San Jose Mogote from elsewhere The origin question does not negate the importance of the calendar glyph 7 dated at 353 kya Anthropology 140 Introduction to Prehistory PART 3 Mesoamerican Calendars o Mesoamerican Writing Systems Were based on pictorial signs GLYPHS for whole words amp syllables o Mesoamerican 260Day Calendar Using bars amp dots for numbers similar to Roman numeral system each day had one of 13 numbers plus one of 20 names glyphs that repeated every 260 days 13 X 20 o Mesoamerican 365Day Calendar In addition there were 18 month names glyphs Each name day repeated every 360 days 18 X 20 capped by 5 special days for atotal of 365 days 0 Mesoamerican Calendar Round Any given day had a compound name of FOUR SIGNS that resulted from combining the 260day calendar amp the 365day calendar Every 52 years a particular Calendar Round day would repeat itself The beginning of a new 52 Year cycle was of great ritual importance 0 Mesoamerican Long Count Calendar In addition some groups had a Long Count calendar that used the number system to track linear time like ours with 2011 AD As a consequence some Mesoamerican dates can be correlated directly to our calendar The oldestknown evidence of the Mesoamerican Long Count Calendar dates to 31 BC 0 Since almost every major Mesoamerican architectural artifact was timestamped or namestamped for the Ruler amp Place we have a good understanding of dates amp names PART 4 Paso de la Amada 34 kya About 100 years after San J ose Mogote arose other farming communities began to arise outside of Oaxaca Paso de la Amada is important because it provides the oldest evidence of the Mesoamerican Ball Game Two parallel mounds at the site delineate a 262 X 26 ball court a rubber ball was used Mesoamerica ball games using courts like this were quite popular across cultures and throughout time In later cultures the ball game ended with the ritual sacri ce of the losers The Paso de la Amada game may or may not have included this aspect of the game PART 5 Olmec Culture 32 22 kya The Olmec arose along the Gulf Coast between later Mayan amp Aztec regions The culture was comprised of large settlements some with citytemple structures that suggest CityStates 0 San Lorenzo Huge 1000 acres Monumental architecture Elite amp nonelite dwellings System of ponds amp drains Anthropology 140 Introduction to Prehistory Causeways allowed people to walk over waterways San Lorenzo includes lst evidence of MESOAMERICAN MONUMENTAL RULER DEPICTION 10 colossal stone heads in a style restricted to the Olmec ea 10 tall Although Olmec Colossal Heads look like they are identical 7 they differ in head coverings Recent interpretations suggest that each is a ruler wearing the headwear of a ball player La Venta another huge Olmec site that replaced San Lorenzo in importance Its temple complex included a huge earthen pyramid about 110 tall First evidence of MESOAMERICAN GREEN STONE SACRED OBJECTS 6 green stone ceremonial axes called celts each 71 tall were found buried beneath a ceremonial structure First evidence of MESOAMERICAN JAGUAR CULT The cle head amp peculiar facial features are part of Olmec iconography representing a supernatural deity who was a werejaguar part humanpart jaguar Werejaguars are seen on the laps of humans in the Stele from La Venta Also buried beneath a ceremonial building were green stone gures in a halfcircle 7 each 71 tall Recovered in 1955 7 it s meaning is unknown Some have argued that the Olmec Culture was the Mother Culture of Mesoamerica There is much debate about this Like the Chav139n de Huantar Culture in South America it represents a cultural horizon Before the horizon we see cultural practices that are picked up and elaborated on in greater scale by the Olmec The success amp longevity of the Olmec Culture then helps to spread the elaborations which become prevalent in later Mesoamerican Cultures PART 6 Monte Alb n 25 kya Back at Oaxaca Monte Alban which had already been around for centuries evolved into a powerful political entity First a CityState it soon became the center of a confederation of Oaxacan CityStates known as the Zapotec Monte Alban was built atop a hill overlooking the Valley of Oaxaca and may have had as many as 15000 residents Monte Alban had the traits of a militaristic society For example the place glyph with upside down head may depict a decapitated enemy Skullracks like those of the later Aztec are known from the region at this time The monumental center has several features that suggest cultural emphasis on warfare These include a Ball Court and carved human figures at the Danzante patio The original Ball Court has been restored it s formality indicates ceremonial importance The hometeam probably competed against captives from an enemy team 300 Danzante figures evidence genital torture and human sacrifice Anthropology 140 Introduction to Prehistory PART 7 Teotihuacan 22 kya Teotihuacan was a HUGE urban center in the right place at the right time to be of cultural importance to the much later Aztec It was located in the Basin of Mexico in the Central Highlands 7 center of later Aztec Empire Rich volcanic soils amp water led to small farming settlements by 36 kya Very soon 9 10000 residents By 22 kya Teotihuacan had 80000 residents At its peak 19 kya 125000 residents Teotihuacan was the regional sacred city with multiple temples The monumental structures are among the largest amp most numerous in the New World Pyramid of the Moon like Pyramid of the Sun had caves amp tunnels within the pyramid but NO tombs Not a mortuary complex 0 The Pyramid of the Sun is the larger of the two 7 212 tall 700 per side Both would have been plastered in white with portions painted in red Interesting recent discovery of eight burials 7 ritual sacri ce The temple walls were covered with elaborate murals Quetzcoatl warriors in ritual procession A female deity with water dripping from her hands 7 probably earth goddess Until recently Taube 2000 a writing system was unknown at the site But glyphs have been discovered that indicate at least 2 glyph styles The site was in decline by 175 kya However 3040000 people continued to live in enclaves surrounding the ceremonial core Teotihuacan nally collapsed about 15 kya either due to attack from outsiders or due to internal political problems Much later the Aztec referred to its abandoned ceremonial center as the place of the gods PART 8 Mayan City States 175 11 kya AD 250 900 The Maya elaborated on Mesoamerican cultural themes Social Structure is principally that of CityStates with occasional strongmen The Mesoamerican Jaguar Cult is also part of Mayan iconography Many highranking amp dynastic rulers have names like Lord Jaguar Lord Shield Jaguar Lord Smoking Jaguar Mesoamerican Human Sacri ce is also evident but also includes a new twist This carving shows Lord Shield Jaguar and Lady Xoc 7 she is performing auto sacri ce But as this temple mural at Bonampak shows regular forms of human sacri ce were practiced Mesoamerican Monumental Buildings Temple Centers City Glyphs were employed And Mayan stele have Mesoamerican style place glyphs name glyphs amp dates This Stele D is a billboard at Copan that tells the visitor you are in the land of the King 18Rabbit Mayan sites evidence the Mesoamerican ball game At Copan we have a Ball Court amp terra cotta Ball Player Ball Courts at some sites were located next to skull racks Anthropology 140 Introduction to Prehistory At Mayan sites like Palenque we see Mesoamerican temple complexes And the Mesoamerican Monumental Ruler Depiction is everywhere PART 9 Aztec Empire 675 479 years ago AD 1325 1521 The Aztec elaborated on Mesoamerican cultural themes Social Structure is State Just like the Inca 7 the Aztec incorporated 100 smaller cultures Tenochtitlan was the Aztec capital city It was southwest of Teotihuacan Origin myth 7 Just as the Inca claimed origins from the powerful Lake Titicaca region the Aztec claimed Teotihuacan origins Tenochtitlan s city center was in the middle of a lake connected to mainland by huge causeways The ruins of Tenochtitlan lie beneath modern Mexico City The Templo Mayor of Tenochtitlan would have looked like this Note how much it looks like the Teotihuacan temples The Aztec also incorporated the deities of other Mesoamerican cultures into their religious system Of course the Aztec put their own spin on things For example the Aztec God of Springtime amp Rain Xipe Totec is often depicted wearing the skin of human sacri ce victims And the chief god of the Aztec Tezcatlipoca Smoking Mirror was the antagonist of the ancient god Quetzacoatl of Teotihuacanfame The Warrior Class had a Mesoamerican jaguar cult but it also had an eagle cult The Aztec Civilization is gone Lakes are gone Temples are gone BUT whether you are speaking of Western European Megalith Builders Moche or Aztecs there is one item that we see with most prehistoric cultures Even once their governments amp languages are gone aspects of their culture through transformation have survived For example Examine this image from the Mexican ag today It has no meaning until you know its roots It comes from the Aztec origin myth as the Aztec depicted it An eagle killing a snake sat atop a cactus plant and led to the discovery of Tenochtitlan The image resonates today But we don t fully appreciate it until we dig into the past That has been the theme of this course ito know the present we must know the past The GREAT cultures of the world owe to the lesser known cultures that came before them And there is much to the saying what is old is new again Anthropology 140 Introduction to Prehistory Subject 3 INTRODUCTION We examine the struggle to quotprovequot the existence of prehistory This provides an introduction to human fossils and prehistory artifacts Lecture Outline PART 1 PLIOCENE HOMININS Remember that molecular data indicate apeafrican ape divergence about 76 mya Firstconfirmed ABSOLUTELY NO ARGUMENT ABOUT IT hominins in the fossil record are found in Pliocene sites in East Africa Genus Australopithecus Gracile Crania 1 known bipeds Oldest East Africa Most Recent South Africa 4224 mya Key species Australopithecus anamensis oldest E Africa Australopithecus afarensis 2nd oldest E Africa includes Lucy Australopithecus africanus more recent S Africa includes Taung Child How do we know that these are bipeds BIPEDAL TRAITS Genus Paranthropus Robust Crania Masticatory Adaptations Oldest East Africa Most Recent South Africa 2710 mya Key species Paranthropus aethiopicus oldest E Africa includes Black Skull Paranthropus boisei 2nd oldest E Africa includes Zinj specimen Paranthropus robustus more recent S Africa How do we know the difference between the genera Australopithecines have gracile cranial bones and do not have Paranthropine traits Paranthropines traits robust cranial bones sagittal crest broadflat faces huge cheek region tiny incisors amp HUGE megadontic cheekteeth premolars amp molars The Paranthropine cranial features appear to be dietary adaptations for chewing mastication Anthropology 140 Introduction to Prehistory PART 2 PLIOCENE HOMININ ADAPTATIONS Adaptive Profiles for Early Hominins Taxa Australopithecus Paranthropus Brain size 410530 cc apesized Body size 3 5 5 amp 50110 lbs chimpsized Locomotion Terrestrial bipeds arboreal foragers Habitat Mixed Diet Omnivory Tools Organic Stone Oldowan All had apesized brains none 600cc All had chimpsized statures and bodyweights As noted all were bipeds not perfect bipeds but good enough Oldestknown artifact Bipedal Footprints PART 3 BIPEDAL HYPOTHESIS OldestKnown Artifact Bipedal Footprints 36 mya Laetoli TZ Multiple Human amp Other Mammal Tracks Mary Leakey 1976 Why did humans fill a bipedal niche The best hypothesis is simple straightforward and involves an ecological model of habitat amp environmental change About 7 mya two distinct locomotor adaptations appeared in African hominoids with one thing in common both were terrestrial adaptations PALEOENVIRONMENTAL EVIDENCE Late Miocene African Faunal Turnover Treedependent fauna became less common Savanna grazers became more common even primates show this shift Arboreal primates became less common Terrestrial primates became more common Late MioceneEarly Pliocene monkeys include the first macaques patas and baboons amp vervets all highly terrestrial primates Arboreal Hominoids disappeared in Late Miocene Africa outcompeted by terrestrial monkeys The new African hominoids were terrestrial KnuckleWalking apes and Bipedal hominins Why didn39t the African hominins walk like monkeys suspensory wrist anat and carpal tunnel risk PART 4 AFRICAN PLIOCENE HABITAT Newly terrestrial Hominins of the African Pliocene warmer more seasonal climate Range of habitats tropical rainforests riverine basins gallery forests drier woodlands savanna grasslands graded into each other at foodrich transitional zones Anthropology 140 Introduction to Prehistory Debate today about type of habitat used by earliest humans Such arguments hypotheses ignore African ape environmental amp foraging ecology the ability to utilize numerous habitats is key to their survival If we use our closest living relatives African apes as models for Pliocene hominins must assume tour early ancestors were equally versatile in habitat and ecology Furthermore just as African apes do today early bipeds continued to use trees for foraging safety and play Given hominoid tree use today it is no surprise that early bipedal Hominins continued to use arboreal substrates This fact does not negate the fact that BIPEDALISM IS E FIRST HOMININ ADAPTATION PART 5 DIEI39ARY ADAPTATIONS Chimps provide best models for early hominin dietary adaptations Chimp broad spatulate incisors amp behavior data confirm omnivory with strong pref for fruit Australopithecine dental dietary adaptations are nearly identical like chimps and modern humans an omnivore Paranthropine dental adaptations don39t conform with known primates unique Paranthropus is characterized by unique masticatory adaptations Sagittal Crest Large Cheek Region amp Huge Jaws indicate massive temporalis amp masseter chewing muscles Large back teeth can grind away at foods Hypotheses on Paranthropine diet have described the species as highly vegetarian with cowlike masticatory skills This led to the notion that if Australopithecines were chimplike omnivores then Paranthropines must be mountain gorillalike folivores Aaaagh A better model more versatile but overlooked African ape the lowland gorilla which is omnivorous but can fall back on vegetation when outcompeted by sympatric chimps Lowland gorillas like chimps are highly omnivorous with strong preferences for fruit But when fav foods unavailable they have the gutsize to take advantage of vegetation Leafy plants are high in protein but require large guts for processing due to high cellulose content Microscopic analysis of enamel wear reveals that different foods were processed by the Australopithecus and Paranthropus Indicates tough fibrous foods provided at least some Paranthropine calories Were these Keystone foods Paranthropines may have had dietary adaptations for foods that their nearest competitors early on Australopithecus later on Homo could not or did not access Anthropology 140 Introduction to Prehistory Paranthropines break some basic dental adaptation rules about diet I don t believe we can rely on dental adaptations alone to determine diet Why Archaeological data indicate that they also had biocultural adaptations for food processing TOOLS PART 6 BIOCULTURAL ADAPTATION TOOLS Biocultural Evolution evolutionary change and adaptations through biological and cultural means Earliestknown biocultural evidence is stone tools there is a bias here because organic tools are less likely to preserve than stone tools Oldest stone tools Gona Ethiopia 2625 mya no associated human remains these are Oldowan type simple cores amp flakes amp choppers This means oldest stone tools are located in the smallbrained hominin Pliocene epoch Until fairly recently no one thought that apebrained Pliocene hominins were smart enough to make ORGANIC or STONE tools Then 19605 Jane Goodall observed chimps making amp using ORGANIC tools reported 19705 By present Century chimp STONE tool use in the wild was also well established Ethnoarchaeological Research on Chimps Mercader Boesch amp Panger Science May 2002 Examined stone tool nutcracking behavior in western common chimps in Tai Forest Ivory Coast Chimp and early human lithic remains are strikingly similar NOW chimp ability to modify objects as tools is welldocumented But fossils amp artifacts recovered before 19705 were assessed without this crucial info Due to belief that toolmakers had to have larger than apesized brains data suggesting Pliocene hominin tooluse were ignoredThe extinct species at the heart of this problem was Paranthropus at 1 Olduvai Gorge T2 2 Cave Sites S Africa Olduvai Gorge TZ 1959 Mary Leakey discovered a fossil hominin in Bed 1 with Oldowan stone tools Louis Leakey classified as Zinjanthropus boisei Eastern Ape Man now classified as Paranthropus boisei Nickname Zinj At that time anthropologists believed toolmakers needed largerthanapesized brains Zinj didn t meet that requirement Louis rejected idea that Paranthropus boisei was a stone toolmaker Then Mary recovered slightly largerbrained 600 cc Homo habilis in Bed and Louis identified that as his tool maker Paranthropus robustus in South Africa also recovered in assoc with H habilis and tools Anthropology 140 Introduction to Prehistory Firstknown Paranthropine was recovered and identified in 1938 by Robert Broom This was Paranthropus robustus from Kromdraii South Africa Beds just above held stone tools but no fossils Sterkfontein S Africa had P robustus H habilis in association with 3000 stone tools Swartkrans S Africa had P robustus but possibly H habilis scrappy remains in association with STONE amp BONE tools Experimental archaeology indicates the bone tools were used to open termite nests and to extract tubers So Paranthropines in South Africa appear to have used organic amp stone tools And Paranthropines in East Africa probably used stone tools At same time Homo habilis also used tools It is highly likely that all hominins used organic tools amp probably used stone tools So who made amp used the stone tools dating to 2625 mya in East Africa THE BEST amp MOST OBVIOUS ANSWER IS PLIOCENE HOMININS Some researchers continue to argue that Paranthropus dietary adaptations rule out the need for a cultural assist from tools Schick amp Toth That argument is contradicted by the Olduvai amp South African archaeological and paleontological data It also ignores the fact that Paranthropus may have used tools to extract amp process keystone foods prior to consumption And ignores the fact that chimps use organic and stone tools to process food The fact is that all Pliocene humans were as brainy as chimps All could have used organic amp stone tools just like chimps to process foods Anthropology 140 Introduction to Prehistory Subject 4 INTRODUCTION We examine a slightly controversial species Homo heidelbergensis which may be the quotmother speciesquot of both Neanderthal and Modern Human Then we begin an examination of the incredibly interesting and often misunderstood Homo neanderthalensis Lecture Outline PART 1 PLEISTOCENE HOMININS The Pleistocene is the Epoch of the Genus Homo Just as mammals in the Jurassic arose before the Age of Mammals Homo arose in the Pliocene just before the quotAge of Homo taxaquot As a result just as we think of Mammals as Cenozoic we think of Homo taxa as Pleistocene Pleistocene Hominins Homo habilis 2116 mya E amp S Africa H erectus 19 mya 50 kya Afr E Eur Asia H heidelbergensis 1 mya 200 kya Eur Afr Asia H neanderthalensis 30027 kya Eur W Asia H sapiens 200 kya today Origins in Africa PART 2 HOMO HABILIS Our Genus as noted already originated in Africa near the end of the Pliocene with Homo habilis 2116 mya Louis Leakey placed it in our genus because it hit the minimum brain size ave of 680 cc larger than ape In all other respects it was like Pliocene hominins First specimen was recovered at Olduvai Gorge T2 in association with Zinj amp Oldowan n body size bipedal adaptations and geographic distribution Homo habilis was like Pliocene hominins There is no argument about one fact Homo habilis is firmly associated with Oldowan stone tools at site after site after site Anthropology 140 Introduction to Prehistory PART 3 HOMO E RE C TUS By 19 mya Homo erectus Largerbrained modern in height amp bipedal adaptations complex stone tool culture this was the first human species to move out of Africa BIG BRAINS All Pleistocene hominins had larger than apesized brains all over 600 cc BUT Homo erectus was the first to approach modern brain size ave 870 cc with some individual near the bottom limits of our range 10002000 cc BIG BODIES Homo erectus was the first hominin with the CAPACITY to reach modern human body dimensions Was Homo erectus brainsize simply a product of scalingeffects Homo erectus is 20 taller than Homo habilis Homo erectus brainsize is significantly larger 3545 than predicted by bodysize Therefore the size of its brain is NOT simply a result of overall body enlargement With apesized brains both chimps amp early hominins could obtain amp prepare foods using organic amp stone tools Homo erectus manufactured a tool that required a more complex brain and a higher learning curve This was the Acheulean handaxe constructed by remodeling or shaping a stone into a specific shape required forethought planning amp skill Therefore Homo erectus technological skill was not simply the result of increased brain size It also involved changes in brain morphology functional anatomy H erectus brain endocasts examined by paleoneuroanatomist Ralph Holloway indicate that its brain anatomy was more modern than earlier hominin brain anatomy Brain had rudimentary development of speech centers Wernicke s amp Broca s Areas Lacked modern frontal lobe development but had some anatomy for planning and problem solving This MPFC is responsible for planning memory and decision making Prior to H erectus Oldowan stone tool tradition required little skill amp preparation Oldowan was FIRST associated with Paranthropines amp Homo habilis But as with most stone tool traditions it didn t entirely disappear with their extinction Homo erectus continued to use Oldowan even with Acheulean Acheulean is characterized by the teardrop shaped twosided biface handaxe Its name comes from the site where the type was first named Sainte Acheul France 1853 Boucher de Perthes Abbeville Acheulean is FIRST associated with Homo erectus oldest specimens date to 19165 mya from East Africa Ethiopia amp Kenya Acheulean Handaxe is a Multipurpose Tool Edges 9 cut ampor scrape Body 9 hammer Pointed End 9 digging amp boring Anthropology 140 Introduction to Prehistory Acheulean Handaxe is produced by removing flakes from a rock to produce a desired shape Produced by HardHammer or SoftHammer Technique Acheulean assemblages usually include handaxes as well as other tool types Finally all Pliocene genera Homo habilis amp Homo erectus arose in East Africa and expanded into South Africa Homo erectus was the first to expand out of Africa into easternmost Europe amp throughout Asia PART 4 HOMO ERECTUS KEY FOSSILS Java Man 800 kya Late 18805 Dutch anatomist Eugene Dubois became obsessed with the search for THE missing link between apes and humans inspired by Darwin s work hypothesized that human origins would be in a tropical place near apes in Asia Dutch colony of Indonesia looked particularly promising because it had orangutans 1891 on the banks of the Solo River in Trinil on island of Java Indonesia Dubois recovered skull cap femur amp tooth of Java Man like all Homo erectus had a sagittal keel Dubois had recovered the oldest evidence of an extinct human species but this was not known at the time no chronometric dating 19305 German paleontologist Ralph von Koenigswald recovered more Java fossils Peking Man 600 kya 1927 Canadian anatomist Davidson Black in Peking modern Beijing China identified two fossil human molars from Dragon Bone Hill Zhoukoudian as extinct human Soon skull caps with sagittal keels were recovered Peking Man is now known as Homo erectus German anatomist Franz Weidenreich took over research at Zhoukoudian in 1935 and saved the data original specimes were lost during WWII By 1937 there were 40 adults amp juveniles including 5 skullcaps 15 facial amp cranial fragments 14 jaws 152 isolated teeth amp many postcranial remains Homo erectus fossils have been recovered at other sites in China Today we date Homo erectus in SE Asia to 16 mya amp in China to 800 kya Anthropology 140 Introduction to Prehistory Cheulean Man 15 mya 1960 Leakeys recovered H erectus in Bed 2 at Olduvai Gorge nicknamed Cheulean Man for the associated Acheulean Stone Tools Nariokotome Youth 16 mya Homo erectus has been recovered at many E African sites but oldest fossils come from localities near Koobi Fora at Lake Turkana Kenya some as old as 19 mya Interesting recent find Ileret skull dates to 16155 mya and has sagittal keel placed in Homo erectus but this adult is small in cranial size 691 cc In 1984 the Nariokotome Youth at Koobi Fora dates to 16 mya nearly complete individual Nariokotome is one of the most remarkable fossil specimens The individual is so complete that sex biological age cranial capacity and stature could be determined male 1011 yo 800 cc 5 3 had he reached adulthood he would have been as tall as a modern man As noted Homo erectus originates in Africa with the capacity for modern stature it was tall This leads to a question what is the adaptive advantage of a longlimbed and lean body Modern human populations that have inhabited hot thermal temperature zones for many generations have slender longlimbed bodies This results in greater surface area and promotes thermolysis heat loss Under high thermal temperature NS would have favored adaptations for thermolysis BUT must remember that nutrition physical activity amp childhood health will impact stature at adulthood Genes provide potential but environment plays a role in the outcome NOT ALL H erectus individuals reached their height potential The smallsized adult Ileret skull comes from same region and timeframe but is dwarfed by the largersized youth Yet both belong to H erectus Different species or population variation Homo erectus managed to get around most of Africa even making its way into northwestern Africa Algeria amp Morocco by 700 kya Anlhmpnlngy an lnlrndu inn tn Prehixlnly Dmanm Geurgvan Fomb 134 7 rnyo Recuvered m 20m rn eanemrmun Eurupe Geurgva repreent o nornber or mdvvvdual end at 134 7 rryo are the uLdextrKnuwn nornr nrn uumde qufrvca Mm nut on reearcher now r ncmde the rom b rn the becr e Homo Bream on the boo ufcertam cramurdenhal ran eg ag ttal Keel but they are exceptmnaHy maH fur the pecve n 550 cc 775 cc boo cc teen wvth dental botnoxogreq ow rnon wvth evere dental botnoxogreq and SHORT on em than 5 7mm wvth alder humvnvn nutwvth knuwn Homo erectu dvmenvun Huwever now noye everal plaumble explanatiun furthe preence ufthee varvable in an pupulau un E Afrvcan H cream mm from Heretwa unknuwn wnen Drnonr o roan were recovered All are edoony maHrb rorned ovanauun rnoy be a meme ran 4 e r frum maHmzed Phucene ancetur m It genume 3 rnon vze rnoy be doe Lu Lreur m cnndnood that negaLnely rrnpocted gruwth The m nunrAfrvcan nornrnrn wuuld noye faced rnoJorcnonenge rn no culd hvg amude habvtat Amucvated Tum at Dmanm Gemgva are Olduwan Remember that Homo Ereclu duem39t obondon on DUI type PART 5 HOMO ERECTUS ARTIFACTS amp DATE The amhaeulugvcal record ufHomo Bream Lune um I rnore extermve and m rnony cae alder than the fuml record Map beluw frum Gvbbun ZCOB crence Nuw mm Urn r Fur example the Home Bream om record rn cnrno unly date to 300 Kya buLLhe Loon ore rnocn alder 200273 OldenHomo Bream boob we Majuanguu me NE cnrno Lvthvc Amfacb gt 4 64 3 rnyo paleumag Very yery newr but prummng Anthropology 140 Introduction to Prehistory 0 What s the bottomline Homo erectus appears to have filled a certain niche quite successfully and rapidly spread throughout Africa and Asia 0 Homo erectus is the first species associated with Acheulean stone tools But not all Acheulean stone tools are associated Homo erectus For example who made the original Acheulean handaxe from Sainte Acheul France There is no evidence of Homo erectus in Europe proper The stone tool was constructed by a biggerbrained hominin that may be the motherSpecies of Neanderthals amp Modern Humans PART 6 HOMO HEIDELBERGENSIS MOTHERSPECIES o H erectus expansion right up to Europe s borders With the exception of Georgia H erectus did not expand into Europe proper 0 Up until about 5 years ago thought that Homo erectus had made it into Europe There were no fossils but the European archaeological record was littered with Acheulean handaxes 0 Yes H erectus is associated with Acheulean stone tools but it was not the only user of that tradition 0 Now we realize that first Europeans belong to another species Homo heidelbergensis which madeused the European Acheulean stone tools 0 Homo heidelbergensis arose in Africa Like Homo erectus it expanded across AfroAsia Unlike its predecessors it moved into Europe 0 Homo heidelbergensis may be common ancestor of Neanderthals in Europe and Anatomically Modern Humans in Africa 0 H heidelbergensis traits retains Homo erectuslike sagittal keel but is largerbrained average 1200 cc face is almost as orthognathic as a modern human face like later Neanderthals had midfacial prognathism amp most individuals not all had a Neanderthallike occipital bun What marks it as unique Homo heidelbergensis is the only hominin with a pronounced depressed discontinuous brow ridge 0 Dates are a particular problem with this taxon early fossils recovered without provenience amp context data and wellbefore chronometric dating methods 0 The oldest reliably dated specimens are in Europe but these are recent finds from Atapuerca 0 Let s examine the early finds 1907 first H heidelbergensis specimen Mauer Germany near Heidelberg known as the Mauer Mandible 500 kya 1921 H heidelbergensis skull Broken Hill in Kabwe Zambia 700400 kya 1932 H heidelbergensis skull Florisbad S Africa 300 kya 1933 H heidelbergensis skull Steinheim Germany 350250 kya 193353 H heidelbergensis skull fragments Swanscombe UK 450250 kya 1953 H heidelbergensis Elandsfontein S Af Saldanha skull 700400 kya 1960 H heidelbergensis skull Petralona Greece 250 kya Anthropology 140 Introduction to Prehistory Note that original fossil used to identify H heidelbergensis was a jaw but the specimens we ve seen so far were crania without jawsThis left a question did the skulls belong to the same species as the Mauer Mandible 1960 fossils in Arago Cave at Tautavel France included H heidelbergensis jaws ALONG WITH H heidelbergensis crania 450250 kya By the early 19605 H heidelbergensis was known in Africa and Europe The next decades yielded more specimens from those continents as well as a few in Asia Homo heidelbergensis fossils in Africa date from about 700200 kya Homo heidelbergensis fossils in Asia are younger and date to about 200 kyaThe specimens from Africa are probably older than the current estimates So where do we have the oldest reliably dated Homo heidelbergensis specimens and how old are they PART 7 HOMO HEIDELBERGENSIS Sierra de Atapuerca Spain The oldest reliablydated specimens come from Europe at several localities within the sites known as Atapuerca Sierra de Atapuerca Spain Homo heidelbergensis fossils are found across EuropeThe most important European paleontological site for H heidelbergensis is Atapuerca Spain the oldestknown fossil human site in Europe Atapuerca has benefitted from excellent stratigraphy amp paleomagnetic dating H heidelbergensis fossil localities at Atapuerca 1 Sima del Elefante 9 10 mya 2 Gran Dolina 9 800 kya 3 Sima de los Huesos 9 400 kya Sima del Elefante 9 10 mya Atapuerca has been excavated with good stratigraphic control dated by biostratigraphy amp paleomagnetic reversal The fossil comes from Level TE9 which dates to about 1 mya Along with the jaw Sima del Elefante yielded stone tools amp faunal animal remains with cut marks The researchers 31 coauthors concluded that the data supported first human settlement in western Europe 10 mya due to geographic expansion northward out of Africa They assigned the fossil to a taxon first represented in 1995 by fossils from Gran Dolina amp are younger in age Many of us place all of the Atapuerca hominins into Homo heidelbergensis Anthropology 140 Introduction to Prehistory Gran Dolina 9 800 kya Gran Dolina has 11 stratigraphic levels 7 rich in fossils Level TD 6 where the oldest fossils are located is age bracketed for an average age of 800 kya not less than 780 kya Level TD 6 fossil remains were recovered in association with 200 stone tools 600 nonhuman mammal bones Gran Dolina Boy provided the basis for the H antecessor designation BUT note the discontinuous or depressed brow ridge Traits such as this and its age amp place support inclusion in Homo heidelbergensis Based on dental eruption the individual is a teenager aged 1416 years old Gran Dolina TD6 yielded 95 bones from a minimum of 8 individuals ranging in biological age from 3 to 18 years old What happened to these youngsters 1999 FernandezJalvo reported HUMAN INDUCED DAMAGE to 25 of the TD6 human bones Cut marks where muscles amp tendons had been stripped from bone amp percussion M from splitting open long bones to extract marrow these markings were similar to those on nonhuman mammal bones at Gran Dolina TD 6 The Gran Dolina kids were processed for dietary cannibalism or in PC terms were subject to nutritional exploitation H heidelbergensis probably was not the first human species to engage in cannibalism But data older than Gran Dolina are mixed For ex the original Peking Man at Zhoukoudian H erectus was thought to have been cannibalized but recent research supports carnivore not human activity On the other hand researchers Boaz amp Ciochon 2004 describe data from another Chinese H erectus specimen that has cut marks on top of tooth marks In the case of the Gran Dolina Homo heidelbergensis population there is no doubt that humans processed human remains There is no evidence of carnivore activity and all mammalian remains human and nonhuman were defleshed in the same manner This was probably dietary not ritualistic cannibalism Most likely cause Nutritional stress 800 kya Europe was in the grip of a harsh glacial period toughgoing for humans whose ancestors evolved in warmweather Africa The population may have been in starvation victims may have died of natural causes Why were so many of the victims young Anthropology 140 Introduction to Prehistory Among modern humans today one of the primary causes of childhood mortality is malnutrition UNICEF 2009 Therefore the high number of juveniles in the Gran Dolina sample adds further support to the argument that the population was under nutritional stress Food would have been difficult to obtain few if any plants harsh conditions for hunting Dietary cannibalism at Gran Dolina may have prevented death of the entire population Sima de los Huesos 9 400 kya 1982 two human teeth recovered from the pit Now over 3000 H heidelbergensis fossils representing a minimum of 32 individuals are known Also a single Acheulean Handaxe pink granite was recovered with the bones What do we know about this population AND how did the individuals end up in the pit at the bottom of the cave shaft What does the single stone tool indicate Unlike Gran Dolina all age groups are represented with 75 of the individuals in their teens the least represented age groups are young children followed by infants It is not surprising that few were old prehistoric people usually didn t live past 40 Youngsters may be underrepresented because their small fragile bones did not preserve well or were carried away by cavefrequenting animals 50 many were in their prime years that it suggests some terrible event BUT there are no signs of violence or humaninduced bone modification And since all skeletal parts are represented the bodies must have been deposited intact Data indicate that the bodies were intentionally dropped down the shaft after death Disposal of the dead in this way could have been part of 1 a ritualistic task or 2 a hygienic task RITUAL TASK HYPOTHESIS Some hypothesize that Sima de los Huesos holds the first known funerary ritualistic burial data Under this interpretation the single handaxe is the firstknown burial good an item of symbolic meaning placed with the individual at death HYGIENIC TASK HYPOTHESIS Others hypothesize that the bodies were disposed to avoid attracting carnivores Support comes from that fact that numerous carnivores incl more than 160 cave bears have been recovered from the pit The decaying bodies probably attracted predators into the pit where escape may have been impossible Cave bears were extremely large and common in Pleistocene Europe Anthropology 140 Introduction to Prehistory They were in direct competition with humans for housing amp food we ll run into them again with other Hominin species Finally both the Ritual Task amp Hygienic Task hypotheses may be correct A hygienic task that began with one generation may have evolved into a ritualistic activity in later generations Currently we have no data on the length of time in which the pit was used for body disposal 1 year Decades Centuries Perhaps the most remarkable Homo heidelbergensis fossil at Atapuerca is Sima Skull 5 It nicely demonstrates the transitional status of this species It has the classic depressed or discontinuous brow of Homo heidelbergensis But it also has traits that we associate with Neanderthals retromolar gap midfacial prognathism occipital bun as we shall soon see Survival in Ice Age Europe could not have been easy for Homo heidelbergensis It had Acheulean Stone tools and may have constructed spears ts huge brain was complex and language was probably present With the exception of some taxonomic arguments the Atapuercan Homo heidelbergensis has had great press ts oldest descendent Neanderthal has been less fortunate Anthropology 140 Introduction to Prehistory Subject 6 INTRODUCTION This week begin the second section of the course with an exploration of our expansion into regions of the world that humans had never visited before We begin with expansion into Australia then the Pacific and then into the Americas or New World FILM Australian Rock Art 0 Video How Art Made the World Australian Rock art o Is there a connection between art amp music let s listen to the Story Tellers 0 Key Concepts Visual images only tell part of the story music and interaction complete the picture Aborig139nal art remains an active aspect of contemporary Aboriginal culture 0 What is your favorite lm Remove the music soundtrack would it still be your favorite film 0 Final point we wouldn t understand the relationship between Aboriginal art without the ethnographic data from modern descendants of the first Australians Lecture Outline PART 1 MODERN HUMAN GLOBAL EXPANSION 0 Modern Humans Homo sapiens arose in Africa 200 kya were in the Middle East by 100 kya amp in Europe by 4036 kya The next part of the modern human story concerns global expansion into regions that had never before been occupied by humans Australia and the Americas 0 Questions and hypotheses concerning the dispersal of our species into Australia and into the Americas are numerous Some of the debate is due to preservation disparity and as we will see dating issues 1 Prior to 10 kya human subsistence was based on hunting and gathering in highly mobile groups The archaeological footprint of mobile foragers is notoriously bad particularly at openair sites 2 Species Dispersal is range expansion but archaeologically amp paleontologically it often looks like migration This is because populations between the ends of species range are difficult to identify Often the term migration is used to describe species dispersal but the term is inappropriate Migration involves movement in one direction from point A to point B Except for seasonal movements most mammals don t migrate to new regions Instead they expand their range After generations of geographic expansion at the periphery intermediate populations tend to move towards the extremes The less heavily populated and short occupations in between the points are less likely to preserve This leaves the impression of migration Anthropology 140 Introduction to Prehistory 3 Species Dispersal is NOT the result of a single event by a couple individuals It must involve multiple dispersals over the course of numerous generations in reproductively viable population sizes f initial population numbers are low successive waves of new populations can replenish losses This is a numbers game In order to establish a population in a new place parents must be able to replace themselves Their children must be able to replace themselves etc And there must be enough individuals to maintain genetic diversity At the same time human foragers had to obtain enough calories for survival and could not sustain large population sizes at most 1005 not 10005 4 Natural barriers usually block species expansion but there have been cases of barriers disappearing creating temporary land bridges that are not present today For ex Pleistocene 18 mya to 10 kya glaciation locked up water in northern latitude ice fields so that WORLDWIDE sea levels were lower than they are today RESULT temporary land bridge corridors opened Summary We must remember these variables when we consider the expansion of modern humans into new worlds 1 incomplete forager record 2 incomplete species dispersal record 3 low population densities in reproductively viable numbers 4 temporary land bridges PART 2 AUSTRALIAN EXPANSION Human expansion into amp across Australia was a significant feat The identification of when this occurred is a subject of debate concerning Pleistocene glaciation and paleontological amp archaeological data outside and within Australia As noted during Pleistocene glaciation global sea levels were lower than they are today Between 6518 kya sea levels were 210442 feet lower than today By 1310 kya sea levels had returned to normal Low sea levels exposed continental shelves Southeast Asian peninsular amp island regions atop the Sunda shelf formed the Sunda landmass Australia New Guinea amp Tasmania atop the Sahul shelf formed the Sahul landmass Between the two were temporarily exposed islands known as Wallacea It is perfectly reasonable to argue that modern humans traveled by foot southward on the Sunda landmass Oldest Modern Human remains in Sunda Niah Cave Borneo 40 kva Includes a Homo sagiens skull recovered in 1958 amp recent recovem of the skeletons of six individuals Anthropology 140 Introduction to Prehistory Other Modern Human sites in Sunda are closer to Sahul and date to 3531 kya Even with low sea levels there was one huge challenge to modern human range expansion WATER Deep Sea Trenches separated Sunda amp Sahul Some are over 4 miles deep Even during Pleistocene glaciations sea levels never dropped that low The only way to cross from Sunda to Sahul was by water presumably by boat The oldest Sahul archaeological sites in New Guinea are in the Irvane Valley of the highlands and date to 4943 kya Waisted axes at the site are similar to those described at Niah Cavel Borneo So when did humans expand their range into Australia Genetic Data Aboriginal Divergence Molecular data mtDNA indicate that Aboriginal populations became genetically isolated from other populations 60 kya Harding 2003 This has led some to conclude that Aboriginal populations moved into Australia at least 60 kya However the data may reflect the genetic isolation of the earlier Sahul populations from which Australian Aboriginals descend Ecological Data Charcoal Ash LayersCharcoal ash layers in deep stratigraphic cores have been interpreted as the product of fires used by large populations of humans in Australia 45 kya Kershaw 2003 However a charcoal ash peak dated at 135 kya is attributed to natural fire because humans were not present Unfortunately this means that the 45 kya ash layer cannot be used as direct proof of human presence we need more direct evidence DIRECT EVIDENCE OF HUMAN EXPANSION INTO AUSTRALIA At 43 kv the oldest welldated skeletal evidence comes from Lake Mungo at Willandra Lakes World Heritage Center in southeastern Australia Sediments indicate that for about 20000 years 4320 kya Lake Mungo had a wetlands ecology with high rainfall Foragers collected fish mammals birds eggs amp mussels processed foods with bone amp stone tools and cooked foods on charcoal hearths Lake Mungo stone tools were constructed from a very hard silicate stone The Lake Mungo people also used mortars and pestles to grindup roasted hard seeds Human Skeletal Remains Over 150 burials have been recovered at Lake Mungo The oldest date to 43 kya Lake Mungo WLH1 Adult Female Lake Mungo WLH3 Adult Male Recovered in the late 19605 both were subject to much debate about geologic age However improvements in dating methods have resolved earlier issues Lake Mungo I Mungo Lady An adult female in her early 205 was covered with red ochre amp shells then partially cremated this is the oldestknown cremation anywhere Interestingly Mungo Lady was cremated twice There was an initial ceremony then her partially cremated skeleton was broken up and recremated Lake Mungo Mungo Man Recovered 500 yds away this adult male is one of the tallest males in human prehistory 6 5 Extreme dental wear reminds me of similar wear in populations in sandy enviro Material Sourcing Both Mungo amp III were covered with pink ochre collected about 125 miles away This indicates that the material had special value to the Mungo populations and its use in burial ceremonies suggests a spiritual aspect N Anthropology 140 Introduction to Prehistory Over 450 footprints have been recovered at Lake Mungo They date from 4320 kya Given the age of Lake Mungo 43 kya and the southern location of the site humans must have arrived earlier in Australia Recent reassessments of geologic dates Gillespie 2002 Bird wt al 2002 indicate that the archaeological record is older than the human skeletal remains Devil s Lairl 50 kya Provides earliest evidence of bead production three polished bone beads ABORIGINAL ROCK ART Aboriginal peoples past amp present have recorded aspects of their culture in incredible rock art images across Australia Dating these sites has been a challenge Weathering amp erosion inhibit direct dating For thousands of years the images have been in continuous use by Aboriginal peoples retouching ampor making new images atop older ones was and is part of cultural tradition In other words the images are both historical and modern and remain culturally active Obviously this impacts interpretation of dates Not all Australian rock art involves paintings For example there are petroglyphs PEI39ROGLYPH design is etched into rock by removing patina or by carving The beautiful Pilbara Petroglyphs are at least 5 kya but may be as much as 2013 kya There are more than 3500 rock art sites at Pilbara Some sites include more than 4000 images Many of the Pilbara images are rapidly wearing away Due to pollution from local industrial sites fertilizer chemical plants some academics have estimated that the 15 kya Pilbara Petroglyphs may erode away in as few as 50 years wwwprotectaustraliassQiritcomau Like other Aboriginal rock art the Pilbara images are complex amp tell the stories essential to local ancestry history amp mythology As with cave painting petroglyphs have regional motifs For example these petroglyphs show images characteristic of the Northern Territory The anthropomorphic figures have distinctive ray headdresses Even though a few early sites dating to about 40 kya appear to have paint pigmentation the vibrant cave art images that we associate with Aboriginal populations today date to about 20 kya Habgood amp Franklin 2008 Aboriginal peoples traded ochre iron oxide rock across great distances the ochre above mined in Arnhem Land in northwestern Australia is prized across Australia for its dark red coloration Ochre provides the color pigmentation for rock art paintings Kimberley is associated with Wandjina Figures usually quite tall over 20 Human figures in the Bradshaw Group in the Gwion Gwion Gallery in Kimberley are characterized by sashes and tassels Some figures hold double boomerangs Most of the figures are in static stance and like more recent Egyptian figures are presented in both forward amp profile view Some images record items associated with subsistence above boomerangs amp nets for hunting Note the hands are they tools as well Anthropology 140 Introduction to Prehistory The primary figure above demonstrates the classic XRay style the internal skeleton is detailed on top of the external physical anatomy Australian Aboriginal Art combines an ancient family photo album with historical and mythology events and spirituality It is a living picture library complete with reference biography amp narrative ts rich iconography has been part of aboriginal culture for millennia It is alive PART 3 PACIFIC EXPANSION Human Expansion beyond the range of a day s boat ride from New Guinea is recent No evidence in the Pacific is older than 53 kya Range expansion of modern humans into the Pacific is associated with the appearance of Lepita decorated ceramics in Melanesia Micronesia amp Polynesia The oldest Lepita pottery dates to about 3528 kya in the west Major islands to the east amp south may have been settled as recently as 1 kya So why mention this Every now and then someone hypothesizes that humans came to the Americas by boat across the Pacific Ocean No data supports this hypothesis In addition to having to conquer incredible barriers a founding population would have required high numbers small boat travel would have limited founding population size PART 4 NEW WORLD EXPANSION The expansion of humans into the Americas was equally as remarkable as was our extension into Australia As noted by your text authors Price amp Feinman 2010 the first humans who expanded their range into the Americas were not Irish monks Scandinavian Vikings Italians or any other western Europeans The first Americans walked here from Siberia Debate today concerns the timing of their arrivals Hypothesis amp Theory in science In common language hypothesis amp theory are synonymous n science the terms are distinct A scientific hypothesis is tested by data Data either support or fail to support a hypothesis DATA NEVER PROVE A HYPOTHESIS A scientific theory has a higher level of support It is tested by numerous hypotheses A theory must withstand the test of time amp provide a framework for understanding a class of phenomena Hypotheses for human New World expansion Hypothesis 1 Clovis Culture First states that the first humans did not arrive in the New World before the appearance of distinctive Clovis stone tools 135 kya Hypothesis 2 PreClovis states that initial human expansion into the Americas occurred before 135 kya Hypothesis 3 Early Arrival states that the first expansion of humans into the New World occurred as early as 4030 kya Let s examine the hypotheses Anthropology 140 Introduction to Prehistory SIBERIAN DATA In order to evaluate the merits of the hypotheses we need to visit the archaeological record of Siberia 4010 kya Kurva in the Arctic Circle westernmost Siberia dates to 40 kva Pavlov et al 2001 Artifacts include mammoth tusks with cut marks amp the stone tools that made the marks Further east Yana RHS in the Arctic Circle easternmost Siberia dates to 27 kva Pitulko et al 2004 Yana included stone amp bone tools But the most interesting finds were faunal Yana includes the remains of 26 mammoths with cutmarks From all appearances Siberian forager subsistence emphasized mammoth Further southl Mal tal Siberia dating to 2825 kya included mammoth bone houses Siberian foragers were dependent on biggame for food housing tools clothes etc Their mobility was based on game movement Unlike later pastoral nomads foragers do not manage domesticated animals They survive by means of hunting amp gathering skills and knowledge of wild animal behaviors Siberian foragers simply followed steppe animals as they expanded their range into the Americas Pettite 2009 Foragers amp their subsistence prey simply traveled on foot over the top of the world BERINGIA Due to Pleistocene glaciation low sea levels exposed the Beringia landmass connecting Northeastern Asia w N America at what is today the Bering Strait Today the Bering Strait is about 60 miles wide amp 160 ft deep During Pleistocene glaciation global sea levels were lower than they are today 45 kya 9 210 feet lower 40 kya 9 285 feet lower 35 kya 9 288 feet lower 30 kya 9 367 feet lower 25 kya 9 442 feet lower 1310 kya 9 normal sea levels Unlike Sunda amp Sahul there are no deep sea troughs through the Bering Strait 4513 kya this was an open land corridor Beringia provided an extension of the Siberian grassland tundra to N American grassland tundra This attracted coldweather adapted grazers amp associated fauna predators from both continents Once on North American soil populations could have traveled inland along rivers ampor along the coasts When did Siberian Forager Communities cross Beringia Siberian Evidence not before 40 kya Beringia Evidence not after 13 kya bridge submerged by that point This gives us a range of 4013 kya Can we narrow the range NEXT LECTURE Anthropology 140 Introduction to Prehistory Subject 9 Part A INTRODUCTION We wrap up the Mesolithic with a film on Gobekli Tepe Then we advance into the Neolithic After laying the groundwork we end the first part of the Neolithic with a visit to Neolithic Jericho sandwiched between Foraging Jericho and Biblical Jericho The last two lectures Subjects 9 Part B Part C illustrate the relative richness of the early farming archaeological record compared to the millions of years of foraging archaeological remains Lecture Outline PART 1 FILM GOBEKLI TEPE 0 Film How Art Made the World Archaeological Site Gobekli Tepe causes a reconsideration of the traditional hypothesis that farming led to religion PART 2 THE RISE OF ANIMAL amp PLANT DOMESTICATION The Neolithic agricultural revolution began at different times in different places but its beginning is dated to 109 kya in MidEast It was characterized by animal amp plant domestication Remember that human selection physically alters domesticates However the Neolithic domesticates were not the first organisms tamed by humans That honor goes to dogs PART 3 THE FIRST DOMESTICATED SPECIES Dog domestication occurred LONG before the Neolithic Revolution The oldestknown fossil dog was discovered at Goyet Cave in Belgium amp dates to 317 kya Lobell amp Powell 2010 Germonpr et al 2009 It s called the Goyet Cave Dog Thanks to genetics we know that the wild form the wolf and the domestic form the dog belong to the same species Canis lupus So how can researchers tell that this is a dog and not a wolf SKELE39AL ANATOMY early dogs were smaller and lighter than wolves SKULL EYE ORBIT ANGLE Wolf 9 narrow 4142 eyes more sideoriented Dog wide 4750 eyes more forward SKULL ZYGOMAXILLARY SUTURE PLACEMENT Wolf 9 Suture does not extend into Molar sulcus Dog Suture extends into Molar sulcus 0 Numerous dog burials have been recovered in the Old World and in the New World 0 Humans and dogs have had an intensely social bond for thousands of years Morey 2006 In fact the relationship was so close that by the Mesolithic amp Archaic human burials began to include dogs FOR EXAMPLE 14 kya two humans were buried with their dogs at a site in Germany Anthropology 140 Introduction to Prehistory The bestknown humandog burials date to 13 kya at Ain Mallaha Israel There are several including one man interred with two dogs and a woman curled up with her dog Coprolites in the New World 14 kya Paisley Cave Oregon Texas 10 kya indicate that at times humans ate dogs At one time archaeologists thought that dogs were introduced into South America by Europeans after 1492 AD However several human amp dog burials in Argentina predate European contact Prates et al 2010 Nearly every part of the planet provides evidence of human amp dog associations In some places dogs were sacred and as noted on occasion they were eaten Their athleticism made then into excellent pack animals amp participants in our work amp play activities There are numerous unsatisfactory hypotheses regarding how dog domestication occurred Most ignore one important fact about dogs they are social animals with social instincts and social intelligence We share those traits So where did humanity s best friend come from As noted molecular data confirm that the common ancestor of the dog is the gray wolf Canis lupus Savolainen et al 2002 Vila et al 1997 dentifying the date of domestic dog origins has been more challenging Based on mtDNA some argue that dogs diverged 163 kya Savolainen et al 2002 others at 40 kya Vila et al 1997 Others argue that the molecular data indicate a bottleneck due to domestication 27 kya LindblahToh et al 2005 And others have analyzed fossil anatomical amp molecular data to estimate a 30 kya divergence Germonpr et al 2009 dentifying the place of domestic origins has ALSO been challenging East Asia from a population in China Savolainen et al 2002 East Asia from a population in Siberia Leonard et al 2002 NOT Chinese East Asia Boyko et al 2009 West Asia from a population in the MiddleEast Wayne et al 2010 Gray et al 2010 Multiple Origins from multiple populations Crockford in Lobelle amp Powell 2010 There are ALSO numerous hypotheses concerning why or how domestication occurred Humans domesticated wolves from pups Humans domesticated wolves by feeding them Humans domesticated wolves by attracting them to garbage dumps These hypotheses are difficult to test and have one common flaw they involve single variable explanations Domestication of the wolf was probably the result of multiple variables perhaps involving each of those hypotheses What we can say for certainty is that when humans began to domesticate other animals amp plants dogs were already present Anthropology 140 Introduction to Prehistory PART 4 FIRST FARMING Each of the early Faming Centers had a distinct set of animal amp plant domesticates that contributed to unique regional cuisines MiddleEast Wheat Lentils Chickpeas Garbonzos Lamb China Rice Soy Chicken North Africa Beef Sorghum Millet South America Potatoes Peanuts Llama Eastern USA Cranberries Sunflower Mesoamerica perhaps the best Corn Beans Chilies Squash Chocolate Vanilla And some domesticates had multiple origins For example wild pigs had a broad geographic distribution and were domesticated many time And some plants such as yams are so easy to grow that drawing a distinction between wild amp domestic is kind of silly Numerous hypotheses have been proposed to explain the worldwide farming phenomenon As the authors of your text note none of the hypotheses provide a universally applicable explanation for the rise of farming One hypothesis that applies to one region does not apply to another SIX PRINCIPLE FARMING CENTERS places where foraging first gave way to farming Fertile Crescent Western Asia MidEast THE OLDEST China Eastern Asia Sahara amp Egypt Northern Africa Mesoamerica Mexico Andes South America East Coast United States Anthropology 140 Introduction to Prehistory PART 5 EARLIEST FARMING CENTER FERTILE CRESCENT Fertile Crescent Key Domesticates G rainCereals Rye Wheat Barley Legumes Animals Lentils Goats Peas Sheep Chickpeas ulnFertile Crescent Site Neolithic Jericho Israel 10595 KYA Jericho Israel was under continuous occupation for 10000 years 122 kya Oldest occupation levels predate farming and are located at the bottom of a 70 ft high TELL 6 acres in size A TELL is an accumulated mound of occupation debris produced over many generations CAREFUL a tell is NOT the same thing as the intentional production of a hill eg Gb39bekli Tepe nitial archaeological interest in the site concerned the biblical history of Jericho Then in the 19505 archaeologist Kathleen Kenyon trenched into the tell amp discovered lower older occupation layers The earliest lowest oldest levels represent forager occupations Above these are the accumulated debris of generations of Neolithic Farmers who occupied the site 10595 kya At its height Neolithic Jericho housed 6001000 individuals in small rectangular family homes wedged sidebyside They used PLASTER the first artificial material to cover their walls floors amp more Buried beneath the plastercovered floors of many houses were human remains some headless At Neolithic Jericho defleshed crania amp jaws of some individuals were covered with plaster amp clay Sometimes cowrie shells were used to make eyes Because only a few individuals were selected the heads probably belonged to persons of particular kinship importance ancestor worship Heads prepared in the same way have been recovered from other Fertile Crescent sites This indicates that the cultural practice reflects a regionwide belief system Usually heads were grouped together in the home And periodically some were reburied amp replaced by new heads like family photos Neolithic Farming Jericho had another surprise Kenyon discovered three architectural features that must have had community importance WALL 12 ft tall enclosed the town DTCH 28 ft wide 65 ft deep enclosed the wall TOWER 27 ft tall 30 ft diameter 22 step interior staircase led to top there was no other interior space Due to buildup of the tell the stone wall was heightened several times Anthropology 140 Introduction to Prehistory The tower was a curious item Kenyon hypothesized that it was built for defensive purposes to prevent invasion By whom There is no evidence of regional conflict at that time For that reason BarYosef 1986 has hypothesized that the ditch amp walls were constructed as an environmental defense against floodingThat is reasonable but what about the tower A popular traditional hypothesis is that the tower was used for public ceremony Some even hypothesize that it would have been topped by a ceremonial building This suggests an early version of the stacked ziggurats that later characterized Mesopotamian CityStates hmmm maybe not a strong case Anyway by 93 kya the tower was no longer in use and over the next 7000 years debris from successive generations began to cover it In an interesting coincidence simply by chance just as Neolithic Jericho was transforming into something less Neolithic the largest Neolithic Farming community in the Fertile Crescent arose in Turkey Next Lecture Fertile Crescent Site Catalhoyiik Turkey Subject 9 Part B amp C INTRODUCTION This week we examine what happened with population numbers and permanent settlements in the transition to the Late Neolithic We also examine 39Ain Ghazal and then a fabulous site in Turkey We wrap up with Saharan Neolithic cattle domestication Lecture Outline PART 1 FERTILE CRESCENT NEOLITHIC TRANSITION Last lecture we visited the first major farming settlement Neolithic Jericho 105 95 kya Built on a large tell about 6 acres in size the site supported as many as 600 1000 individuals at a time Then after 1000 years it was abandoned In fact the archaeological record indicates that between 9585 kya populations throughout southern amp central Fertile Crescent regions abandoned living in large settlements Why Hypothesis 1 Human induced environmental degradation Farming provided a steady source of food that allowed population sizes to increase Eventually grain yields could not meet demand and population size crashed Hypothesis 2 Populations shifted away from plant production to grazing herds Bottomline Plant farming was replaced by sheep and goat herding in less densely occupied village settlements Anthropology 140 Introduction to Prehistory One variable that may have contributed to deforestation was the production of plaster Ftknown artificial material Plaster was used for homes walls amp morePlaster production required high temp fires and charcoal production Charcoal is produced from trees Evidence of plaster production s impact on forests comes from a nearby slightly younger site nlFertile Crescent Site Ain Ghazal Jordan 98 kya Ain Ghazal was discovered in the 19705 Like Neolithic Jericho this agricultural community had crowded rectangular houses with human burials beneath and human skull sculptures within For unknown reasons some corpses were disposed of in trash pits Something else While typical dwellings dominate the site there are also four circular nondomestic buildings Each had a plastered floor with a circular opening These appear to be ritual sites Another distinction from Jericho concerns Ain Ghazal s plaster statues Several caches have provided 32 of these unique artifacts Most were recovered from beneath the circular buildings The plaster statues strongly indicate Cult Practice a system of patterned actions in response to religious beliefs 35 ft tall cowry shell eyes Red or black paint was applied for hair amp clothing or possibly tattoos or body paint on each statue Some statues were halfsized busts Some statues had two heads The Ain Ghazal cult statues probably represented distant amp unknown ancestors Finally Ain Ghazal provides evidence of humaninduced environmental degradation As population size increased farming depleted the soils deforestation occurred due to charcoal amp plaster production and overgrazing by goats amp sheep contributed to further erosion RESULT Food production collapsed amp the settlement was abandoned PART 2 FERTILE CRESCENT LATE NEOLITHIC So far we have examined preNeolithic ceremonial sites in the northcentral Fertile Crescent And we have learned about two early Neolithic settlements to the south that were abandoned The Late Neolithic 97 kya in general was a period with few densely populated settlements Exceptions to this pattern are found in Turkey here largescale villages thrived Among these is the bestknown Neolithic settlement of all Fertile Crescent Site Catalho39yijk Turkey 98 kya This is the earliest largescale settlement in human history First archaeological research took place between 19611965 Immediately there were numerous discoveries that caught the world s attention Fortunately work at the site restarted in the 19905 amp has continued until Anthropology 140 Introduction to Prehistory today This research has been conducted under the careful direction of one of the best modern archaeologists today Ian Hodder Hodder s research group has rewritten our understanding of this important site atalh6y39uk was an oversized farming settlement It was not a city it was a farming village on steroids The primary occupation area was HUGE 9 32 acres At its height it may have had as many as 10000 residents The Qatalhoyuk tell was 65 ft tall despite only 1000 years of occupationHuge population size contributed to quick build up But Qatalhoylik housing practices played a role too If Qatalhoylik families needed a new house they had a unique way of handling the problem Stone was in short supply Rudgley 1999 so houses were made from sundried mud bricks with timber supports BUT mud brick is subject to erosion When a house became too worn people simply removed the wooden posts allowing the mudbrick roof to collapse amp flatten everything beneath and built a new house on top of the old one The dimensions of the houses and site plan were wellestablished by the early research The 13 story tall rectangular houses were crammed together like shoeboxes in a closet There were no pathways between houses And there were no streets between housing complexes this created a honeycomb effect People traveled from placetoplace on rooftops access to houses was through the ceilings Rooftops were used for outdoor activities such as sieving drying prepping stoneknapping etc Neighbors worked sidebyside on rooftops picture the activity people moving back and forth talking yelling at the kids busy busy busy Most homes were small with a main room amp small storage rooms Main room 9 family life cooking sleeping etc Neighbors had a common wall or had two walls butting into each other A clay oven usually sat beneath entrance ladder where most kitchen activity occurred Other areas had builtin furnishings benches cupboards storage bins And beneath the floors in some houses here in House 1 Burials up to 68 beneath a single home Softtissue was probably removed before burial presumably due to exposure amp vultures Bodies were folded and wrapped in mats before burial Also burial goods were placed with the dead Firstknown CLAY VESSELS SUBSISTENCE OBJECTS Trade Obsidian materials amp products PERSONAL OBJECTS bracelets tiny stone ornaments Walls amp floors were covered in plaster floors painted red And on the bench side of the room beneath which most burials were located some walls had incredible murals Mural subjects often combined human amp animal elements A runner wearing a leopard skin holds a bow Often a large animal was depicted surrounded by much smaller humans hunters dancers worshippers or all Here a large deer surrounded by tiny humans Anthropology 140 Introduction to Prehistory Headless humans were depicted along with vultures Some had geometric shapes Some interpreted as Archaeologist LewisWilliams 2005 interprets it as the symbolic placental membrane connecting the living to the spirit world Rudgley 1999 interprets it as a copy of a rug first weaving looms come from the Fertile Crescent Another has been interpreted as a map of the town with erupting volcano in background Mellart1964 At the time there was an active volcano nearby the source of the obsidian that made trade possible raw material for stone knives beads amp the 1 known polished mirrors But it has also been interpreted as a leopard skin or a decorative geometric design Meece 2006 AND then there are the Catalh y39uk SHRINES Aurochs Bulls some with plaster elaborated skulls Others a mix of vulture aurochs goat Some with female figure quotMother Godessesquot Early interpretations emphasized male amp female reproductive cults led by priests amp priestesses Take away the Mother Goddess angle what do we have Adult females with exaggerated reproductive anatomies some seated on chairs with giant cats leopards for chair arms Well Hodder s research findings have forced a reassessment of the shrines and their objects It turns out that Catalh y39uk ritual spaces shrines were intermingled with domestic spaces There is NO evidence of public ritual space Catalh6y39uk was not simply a society of bull amp goddess worshippers Some homes had similar types of objects but animals differed bulls vultures goats amp leopardlike cats With caution the female amp animal iconography suggest matrilineal kinship Ethnographic data indicate that animal iconography is often associated with CLAN organization Ember amp Ember 2002 CLAN a set of kin whose members believe themselves to be descended from a common ancestor often designated by a totem TOTEM animal associated with a clan as a means of group ID What s the bottomline on Neolithic Settlements in the Fertile Crescent Farming DID initiate largescale settlements But when plant farming failed to yield crops suf cient for survival populations turned to smaller settlements with herding economies animal domesticates Largescale settlements were glori ed farming villages that may have had clans kinship and trade None of these were cities Anthropology 140 Introduction to Prehistory PART 3 INTRODUCTION SAHARAN AFRICA It has been fairly easy to identify where many plant foods were first domesticated For example Rye Barley Wheat Lentils 9 Fertile Crescent Rice Soy 9 China Corn Beans Chilies Cocoa 9 Mesoamerica Peanuts Potatoes 9 South America Sunflower Cranberries 9 North America There might be disagreement about WHEN but no arguments about WHERE The origins of many domesticated animals have also been fairly easy to identify For example Sheep amp Goats 9 Fertile Crescent Chicken 9 China Llamas amp Guinea Pigs 9 South America AND some plant amp animal domesticates had multiple origins Their wild ancestors were widespread amp cultivation was not a difficult process For example Root plants sweet potatoes yams taro etc Pigs from wild boar 9 Molecular Data on Pig Domestication Genetic studies Alberella et al 2005 Larson et al 2005 2007 indicate that the pig was domesticated independently in several Old World regions China SE Asia Fertile Crescent Europe results are supported by osteological FAUNAL data Our understanding of cattle domestication is another story For a long time everyone thought that domestic cattle arose in the Fertile Crescent But molecular studies indicate that 22 kya two wild cattle species diverged from a Bovid common ancestor probably Aurochs in Africa and Europe each giving rise to domestic cattle Bradley amp Loftus 2000 Bradley 2003 As strange as it may seem recent archaeological evidence Bown amp Nichols 2009 Nichols amp Bown 2009 supports the molecular data Our research indicates that cattle domestication arose independently in Africa African domestic cattle were NOT derived from already domesticated cattle from elsewhere NOT from Europe NOT from the Fertile Crescent The result was an indigenous African domesticate Ankole cattle Anthropology 140 Introduction to Prehistory PART 4 LEASTKNOWN EARLY FARMING CENTER SAHARAN AFRICA The only Saharan domesticate is cattle 109 kya Northern Africa today is dominated by the Sahara Desert But for a brief period of time the Saharan region of North Africa was a lush wetland environment As Holocene global temperatures increased Africa s climate and ecology changed 12 kya IgtAfrica became significantly wetter amp cooler with occasional episodes of low rainfall and by 5545 kya I desertification began from N to S By 2 kya I Sahara Desert with modern distribution 1245 kya Saharan Africa was characterized by lakes rivers marshes amp grasslands Saharan foragers did what Mesolithic Foragers did everywhere they intensified foraging hgf subsistence strategies And appear to have domesticated cattle THERE IS NO EVIDENCE OF PLANT DOMESTICATION Saharan Cattle Domestication GiffordGonzalez 2005 suggests that African cattle pastoralism arose because it was a reliable adaptation in a fluctuating wetdry ecosystem I would add that the mobility of cattle herding allowed foraging subsistence to continue In contrast plant cultivation requires staying put and plants can t move if local conditions go bad Beststudied Saharan Cattle Sites are West of Nile 9 kya Egypt 8 kya Chad 7 kya Niger Lybia Algeria Additional Saharan Data Cave Art Tassili n Ajjer Algeria 106 kya Oldest Depict Wild Animals Then something new domesticated cattle recognizable because of coloration horn shape size and close proximity between humans and animals Our hypothesis states that the origin of indigenous African cattle is in the western Saharan region Unfortunately because of desertification there are no descendant cattle pastoralists or cattle to study in the area It was abandoned 545 kya However in a desolate corner of the Western Sahara there is promising archaeological data from the period of time BEFORE desertification that documents African cattle pastoralism Our study site is in a region of the western Sahara where Algeria Mali amp Niger meet Data were obtained from satellite imagery viewed from a height of 2500 feet above ground We have documented humanmade structures 700 circularshaped structures 650 crescentshaped structures To me the most important are the Circular structures They closely resemble kraals utilized by Subsaharan cattle pastoralists today amp in the past Rarely crescentshaped structures were incorporated into the kraals This indicates that the kraals were built AFTER the crescentshaped structures Kraal builders were not picky about materials any rock at hand was fine Whereas crescentshaped structures were used for kraals kraals were not used for crescents The crescentshaped structures are more challenging to interpret Bown hypothesizes that the crescentshaped structures are rock tombs built in the shape of cattle horns evidence of a cattle cult Crescents are in groups ranging from a few to more than twenty Anthropology 140 Introduction to Prehistory Most crescents are constructed of volcanic flagstone stacked 36 ft tall on top of elevated terrain Bown notes that the crescent shapes resemble the bull horns of ankole cattle and refers to them as horns The majority of the horns 95 are oriented so that the horns open eastward amp were built on the eastern side of hilltops Horns range in length from 33725 feet Horn Construction Begins with Cairns The most common humanmade rock structures in the Sahara are cairns simple piles of rock Three cairn types in the study area 1 Solid Cairns circular piles of rock 2 Ring Cairns doughnut shaped 3 DoubleRing Cairns figureeight Some ring amp doublering cairns are associated with the rudiments of horn structure Bottom line cairns first then horns The best horn structures invariably were built atop high remote hills amp ridges At some sites where horns were built atop ridges potholes amp trails are visible participants picked up stones along the way to add to the structure If our conclusions are correct then this is evidence of religion Archaeologically evidence of religion includes PRACTICE ritual sites EXPERIENCE ritualrelated activities BELIEFS sacred symbols images etc Are there other indicators of ritual Yes At Neolithic Saharan sites surrounding the study area cairns mark burials oldest are cattle burials then human burials nterestingly both bull amp human burials beneath the cairns face east Our stone horns face east Why might this be Why east This image from a Tassili n Ajjer petroglyph depicts the sun rising in the east between bull horns The depiction of the risingsun carried between bull s horns reminds us of the Ancient Egyptian goddess Hathor She was commonly shown wearing a crown of bull s horns embracing the risingsun Is there a connection between the Egyptian Goddess Hathor amp Neolithic Saharan Cattle Religion A number of early archaeologists CatonThompson amp Gardner 1934 Mond amp Myers 1937 Frankfort 1950 Arkell 1953 argued in favor of a Saharan origin for aspects of ancient Egyptian culture amp religion More recently Wendorf amp Schild 1998 have suggested that Predynastic Egyptian amp Egyptian Old Kingdom ceremonial life was strongly influenced by Saharan Cattle Pastoralists If these researchers are correct then culture flowed westward from the pre desert Neolithic Sahara to the Nile Valley And it brought the domesticated Anthropology 140 Introduction to Prehistory animal at the center of its ritual cattle with it The kraals amp crescentic horn constructions in the remote western desert support that view They indicate that before desertification 545 kya Saharan Africa was the origin of African cattle domestication Post desertification African cattle pastoralism LACTASE PERSISTENCE IN AFRICAN POPULATIONS Cattle pastoralism is correlated with lactase persistence in a few African populations Archaeological data indicate that by 86 kya milking was practiced in NCW Europe Genetic studies of lactase persistence indicate that 88 of descendent populations in these regions today can digest cow s milk LACTASE PERSISTENCE IN EUROPEAN POPULATIONS Dairy Farming is correlated with lactase persistence in N W C European populations One more point about domesticated cattle Among animal domesticates cattle are the multipurpose equivalent of a Swiss Army Knife Agricultural tripleplay Dairy Beef amp Draught Animals Plus other usages Manure for fuel amp housing materials Tallow amp Leather for clothing etc Economic currency Religious objects STUDY FUTURE Our preliminary results are very promising Now someone needs to assess the area from the ground PART 5 A FEW TOUGHTS ON THE NEOLITHIC RISE OF AGRICULTURE FILM 10 kya 1 ky farming began to replace foraging around the world not everywhere not everyone not immediate nor at same pace It changed the world led to largescale population settlements and provided a subsistence base from which trade amp craft specializations developed Eventually regional foods went global Food became more than sustenance food became a means of transmitting culture Try to imagine Thanksgiving without New World amp Old World foods for Pumpkin Pie Mashed Potatoes Sweet Potato Cranberries Corn And TURKEY Try to imagine dessert without Old World foods for milkshakes ice cream cookies amp cake flavored with New World vanilla amp cocoa FINALLY try to imagine movies without popcorn baseball games without Crackerjacks amp dugouts without sunflower seeds Bush s Baked Beans without beans Sushi without rice Eggrolls without soy sauce Salsa without chili pepper Spaghetti without tomato sauce amp meatballs Yes there are downsides to the farming subsistence revolution But it also gave us marvelous foods and supported the rise of great civilizations DOWNSIDE OF FARMING Jared Diamond39s Hypothesis Anthropology 140 Introduction to Prehistory Subject 7 INTRODUCTION With this presentation we examine genetical linguistic anatomical and archaeological data in Paleoamerican populations and sites Much of this information has profound implications for our understanding of the timing of Human New World expansion Lecture Outline PART 1 TIMING THE FIRST PALEOAMERICANS There is no doubt that human expansion into the Americas began in Northeastern Asia When did the expansion begin REMINDER Hypotheses for human New World expansion H 1 Clovis Culture First 9135 kya H 2 PreClovis 9 Before 135 kya H 3 Early Arrival 9A5 early 4030 kya We have a restricted time frame Siberian Evidence NOT BEFORE 40 kya Beringia Evidence NOT AFTER 13 kya Sometime between 4013 kya humans expanded into the Americas multiple events are extremely likely CAN WE NARROW THE TIME RANGE USING GENETIC amp LINGUISTIC DATA Native American Genetic Data Confirms Northeast Asian Origins 1 Native Americans share a common ancestry Ychromosome data include one unique genetic change carried by 85 of all Native American males 2 Native American populations are genetically most similar to northeastern Asian populations mtDNA comparison indicates least distance from Arctic northeast Asian populations followed by NonArctic northeast Asian populations And out of all Old World Populations the strongest genetic association is with Altatian populations in Siberia New World Linguistic Data Native American languages sort into three primary linguistic groups Na Dene North America amp parts of desert Southwest FYI linguistic data indicate that the Navajo amp Apache diverged from Northwestern populations in Canada over 1 kya EskimoAleut Arctic Amerind Everywhere else including South America Interpretation of Linguistic Evidence H 1 Three Arrival Events 1St Amerind before 20 kya 2 Na Dene 165 kya 3rd EskimoAleut less than 5 kya Anthropology 140 Introduction to Prehistory H 2 One Arrival Event before 20 kya followed by linguistic divergence H 3 Many Arrivals beginning 2017 kya BOTTOMLINE Linguistic Data support initial expansion into the Americas no later than 20 kya The data we have examined so far indicate initial expansion had to have occurred by at least 20 kya not more recently Oldest West Siberian Archaeological Data 40 kya Oldest East Siberian Archaeological Data 27 kya Bering Land Bridge closed by 1310 kya Genetic Data 9 Arctic Northeast Asia Siberian Origins Linguistic Data 9 Initiated no later than 20 kya T OCCURRED AT SOME POINT 4020 KYA PART 2 PALEOAMERICAN ANATOMICAL DATA Few skeletal specimens have been recovered from the period before 9 kya With a few exceptions dating of specimens once thought to be ancient was far from secure because recoveries were made before radiocarbon dating and most did not have good provenience data Example of Problem Cerro Soto 2 Chile Recovered in a cave in 1936 originally dated at 11 kya But radiocarbon dating has since revised it to 35 kya too recent in time for us Del Mar skull CA Recovered in a shell midden in 1929 originally dated at 12 kya But radiocarbon dating has since revised it to 5 kya too recent in time for us Example of Problem The two exceptions were recovered in the 19905 On Your Knees Cave Alaska 105 kya Kennewick Washington 95 kya On Your Knees Cave Alaska 105 kya ncludes poorly preserved skeletal fragments of a young adult human male Carbon isotope analysis indicates that he had a marinebased diet shellfish fish In fact the amount of sea food in his diet was equivalent to that detected from carbon isotope analysis of marine carnivores seals sea otters Kennewick Man Washington 95 kya Recovered in 1996 a careless or disreputable researcher wrongly implied that Kennewick Man was of European ancestry In fact the individual was of East Asian descent Kennewick Man stood about 5 9 tall He was 3855 yo at death and fairly robust Except for moderate osteoarthritis in some joints he was healthy at the time of death