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Media in Society (GT

by: Elisabeth Swift

Media in Society (GT JTC 100

Elisabeth Swift
GPA 3.74

Pamela Jackson

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Pamela Jackson
Class Notes
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This 18 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elisabeth Swift on Tuesday September 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to JTC 100 at Colorado State University taught by Pamela Jackson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see /class/210212/jtc-100-colorado-state-university in Journalism and Mass Communications at Colorado State University.

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Date Created: 09/22/15
Overview amp MusicRecordings Pt 1 1312011 45700 PM EvoluTion of Mass Media Three developmenTal sTages of new media Technology 0 NovelTy STage o EnTrepreneurial sTage o MarkeTing STage HisToricalperspecTive o AdapTion EvoluTion o AdapTion Triggers o WhaT caused The need for adapTion Social and culTural Trends ie changes in consumer preferences or socieTal values ShifTs in The legal regulaTory or poliTical environmenT under which The mass media operaTe FCC changes regulaTions ThaT forces TV or Radio To shifT or adapT U Can T own so many sTaTions naTionally CourT cases can shifT adapTion CompeTiTion from a new or exisTing mass medium Television devasTaTed oTher mediums of media Took a loT from radio for conTenT producTion models eTc STole away audience from movies magazines and radio New Technology 0 AdapTion Techniques Change in conTenT WiTh inTro of Television radio swiTched from dramas and sTories To music Change in TargeT audience Demographic shifT in TargeTing audience Changed from TargeTing general audience To specific audiences Demographics age gender locaTion eTc Change in formaT or mode of disTribuTion Legacy Media vs New media Go where ever audience goes To survive 0 Online newspapers vs newsprinT 0 Facebook o In digiTal age media has To Think as conTenT providers 0 Have To provide on mulTiple planorms such as inTerneT TV newsprinT o The key is economic survival Music From Edison To Rock amp Roll Thomas Edison Phonogrdph 1877 Telephone amp Telegraph O O O Envisioned ds Telephone repedTer EquinlenT of voicemdil Cylinder records 0 O Emile Berliner o Grdmophone 188788 0 Used dlbum shdped discs prinTed from mdsTer copy 0 Endbled beTTer mdss producTion of sound recordings 0 Chedper Thdn wax cylinders To produce FirsT forde deTle beTween The disc and Edison s cylinder 0 Common myTh Tth superior Technology ledys wins 0 Disc wins due To chedpness of producTion dnd chedper To purchdse Phonogrdph record pldyer o Added To eThnogrdphic record 0 Chdnged music consumpTion hdbiTs o Allowed for music To be pldying in The bdckground o No longer hdd To hire bonds or know how To pldy dn insTrumenT To have music in The house 0 Endbled commercidl music indusTry o dee rddio conTenT and sound To movies 0 Rddio depended on music To survive WOO191039s Boom 0 record sdles sOdr o 23 million in 1914 107 million in 1919 0 World Wdr cduses record sdles To go up Soldier music Propdgdndd pdTrioTic songs 0 Dance Crdzes szz 192039s BusT 0 Rise of Rddio 0 New mdss medid 0 Music as primdry conTenT o ThredTens recorded music indusTry o GredT Depression HurT every indusTry 193039s Boom amp BusT o GredT Depression conTinues To hurT sdles o ProhibiTion ends o Jukeboxes in taverns and bars stimulates demand 0 Generates record sales 0 Better technology 194039s Bust o Musician s strike 0 Essentially shuts down recorded music industry 0 Studio musicians only get paid for the time in the studio not royalties 0 Record labels refuse but know a strike is imminent o Stockpiling of records to release during strike 0 Hoped to out last the strike but did not succeed 0 i944 ends musician strike 0 World War II Factories shift production to support war effort 0 Switched to vinyl 1940s 1950s Boom o Booming economy 0 New technology formats target teens o 45 vs LP 0 Television forces new radio and recording industry partnership 0 Rock and Roll softens racial divide Rock and Roll Read pages 80 87 in text very carefully o Enabled by Economically motivated migration from south to north U Rise of youthoriented culture U Breakdown of racial segregation Cultural Legal 0 Alan Freed DJ as Celebrity Powerful figure in popularizing rock and roll Alan Freed is credited with coining the phrase rock n39 Roll Parents were afraid that rock was breaking down long standing racial boundaries that they wanted to stay in place Only played covered versions of black music covered by white artists Music and Race in the 1950s White Cover music undermines black artists 8586 Cover music Music recorded and released by an artist other than the artist who originally recorded and released the song Racially coded cover music Race charts vs pop charts 0 Race charts later called R amp B charts so they weren t as blatantly racist o Racial coding put blacllt artists at huge economic disadvantage 0 White covers outsold the black original versions Music amp Recording Pt 2 1312011 45700 PM i960s Boom BriTish Invasion BeaTles arrive in New York on February 7 1964 o Appear on Ed Sullivan Show on February 9 i964 Rolling STones make firsT hiT in SaTisfacTion MoTown o RecapTuring audiences siphoned off by The BriTish invasion 0 MoTown groups rivaled success of whiTe groups for The Top hiTs o CulTivaTed romance and dance over rock39s rebellion and poliTics EighTTrack Tapes 0 FirsT porTable way To lisTen To music ouTside of radio 0 Originally made for cars noT homes 0 Ford boughT sales piTch and all 1966 fords had eighTTracllt players LaTe i970s and early i980s BusT and Boom Audio casseTTes Album sales drop 20 CasseTTes allowed people To record radio ThoughT To be The demise of The album Dance Crazes o MoTown o Disco 0 CounTry Dance movies and Television 0 Soul Train 0 SaTurday NighT Fever i980s Boom 1981 MTV Music videos Music culTure prior To and posT MTV Didn T need radio anymore To make a hiT 198283 CompacT Discs 0 Combined compuTer Technology wiTh music 0 CD became ideal ProTesT Music eTnam and Civil righTs o Edwin STarr War AeTnam proTesT o Crosby STills Nash and Young Ohio VieTnam KenT STaTe proTesT 19903 Protest Music IceT Rap and Heavy Metal 1992 Cop Killer 0 Major controversy Music amp Recording Part III 1312011 45700 PM Adaptation music in the digital age Digital downloads have not surpassed physical music sales primarily CD In 2010 digital download sales plateaued o Came as a shock to recording companies 0 Record labels blame piracy for this low increase Battle over music online First industry P2P lawsuits filed September 2003 Initial target people who had average illegal downloads of 1000 songs Fines sought 750 150000 per song Ultimately thousands of lawsuits filed against individual Settlements averaged 3000 Designed to instill fear into people to stop downloading illegally Ripped Greg Kot for more information Radiohead Tip jar experiment Released In Rainbows online for free but took contributions and donations 50 of people didn39t pay for the download Didn t use recording industries or iTunes to promote album When it was released to CD it became the number 1 album in England and America Strategy was a huge success Social media for music Ping announced by apple in September 2010 Social media site based around music All social media is starting to converge and move towards handheld devices Cell phones eBooks handhelds etc Mobile media Music videos on your phone YouTube and Vevo team up Offers music videos on phone via YouTube Radio The Early Years 1312011 45700 PN Technology amp Radio39s Roots Telegraph O O O O O 0 First line established in 1844 DC to Baltimore Enables longdistance voiceless communication Samuel Morris invents this system First time communication exceeds speed of land transportation Eliminated geographical constraints of communication Point to point communication v point to many communication Needed to be sent out to many in order to become a mass medium Wireless Telegraphy O 0 Lee DeForest Marconi receives patent in 1896 Navy use amp commercial shipping Marconi originally designed wireless device for land to sea and sea to sea communication Failed to see the application of technology past commercial uses Develops Audion tube to amplify wireless signals 1906 Enables voice and music transmissions over the ainvaves Helps wireless telegraphy evolve into commercial radio Envisioned this as a mass medium 9 allows step towards radio Early Regulation of Radio Wireless Ship At 1910 Radios required on all major US oceangoing ships with 50 passengers 0 O O O O O 1909 SS republic collides into another ship in heavy fog Sent out 6 transmissions had a wireless telegraphy station on board Other ships came to aide Wireless telegraphy credited with saving most of the passengers Congress realizes value as emergency tool Act of 1910 required radios on all major US oceangoing ships with 50 passengers and an operator Operator does not have to stay in the same room as the radio Correct this oversight after the Titanic sinllts Titanic 1912 Sent out 6 transmissions u u U Had a wireless telegraphy station on board D Other ships did not receive transmission since operators were not near telegraphy station David Sarnoff Hired by Marconi TaughT himself Morse code learned To operaTe radio Became one of The mosT powerful people in TV and radio 72 hours receiving informaTion abouT The TiTanic from various ships and passing The informaTion on To Newspapers 0 firsT reporTs of whaT happened made radio a household name gave deTails as he heard iT from The ship Radio AcT of 1912 Seabased Ships required To have a conTinuous waTch wiTh aT leasT Two cerTified radio operaTors one musT always be aT The sTaTion Landbased All broadcasTers required To have license To operaTe need license To broadcasT across sTaTe lines World War I 19141918 Public use sTalled Navy soughT TighT conTrols on radio operaTions o ShuT down public use of TransmiTTers GovernmenT conTrolled paTenTs AmaTeur Radio amp Early STaTions AmaTeur operaTors hobbyisTs and Tinllterers Early NonProfiT STaTions 0 Churches 0 School disTricTs amp colleges 0 Businesses Commercial STaTions Emerge KDKA Nov 2 1920 PresidenTial elecTion reTurns broadcasT o MosT hisTorians consider This The firsT professional broadcasT of commercial radio Bringing Order To Chaos Radio AcT of 1927 o EsTablishes Federal Radio Commission FRC To oversee regulaTion of radio Issue licenses Tell Them whaT frequency To broadcasT on 0 Public owns ainvaves noT licenses 0 Radio had To be regulaTed in manner ThaT served public inTeresT convenience or necessiTy Federal CommunicaTions AcT of 1934 o Replaces FRC wiTh Federal Communications Commission FCC and expands jurisdicTion To include Telephone Telegraph and Television Radio as a Commercial Medium Rise of adverTising o DeparTmenT of Commerce banned early adverTising called Toll BroadcasTing o 1922 WEAF New York defies ban 9 Real EsTaTe ad 0 RegulaTors ulTimaTely relenT Sponsorships 0 Companies underwroTe cosTs 0 Company name in program TiTle Rise of The Radio NeTworlltsl 1926 NBC Founded by David Sarnoff RCA 1928 CBS Founded by William Paley 1943 ABC Founded by Edward Noble Turns radio info The mosT popular mass medium unTil The TV comes along Radio in The Golden Age PrivaTe ownership of broadcasT sysTem noT broadcasT specTrum NeTworlltaffiliaTe cosTsharing sysTems AdverTisersupporTed CulTurally unifying nTroduces America To PSA Public Service AnnouncemenT World War II 9 PSAs PromoTed paTrioTism War propaganda Varied programming conTenT Supposed To have mass appeal News amp sporTs varieTy shows soap operas quiz shows music wesTerns mysTeriesdramas concerTs Modern Radio Surviving TV 1312011 45700 PM Radio Survives Television Portability Radio networllt affiliate system starts to die off Radio targets audiences differently Shift to cheaper content Return to music as primary content Audience segmentation and the vertical format Gordon McClendon Top 40 Rotation Allnews and talk When it comes to regulating radio today how many radio stations across the nation may a single media firm own There is no ownership cap on radio stations Radio Ownership 9 Read The Economics of Broadcast Radio p 136 139 1996 Federal Telecommunications Act relaxes ownership rules Mergerwave results Clear Channel leads in ownership January 201 i President Obama signs the Local Community Radio Act 0 Passed with bipartisan support 0 Allows for biggest expansion of community radio stations in US history Current Trends Most popular format NewsTalk Older you are the more you listen Most Americans still listen broadcast radio Television Part I 1312011 45700 PM Vladimir Zworylltin Electrical Engineer i923 Iconoscope transmitter i929 Kinescope receiver Philo T Farnsworth Forgotten Father of TV High school education some college 1922 shows science teacher his drawings for image dissector 1934 first public demo of radio with pictures Battle over TV Zworylltin visits Farnsworth RCA creates hybrid system RCA amp Farnsworth sue each other RCA loses TV ready for commercial debut TV 19391945 1939 World s Fair Sarnoff predicts demise of radio FCC allocates channels 213 By 1941 only two stations operating CBS and NBC RCAowned WWII interrupts research on TV technology FCC Moratorium 1948 1952 By 1948 109 licensed stations Licensing freeze More channels allocated Protecting educational TV Easy Transition from Radio Modeled after radio 0 Programming content 0 Network affiliate system 0 Advertising sponsorships Audience habits 0 Family routines changed The Quiz Show Scandals By 1957 Quiz Shows were 5 out of the TO most popular shows Top 2 the 64000 question and 64000 challenge Fallout Fed answers to the contestant in order to boost ratings brought embarrassment to the networks Quiz Show Scandals Congress makes it illegal to fix a quiz show Ended sponsorship as dominate model of advertising Eliminated advertisers influence over creating programming content Destroyed public s faith and trust of TV Television The Rise amp Fall of the Big Three1312011 45700 PM In a formaT baTTle beTween compeTing Technologies DVD and Laserdisc The Technology ThaT wins ouT Typically is Consumer convenience facTor The NeTwork Era i950si 970s Big 3 dominaTe TV enTers poliTics in SepT 1960 The GreaT DebaTes o FirsT of four Televised presidenTial debaTes The Decline of The Big 3 The Decline of The NeTwork Era 16571 RiseFall of Public TV 162165 Three major facTors o GovernmenT regulaTions 0 Second coming of neTworllt TV 9 cable MTV VHT eTc 0 New Technologies The VCR impacT on TV VCR 2SysTems 9 BeTamax 1975 v VHS 197677 0 VHS beaTs ouT BeTamax Cable EnTers The PicTure i940s FirsT small cable sysTems emerge i970s HBO WTBS decline of Big Three i980s Second Coming of neTworllt TV i990s Explosion of Themed neTworllts The DVR ImpacT on TV DigiTal Technology changes consumpTion habiTs DVR brings us 0 DigiTal TimeshifTing o InsTanT replay of live TV TiVo record 0 JacksonTimberlake Super Bowl performance CurrenT Trends AdapTaTion responses 0 Increasing producT placemenT o RevisiTing singlesponsorships 0 Live commercials o Cheaper conTenT RealiTy TV 810 million for friends produce one episode of redlily lvl million or less Motion Pictures Part 1 1312011 45700 PM Origins efforts to capture images began long ago Cave drawings were used to tell a story How did they create images 0 Dirt charcoal with spit or animal fat Ancient Egyptians o Tombs with elaborate stories 0 Organic paints Censorship 0 Attempts by religious leaders Some claimed recreation of reality was the work of the devil Aniconism U opposition to the use of iconsvisual images to depict living creatures or religious figures 15th century evolution from frescoes to oil on canvas creating a device that would recreate reality Began in 1810s escalated in 1830s Eadweard Muybridge Blends field biology and movie camera Uses multiple cameras to study locomotion Early Film Technology George Eastman 0 Film 1889 celluloid Thomas Edison 0 Key role in invention commercialization Early movies provided important new narrative medium for storytelling 1903 The Great Train Robbery first popularwestern Early theaters i900 Nickelodeons Nickel per movie Studio System Edison39s Trust 1908 o Carlel of US amp French producers is born wilh exclusive deal wilh Easlman Hollywood 1910s Sludio syslem eslablished 1920s Slar syslem eslablished 1915 Firsl Epic Birlh of a Nalion DW Griffith Civil War Reconslruclion 3 hours long Racial Slereolypes NAACP prolesl Black Film Noble amp George Johnson 0 Porlrayed everyday life Oscar Micheaux o Wifhin Our Gales 0 Made 44 films belween 1948 0 Survived


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