History of Media
History of Media JTC 311
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elisabeth Swift on Tuesday September 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to JTC 311 at Colorado State University taught by James Landers in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 75 views. For similar materials see /class/210214/jtc-311-colorado-state-university in Journalism and Mass Communications at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 09/22/15
5132013 120900 AM Margaret BourkeWhite famous photographer for Life covers pictures brought her international fame 1St cover picture of a dam in Montana built during the depression that was a symbol of the nation s belief in technology to solve problems Eugene Debs Socialist candidate for president in 1916 imprisoned for antiwar speeches Sedition Act of 1918 received 13k votes for prez while in prison Hollywood 10 amp House UnAmerican Activities Committee Nixon 1St term member of Congress amp HUAC subpoenas to dozens of HW stars directors producers some refused to answer s from HUAC amp spent a year in Federal Prison Edward R Murrow pioneer of onscene radio reporting CBS News ThisisLondon high ratings close to bombingsshrapnel See It Now program about the Red Scare devoted whole program to Senator McCarthy and his list of communists Joe Rosenthal Pulitzer Prize recipient for photograph of Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima from WWII most iconic photo of the war speculations that it was staged New York Times landmark constitutional case of the Pentagon Papers copy of papers given to NYT reporter played watchdog role US Gov t prior restraint of publication NYT claimed 1St Amendment freedom George Creel director of Committee on Public Info WWI committee based around propaganda for support of the war censorship news that could hurt morale David Halberstam NYT reporter went on patrol amp stayed at military outposts in the boondocks o used military combat advisors as his sources o known for his skepticism in his reporting Henry Luce publisher of Time Life amp Fortune promised to publish truthful amp honest photos but no graphic ones militant anticommunist Ted Turner modern media mogul bought Channel 17 Atlanta and had a satellite leased channels on RCA satellite became Turner Broadcasting System TBS Braves amp Hawks games formed CNN in 1980 1St 24 hr news channel created media empire MGM Cartoon NW Turner Classic Movies merged with TimeWarner in 1996unaffiliated soon after Walter Cronkite United Press Radio reporter most trusted US journalist flew several missions over Germany w wire recorder Ernie Pyle WWII Report who wrote about the common soldier for audiences back home hungry for news about loved ones told truth about horrors of the war got to know soldiers personally GI Joe movie based on his columns killed by Japanese machinegunner soon after the movie released Seymour Hersh traveled to interview a dozen soldiers involved in the My Lai Massacre Lt Calley stood trial for all of the murders most NPs ignored the truth many readers complained that the story and photos associated with it were obscene amp unpatriotic Time ampLife mags advocated military preparednessintervention in Europe Winston Churchill on covers 9 tremendous orator oversized pages in Life added to drama effect censors approved photos of wounded soldiers if it reassured ppl at home photo of sailor kissing woman reporter Charles Mohr described Viet Kong victory over southern Vietnam but the mag changed the story Time endorsed the war Life paid 50k for JFK assassination film published photos of the incident but none of him actually being shot 5132013 120900 AM 5132013 120900 AM Audit Bureau of Circulations 1912 publishers organized ABC to certify subscriptionnewspaper sales magazines ampnp s were routinely falsifying circulation data of copies distributed NW Ayer amp Son ad agency insisted on verified circulation numbers Edward Bok replaced Louisa Knapp Curtis Cyrus s wife as editor of Ladies Home Journal made it a household name Ruth Ashmore column9 readers asked s persuaded Curtis to take a moral stand against patent medicine ads Mary Booth founding editor of Harper s Bazaar harper s weekly for women became a celebrityrole model for women ofthe era latest fashions from NY and Europe Frederick Ives Cornell perfected but didn t invent the halftone press in 1886 halftone photo reproduction photos of actress Sarah Bernhart coor printing 4 color press artful beautiful covers cyan magenta yellow black immediate benefit for women s magazines only available for paintings not photographs William Randolph Hearst editor publisher of Cosmopolitan cover w eagle chained amp unable to fly bc of senate 1906 wrote about robber barons wealthy vs poor corruption temperance amp prohibition violence attacks against Morman cult hated Roosevelt Treason ofthe Senate edition attacked 9 republicans Samuel McClure founderpublisher 1St national expose mag muckraker David Graham Phillips journalistnovelist author of T of Senate cosmo caused Roosevelt to speak to DC attacked Cosmo amp muckrakers on podium historians credit Cosmo series for ratification of 17th Amendment direct election of senators by citizens Jacob Riis 1St photojournalist How the Other HafLVes photographic essay of poverty amp slums tenemants NYC 1890s photos touched public s conscience middleampupperclass reformers toured slums established settlement houses for poor ppl photo essays of girls packing soap inspired child labor laws Triangle Shirtwaist Factory 146 women dead in fire public anger fire safety laws implemented George Rowell advertising executive amp publisher founded Printers Ink 1888 first advertising trade magazine Upton Sinclair author of The Jungle unsanitary food processing spent months in Chicago stockyard district about the lives ofthe workers amp conditions of slaughterhouses aimed forthe hearts of Americans but instead hit their stomachs Congress established Food and Drug Administration in 1906 Lincoln Steffens The Shame ofthe Cites muckraker for McClure s left w Baker amp Tarbell and bought Amercan mag continuedmuckracking but sold it in 1913 Ida Tarbell muckraker noted biographer of Lincoln amp Napoleon diligent writer daughter of oil wildcatter father s business bankrupted by Rockefeller her serial expose consisted of 19 articles published by McClure s later became best selling book Hsfoy of the Standard 07 Co Roosevelt forced US attorney general to file antitrust lawsuit 9 Supreme Ct ordered breakup of Standard Oil into 34 separate companies J Walter Thompson dominant ad agency fullservice agencies earned 15 commissions for creating ads developing ad strategies amp placing ads 1890s 1920s Hired copywriters artists account reps space buyers agent departments specialized by category of products John Brisben Walker cadet that went AWOL amp booted out real estate investor owned 18 Denver city blocks owner of 1600 acre farm bought Cosmopolitan Dec 1888 editorpublisher for 16 years creator ofthe modern mag hired Mark Twain to write a story attempted night photography at World Fair more pages of news amp commentary paid premium fees for famous authors stopped publishing of The Awakening too graphic sold Cosmo for 400k founded auto company patent to Stanley Steamer engine bought acres in Morrison Regis University died broke at 83 Advertising in Media Cultural commercializing holidays economic primary rev source social creation of consumer culture Gilded age America chocolate gifts for valentines day retailers sold most of merchandise week afterthanksgiving macy s mags doubled ad pages in Dec amp Jan eastercommericialized bc of wealthy women wearing bonnets started fashion season mothers day Joyce Hall hallmarktraveling salesman Ad agencies J Walter Thompson Ayer amp son fase advertising started Federal Trade Commission 1914 Magazine Rev 1800518805 genteel readership very pricey poetry literature slowly transformed from family to pop culture to literary to women s fashion 1860s 1890519105 MODERNITY progressive era Colliers 1St pic magazine Women s Mag 1St to hit 1 mil copies explosion of categorical demands 40 adults now reading mags huge income jumps for all classes penny per pound postage rate congress preferential postage status for mags railroad system timely halftone press women s mag most successful LADIES HOME JOURNAL values of WASP social conformity LHJ advocated women s role in civic life but not right to vote 1St mag in world to sell 1 mil copies Good Housekeeping seal of approval on products Colliers 1St illustrated weekly full page photos 2nd mag to hit 1 mila week Century popular in 1880s1890s editor disliked realism frontspiece artful paintings wood engravings Cosmo founded by Schlicht family mag fiction essays hybrid ofall mags ran out of money and forced to lower subscription costs sold to Walker big success until McClure s became competitive amp cheaper McClures surpassed Cosmo in 1899 Reform Journalism State legistlatures corrupt or ineffective NYC tenemants Jacob Riis fire safety food unsanitary lda wellsbarnett wrote about racial injustice patent medicines Roosevelt urged journalists to expose hazards to consumers 17th amendment re safety FDA child labor laws 8hr workday for women workmen s compensation Study Guide Exam 3 4182013 32200 PM William Randolph Hearst begins with NYJournal across from Pulitzer s building amp doubles salaries for reporters Yeow Journalism scandalous amp inaccurate new Yellow Kid competition over character that Pulitzer created created the International News Service to provide news to his NPs amp others 19205 created Cosmopolitan Productions o Marion Davies actress and Hearst s mistress readers didn t know about the relationship o Convergence news Hearst Corp was a media empire varying media feeds each other when owned by same company o Synergy cross promotion eg Ford vehicles w discounted ads in NPs mags radio stations etc Hearst s movies expensive amp he overspent merged Cosmoamp Hearts Mags buit huge residence in San Simeon CA Cosmopolitan purchased in 1905 by Hearst Ceebrity endorsements Amelia Earhart column started in 1929 on aviation disappeared in 37 o Harrison Fisher received 3k per cover illustration o Prez Coolidge 23 29 no presidential pension back then publishes his memoirs made it a highly regarded mag amp paid him 75k for them o Short stories from Faith Baldwin some became movies 1932 merged with Hearts Magsamp had best writers in America Ray Long Cosmo editor ampIntnt Mag Corp vice president 191831 140 hrsweek reading manuscripts paid top dollar for star authors doube revenue from ad pgs because of classified ads for upperincome families made 180k in 1925 called Hearst Grandpa in telegrams Cosmo took hit in 1932 bc of Depression o CEO of Hearst Corp Berlin tells Hearst to fire Long unpublished Fisher covers amp manuscripts 9 wasted gets fired amp commits suicide 4 years later Orson Welles director of Citizen Kane 1941 movie about WRH attacked Hearst and Marion Hearst s columnists directed to attack Welles called him red communist theaters pressured by Hearst to not show the movie amp it becomes a box office failure Welles changed films bc of his multiple characters linear storyline ppl talking over each other actors in shadows so audience paid attention had idea to recreate War of the Worlds by Orwell over the air right before popular radio program came on o demonstrated the way radio could manipulate public opinion FCC Federal Communications Commission 1927 Federal Radio Commission by Congress because no previous gov t regulation assigned ea Station with certain power level amp frequency any person w money could start a station amp this caused signal overlap interference 1934 FCC formed from FRC radio news became factor because of huge drop in noncommercial stations after regulation Roscoe Fatty Arbuckle played a sad clown notorious for b movie wrapup parties death of Virginia Rappe up amp coming actress at party became nat l scandal Rappe s inner body crushedamp internal bleeding Arbuckle arrested amp found innocent scandal proved to Americans that the movie lifestyle was bad not enough evidence against Arbuckle to charge him but his career was still over Will Hays Motion Picture Producers Association s executive director enforced the code for Hollywood movies 26 can and can do things gangsters must die or go to prison kiss time was 3 sec maximum separate beds for married couples onefoot on the floor rule banned words like hell damn and pregnant Tarzan s Jane outfit too revealing Gone w the Wind actor quote Frankly my dear I don t give a damn erequired special exemption from the code Henry Luce media magnate started with radio program Time Marches On multimedia newsreels createdLife magazine in 1936 amp if you were hired you were considered to be the best Life combined pop mainstream culture w urbane intellectual culture extra long pages featured a 2pg spread pioneered the bleed photos into the margins internationalist9 would alert readers about world events amp prepare them for the American Century Robert Capa combat photographer falling soldier photo Margaret Bourke photojournalist experienced w contrast amp texture which attracted Luce o became highest paid US photographer gargoyle photo on Chrysler building 1St Life edition NBC National Broadcasting Company 1926 any person w could buy a tower amp have a station David Sarnoff ATampT radio operator that tried to coordinate rescue for Titanic became NBC prez red and blue stations sold blue station in 19405 ended up as ABC FCC came up with the rule of 7 no more than 7 stations Time first weekly newsmagazine started in 1923 by Luce and his Yale classmate Briton Hadden promised to save time for the busy man by organizing the news into separate catergories Luce started Life after Hadden died began to produce weekly newsreels 10 min productions that showed news events before movies played Westbrook Pegler widely read and flamboyant war correspondent mass circulation columnist that opposed Roosevelt and the New Deal o Roosevelt had little respect for most columnists very antagonistic towards them Grantland Rice reporting giant from the Golden Era of Sports 1920s first playbyplay World Series 9 Rice called the action for KDKA Pittsburgh pioneer for commercial radio stations 4182013 32200 PM 1920519305 Advertising radio had tremendous impact on sports ppl events while played or re created by announcers Direct Sponsorship document o complete script control by sponsor o sponsor s product became part of the script 9 mentioned in scenes 0 eg Maxwell house Coffee o intensified marketing diffusion NPs mags radio 9 product placement references amp advertising explodes Cigarettes major advertiser category c 16 of revenue o didn t make false claims just presented questionable facts o colored packaging amp menthol for women athlete endorsements celebrities lose weight 4182013 32200 PM Samuel Adams wrote commentary essays 1760s Parliament repealed Sugar amp Stamp Acts in 1766 for Fr amp Indian War organizer of Sons of Liberty amp Boston Tea Party demonstrated power ofprotest Ben Franklin printer s apprentice for 5 years Pennsylvania Gazette ampP00r Richard s Almanac financed print shops for journeymen printers 9 25 interest per yr Benjamin Day founder of NYSLm sparked newsboysstreet urchins crimes human interest hoaxes Moon hoaX Iames Gordon Bennett Ir Founder of N YHeraId invested in steam powered cylinder press even faster money section letter to editor sports rowing boxing bicycling foreign corresp much competition bw Bennett amp Day sparked sensationalism stretching of truth story about prostitute murder made street sales skyrocket Matthew Brady Lincoln s photographer during civil war opened a bunch of galleries hired photographers for war photographer s wagon carried all equipment stationary photos glass negatives used for covers of greenhouses sunstorm damaged Horace Greeley NY Tribune18111872 became major employer biggest building in NYC for 20 years thought that news was to inform not entertain middle class New Yorkers 1st national newspaper believed popularity could make him prez offered jobs for political outreach tarnished rep died 1 month later Elijah Lovejoy Presbyterian Pastor during Civil War abolitionist publisher in Illinois murdered by an angry mob proslavery Iane Grey Swisshelm abolitionist editor in Minnesota abolitionist editors fire eaters in ammatory rhetoric organizational ads against slavery Benjamin Franklin Bache publisher of The Aurora during Partisan Press Era AntiFederalist paper accused Hamilton of adultery true published secret documents ay Treaty w Britain commercial trade pact angered many Americans first editor arrested un the Sedition Act of 1798 Sir William Blackstone created Blackstone s Law no prior restraint but personal responsibility instead amp punishment after publication William ByersRoCky Mountain News 185 9 started quotboosterismquot to promote Denver didn t like 24 hour saloons wanted them closed by 2 am kidnapped by thugs amp rescued by posse on mountain Frederick Douglass abolitionist North Star helped with underground Railroads to send slaves to Canada political activism against slavery William Lloyd Garrison Liberator editor promoted slave rebellion inspired Nat Turner slave rebellion Virginia governor issues warrant for arrest 1831 Thomas IeffersonAntiFederalist lost election against John Adams in 1798 but became VP 1800 election ran against Adams amp won Sedition Act renewed by Feds but Iefferson refused to sign pardoned all editors convicted all 25 were AntiFeds Thomas Painewrote quotCommon Sense during Battle of Lexington in Revolution quotthere is no Divine right we don t need Britain inspired majority of colonists to favor independence from Britain persuaded Americans to sacrifice for Patriot cause wroteCr1395139s pamphlet form inspired farmerslaborers to join Continental Army John Peter Zenger printer publisher for NY Weekly journal 4 rich investors owned the NP amp he had to write what they said called the royal governor a quotsnakequot 9 considered seditious libel Blackstone s Law came into play jurors ignored judge and found him quotnot guilty
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