Public Relations JTC 350
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elisabeth Swift on Tuesday September 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to JTC 350 at Colorado State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see /class/210219/jtc-350-colorado-state-university in Journalism and Mass Communications at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 09/22/15
DEFINING PUBLIC RELATIONS 0 Modern Thinking o Focuses on honesty understanding and compromise to ensure 39a proper adjustment of the interrelationships ofpublics and businesses 0 Performance 0 Good PR is in the public interest it mutually beneficial 0 Management function ifnothing works at the top it won t work at the bottom 0 Defining Modern PR 0 Management function that establishes and maintains mutually beneficial relationships between an organization and the publics on which its success or failure depends o 3 Dimensions ofmodern PR I 1 Managing PR involves research planning and evaluation I 2 Strategic prioritizes and focuses on important issues and publics I 3 Relationships establishes relationships maintains communications and promotes mutual adjustment 0 6 Key words that define PR 0 Deliberate Planned Performance Public Interest Towway Communication Management function 0 How PR differs 0 PR v journalism I PR broader 0 Its strategy and problem solving I Objectives different 0 PR delivers direct message 0 We want to change attitudes and behavior I PR advocacy vs journalism objectivity I PR target audiences vs journalism general public I Both use multiple media 0 PR v Advertising I Publicity uncontrolled vs paid advertising controlled I Advertising 0 Primarily uses mass media 0 Primarily directed to external publics I Advantages 0 Get a guarantee placement 0 Control media 0 Control when and where it runs I Disadvantages 0 Cost is expensive I PR broader 0 You work with ad department 0 Much broader audiences I Advertising is a paid placement 0 PRv Marketing I Marketing 0 Develops productsservices to meet needs 0 Culminates in transaction or exchange PR broader manage relationships cultivate good will vs marketing sell productsservices PR publics target audiences vs marketing customers consumers The future strategic communication IMC integrated marketing communications HISTORY OF PUBLIC RELATIONS 0 Six eras ofPR o Seedbed Era 19001917 I Muckracking journalism I Defensive press agentrypublicity I First US publicity firm Publicity Bureau Boston 0 Established to campaign against railroad regulation I First university publicity programs Yale Harvard I First charitable fundraising campaign YMCA I The era ofIvy Lee 0 WWI Era 19191929 I Publicity goes on the offense I The Creel Committee mobilizes support for WWI o Creel Committee was started by George Creel and assembled people to support the war effort 0 Convinced newspapers and magazines to save food invest in liberty bonds 0 Booming 3920s Era 191929 I The spread of PR practice following the war I Lippmann quotPublic Opinion 192 2 I The era of Edward Bernays and Arthur Page 0 Roosevelt Era 19301945 I FDR and mastery ofPR 0 Used press conference and interviews to get public support I Emergence of radio as powerful medium I Office ofWar Information Davis 0 Released war news 0 Abolished 3 years later I Growth of mutually beneficial to both parties I Gallup Roper polls established mid 1930s 0 Assessed public opinion I Growth as advertising as PR tool 0 Post WWII era 19451965 0 Global Emergence of TV as powerful medium Growth of PR education at universities Creation ofprofessional PR associations 0 Public Relations Society ofAmerica Era of ReX Harlow Information Society 1965present Sputnik global satellite communications Cable TV CNN 247 news Computers WWW Internet Social Media Cellphones mobile technologies PUBLIC RELATIONS PIONEERS Ivy Lee 0 Declar 0 Public 0 First p ation of Principles Public no longer to be ignored not fooled public to be kept fully informed All publicity work done in open All information accurate all facts verifiable Information provided promptly to press and public information model of PR erson to use press releases 0 The father ofPR Edward Bernays Memb Wrote OOOOO Considered the father ofmodern PR Stance we should take a science approach to PR For advocacy and persuasion er of Creel Committee 1st PR book taught 1st PR course 0 The Father of Spin Arthur Page 0 Said PR should be part of a higher management voice 000 SiX pri Rex Harlow Performance out weighs press for public approval Father of Corporate PR nciples 1 Tell the truth 2 Prove it with action 3 Listen to customer 4 Manage for tomorrow 5 Conduct PR as if the whole company depends on it 6 Remain calm patient goodhumored 0 First fulltime educator 0 Found ed PR Iournal 0 Led establishment of PRSA Founded Social Science Reporter 0 Efforts to define PR 0 Father of PR profession 0 Father of PR Research Academic research PR CAREERS 0 PR Duties 0 Relationship management 0 Media Relations 0 Program planning 0 Writing and editing 0 Production of tactics 0 Special Events 0 Speaking 0 Research and evaluation 0 Essential abilities 0 Where the jobs are 0 Corporate departments 0 PR agenciesfirms largest sector across employers I Corporations 1 client 1 company salaries and benefits more job stability I Agency multiple clients salaries are smaller better advancement more credibility objective more resources more offices more skills and specialties o Disadvantages may not truly grasp the whole issue lack of commitment resentment from internal staff 0 Government I Single largest PR employer US Government 0 Nonprofit o Freelance PR salaryemployment inequalities O 0 Men vs Women Raceethnicity What students can do now to line up good jobs upon graduation O 0000 Skills needed writingediting new technologiessocial media researchevaluation business Minor in business in industry of interest Multiple internships Campus involvement PRSSA student media organizations Qualities employers want INDUSTRIES AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION Media Relations Why we need it develop brand image we are socially responsible making partnership online presence increase exposure elsewhere and alive keep tradition alive spark conversation Research Know your organization the issue problem or opportunity and the audience Newsworthiness unusual different controversial timely impacts a large number ofpeople local angle involves a prominent person or organization Tactics news releases photographs news conferences media interviews public service announcements talk show appearances guest editorials letters to the editor 10 tips for success be cooperative be accessible be direct be fair be a resource be an authority be an educator be an advocate be a strategist be a team player Crisis Management 0 O Sudden vs Smouldering Crisis acts of god ex Lance Armstrong PEDs 4 stages in a crisis I Warning stage I Point of No return I Clean up phase I Things return to normal Steps to take in a crisis I Precrisis 0 Monitor organization operations 0 Create crisis management plans ID possible scenarios develop checklists for crisis steps line p resourcespersonnel to respond 0 Develop partnerships establish PR crisis management HQ develop media kits hold safety seminars for employees educate community opinion leaders I During Crisis 0 Objectives 0 Strategies 0 Define key messages for media credibility competence caring corporate image have 3 o Timely accurate information to media first press release within one hour 0 Maintain internal communications 0 Counsel management on crisis implications 0 Keep self in the loop I PostCrisis 0 Evaluate communications with key external publics 0 Conduct internal reviews evaluate internal communications delivery ofproducts amp services media hotline o Sportsentertainment PR I Entertainment 0 4 specialties celebrity publicist fashion PR book publicist sports PR 0 Generate positive publicity protect from negative publicity other campaigns 0 Ultra competitive head to East West coast I Sports 0 Marketpromote sports orgs teams athletes events fan participation ticketsouvenir sales sponsorship management community relations 0 Develop tactics for org media relations Internet CSR LEGAL amp ETHICAL ISSUES SHAPING PR PRACTICE 0 PR ethics 0 PRSA Code of Ethics I 6 Values 0 Advocacy serve the public interest 0 Honesty be accurate truthful in communicating w public Expertise seek specialized knowledge experience Independence provide objective counsel to client Loyalty be faithful to client Fairness deal fairly wcompetitors media public I 6 Core Principles 0 Free Flow of Info protect free ow of timely accurate info contribute to informed debate Competition promote healthy fair competition Disclosure ofInformation reveal all sources information needed to make informed decisions Safeguard Confidences protect confidential private info Con icts of Interest avoid real potential perceived con icts ofinterest o Enhance Profession strengthen public trust in profession 0 Ethical Dilemma 0 Solving Ethical Dilemmas I 1 Define ethical con ict I 2 Identity factors that may in uence your decision I 3 Identify affected publics and your ethical obligation to each I 4 Identify PRSA values that will guide your decision I 5 Identify PRSA principles that will guide your decision I 6 Make a decision and justify it 0 PR amp the Law 0 O O O O O O 0 First Amendment freedom of speech Labormanagement relations amp campaign donations I TaftHartley Act of 1947 I Supreme Court quotCitizens United decision 2 010 gives corporations the First Amendment right of free speech Lobbyingforeign agents I Federal Regulation of Lobbying Act of 1946 I Lobbying Disclosure Act of 1995 I Foreign Agents Registration Act of 1938 Access to the media I Federal Communications Acts of 1934 1959 I Fairness Doctrine I Equal Time Rule Access to the Government I Freedom ofInformation Act of 1966 I Sunshine Act of 1976 Libel amp Slander I Libel written vs Slander spoken I 4 conditions proving libel o Defamatory 0 Identify vitim 0 Be communicated to others 0 Contain fault falsehood circulated with malice or negligence I 3 defenses against libel o The truth 0 Privilege statements made in court government meetings etc 0 Fair comment right to comment on people in public eye Invasion of Privacy I Intrusion eavesdropping secretly tape use telephoto lens I Disclosure public disclosure of embarrassing private facts I False Light false statements portray person in misleading way causing humiliation I Appropriation using name or photo ofperson without consent Copyright Infringement I Copyright Law 1909 exclusive right to distribute original works eXists from moment of creation I Copyright protectionindividual v corporation 0 Individuals life 70 years 0 Corporation 95 years from use or 120 from creation I Copyright protection employers v employees freelancers I Fair use of copyrighted material that part ofa copyrighted article may be quoted directly but the quoted material must be briefin relation to length of original work Purpose ofuse commercial V educations Percentage used Effect on market value Credit given to source I Rules of thumb for using copyright material Don t take material out of context permission must be obtained to use segments ofpopular songs Gov t documents are not copyrighted I Copyright issues and the internet same rules apply online 0 TrademarkInfringement I Lanham Act of 1946 protects names logos slogans used by companies I Trademark V Trade name Trademark product Big Mac Air Iordans Trade name company McDonald s Nike I Guidelines for determining trademark infringement 0 Symbols llas defendant used name to capitalize on investment or reputation of another Is there an intent to create confusion or imply a connection llow similar are the two companies Has the original company actively protected the trademark Is the trademark unique Appropriation of personality I TM trademark I SM service mark I R federal trademark symbol I C copyright symbol 0 Investor Relations I Securities and Exchange Commission SEC Iurisdiction over stockholder communications I Securities Act of 1933 Restricts communication before stock offering to make fair for everybody I Security and Exchange Act of 1934 Restricts communication after public stock offering prohibits insider trading amp fraud 0 Commercialadvertisingpublicity I Federal Trade Commission FTC jurisdiction over commercial advertising and publicity I Guidelines for publicity materials Information is accurate substantiated Stick to facts avoid hype Celebrities use endorsed products Language is accurate Provide context for government statistics 0 Describe tests surveys I SubanesOXley Act 2002 result of the Enron and Worldcom financial scandals due to regulatory failings combined with ruthless speculation akin to betting the act failed to protect consumers 1 The four phases ofpublic relations 2 Research a How to categorize research methods i Secondary V primary 1 Secondary research that s already been done 2 Primary research that you conduct on your own a EX Interviews telephoneonline surveys focus groups copy testing ii Qualitative vs quantitative iii Formal vs informal b Secondary Research i Background Research Client issue past communications 1 Looks at the client the issue and past communications a EX annual reports newsletters ii Target Research Demographics psychographics geographics potential publics target audiences Demographics who is your audience seX age race 2 Psychographics looks at shopping media and behavior of audience 3 Geographic topography and where people live and how they react to where they live 4 Mediagraphic iii Media Research available media media use habits 1 Online directories 2 Print directories 3 Campaign Plan Phase I Research a Research Plan i Secondary and primary research b Situation Analysis i Client Pro ie ii Communication audit 1 Target audiences 2 Key messages 3 Media Tactics iii Issue Analysis 1 Force Field Analysis the pros and cons of the situation a Aka the driving forces pros and restraining forces con 2 SWOT Strengths weaknesses opportunities threats c ProblemOpportunity Statement 4 Campaign Plan Phase 11 Planning a Goals i Broad set general direction ii39 iv Format Address problemopportunity Specify desired audience impact 1 Do use bulleted format state as infinitive quotTo 2 Don t lump multiple goals include strategy state too specifically V 2 Types 1 Information Goal use key message points to increase awareness 2 Motivational Goal change attitudes and in uence behavior sometimes easier to measure because they use quantitative results b Target Audiences i Primary audience you want to change ii Intervening can in uence primary audience iii Special any specialized segment of the public iv AKA Primary secondary tertiary Primary you want to change 2 Secondary audience that might have an interest in some aspect of campaign 3 Tertiary someone who s exposed to campaign c Objectives i Audience Impact Objectives 1 Desired impact on primary audiences 2 Hierarchy of objectives easy to hard a b C Increase awareness Change attitudes i Create new attitude ii Change existing attitude Change behavior hardest 3 Output process objectives a Actions and communications by intervening audiences 4 Characteristics of good objectives a d Creative Concept warrenmops Goal rooted Public focused Impact oriented focus on Has to be linked to research Has to be explicit use strong action verbs Measurable Time definite Singular 1 objective 1 response Challenging set goals high Obtainable Acceptable be in line with company s values i quotBig idea for campaign 1 Versus corporate identity which spans all communication efforts ii Two main purposes 1 Unify campaign 2 Grab audience attention iii Can include logo slogan character or other creative element e Action Strategies i Span whole campaign ii Important actions needed to achieve objectives iii Proactive creating campaign to launch new product iv Reactive looking at organization within environment v Examples 1 Organizationalrestructuring 2 Hiring personnel 3 Forming alliances loose and informal coalitions structured sponsorships f Communication strategies by target audience i Message Strategies 1 Compliance strategy reward punishment 2 Logical Argument strategy good for polarized issues a 1sided if TA agrees b 2sided If TA disagrees is educated or will be exposed to counterargument later inoculation 3 Emotional Strategies good for quotparity products a Love humor seX fear guilt etc ii Messages 1 Tips for targeted messages a Appropriate for client and TA Meaningful addresses TA concerns needs interests Memorable words images grab TA attention Understandable use words images that TA understands e Believable claims spokesperson are believable 2 Writing for clarity Wilcox amp Cameron a Do use symbols acronyms slogans b Don t use jargon clich s amp hype euphemisms biased language iii Media Strategies 1 Uncontrolled 2 Controlled iv Tactics 1 Criteria for choosing tactics a Credibility does TA use trust tactic MOST IMPORTANT 9 99 Most credible 1 on 1 face to face eg meeting speech 1 on 1 not face to face eg letter phone call Targeted media eg organization tactics website newsletter specialtytrade journals iv News media eg news release news conference V Least credible paid advertising eg TV commercial banner ad on website iquot b Timeliness when does message need to reach T c Affordability TA size X cost can client afford it 5 Campaign Plan Phase III Implementation a Schedules 3 basic types Gantt Chart 1 Graph format y aXis list of tasks X aXis unit of time week numb er month year 2 Uses X s to identify start and end dates for each tactic or action Three types of tasks i ii iii a Onetime task X b Series of same task X XXXX C Ongoing tasks XX PERT program evaluation review technique Chart 1 Graph format like Gantt 2 Uses numbered circles instead ofX s 3 Connect circles across tasks to get the quotcritical path to completing Action item list 1 Table format columns b Budgets Topdown plan campaign based on set budget provided by i client a 999 Action step numbered list of action steps aka tasks for each tactic or action Responsible person by last name initials or title Scheduled start date MMDDYY for each step Target completion date MMDDYY for each step Actual completion date fill in dates as campaign implementation proceeds Remarks optional clarifying comments re tasks quantities dates ii Bottomup PR professional develops budget based on actual cost of tactics and actions needed to achieve campaign goal 6 Campaign Plan Phase IV Evaluation a Output Evaluation monitor production distribution exposure to tactics and action strategies Bulleted list of output measures organized by tactic or action process objective Measure production distribution exposure to tactics in that order ii39 Include multiple measures for each tactic iv Use action words ie quotcount number ofbrochures distributed v Don t include anticipated result in measure b Outcome Evaluation assess achievement i Bulleted list of outcomes measures organized by primary audience and impact objective ii Include multiple measures for each objective iii Awareness attitudes change on survey behavior iv Include survey method paragraph if applicable followed by bulleted list of questions on survey 1 Include questions in text or crossreference questions by number on appended survey c From Chapter 8 i Measures ofproduction ii Measures ofmessage exposure iii Measures of audience awareness iv Measures of audience attitudes v Measures of audience action aka behavior vi Measures of supplemental activities
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