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Cognitive and Language Development

by: Maureen Lynch

Cognitive and Language Development HDFS 320

Maureen Lynch
GPA 3.89

Lisa Daunhauer

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Lisa Daunhauer
Class Notes
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maureen Lynch on Tuesday September 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HDFS 320 at Colorado State University taught by Lisa Daunhauer in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see /class/210221/hdfs-320-colorado-state-university in Human Dev And Family Sciences at Colorado State University.

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Date Created: 09/22/15
Change Blindness Ppl don t notice the gorilla when watching ball passes Immediate memory Can t necessarily retrieve later What fraction of nonsense syllables can we remember About 13 of them Pair Associate Learning Pair things into categories gr0ups compared to random groups ofwords 3 Stages Conceptual Model of Memory 1 Information moving into the system Working Memory encoding 3 Permanent Memory longterm retrieval 4 Types of Permanent Memory 1 Declarative 2 Procedural 3 Conceptual 4 Episodic Declarative Memory Facts my house is red Procedural Memory How you do things ride a hike play piano Conceptual Memory 347 and 7 is greater than 3 or 4 Developmental Info too Episodic Memory 911 When and Where Main Aspect of Baddeley s Model for WM Central Executive w helpers Visuo spatial Soratohpad and Phonological Loop to get info Into Long Term What is Encoding Forming a mental representation of an experience Selective and Interpretive 2 Ways of forming Permanent 1 Rehearsal Memories Records 2 Elaboration getting to know something indepth Embellish the experience w additional details 3 Ways to Retrieve Records 1 Recall cues 2 Recognition sensing something and feeling you39ve done so before 3 Inferential Reconstruction Cues but only retrieving pieces of a more complete record Example of Inferential Reconstruction Paul Paul What s his name Compatibility Principle of Memory More likely to remember things in the same placestate that you learned them in 3 Theories of Forgetting 1 Decay use it or lose it Inference Retroactive and Proactive 3 Loss ofretrieval cues cues missing that were there when record was formed N Inference Theory of Forgetting Retroactive v Proactive Retroactive new information causes difficulty remembering old information Proactive old information interferes with new information What is Problem Solving Mental process that occurs when you have a goal for a situation and you decide on the best way to accomplish it Zelazo s Framework for Problem 1 Problem Representation solving 4 understand there39s a problem 2 Planning select actions 3 Execution 4 Evaluation of outcomes 2 Keys to ProblemSolving 1 Monitor keep track ofprogress 2 Evaluate do I need to go back and do something differently 2 Keys to ProbSolving draw upon Working Memory Decontextualization Difficulties w Transfer Ladkfof obnditional knowledge Difficulties w Transfer lack of conceptual knowledge S evering the linkbetween a skill and its original context eld work learning about something with which you39ve had no experience C onditions in whiphiasskill can b e useful In math don39t understand when you add 2 numbers you39ll always end up with a bigger number Unpmcipl dLeami g Learning different areas Without connecting themtogether Difficulties w Transfer Lack of Knowledge about how you learn ma Ability to re ect on what you39ve learned Motivation definition Initiation direction engagement and persis nice of the individualf39s behavior in a situation 3 sources of motivation 1 Goals 2 Knowledge 3 metacognition Goals Learning to understand something become good at it feelcfofnip emnt or enjoy yourself Performance Goals To gain approval of others look better gain rewards Proximal Goals Shortterm Distal Goals Long term Process Goals 7 Small Steps toachieVe abigger goal what you re getting out of39the steps Product Goals The outcomes of my efforts Performance Approach v Performance Approach want to demonstrate high Avoid ability Avoid might highlight lack of knoWI dg ie inahility Individualistic Structure in a Same opportunities to do well classroom Cooperative Structure in a classroom Evaluated based on how your group does MetacognitiVe Processes Se lf Gauging where youilfre in your p rogreSs monitoring toward agoal Metacognitive Processes appraisal of Knowledge about how beliefs and mindset actions affect progress toward a goal review it 3X then turn it in Metaco gnitive Processesare based On 1 expectatiOns personal 4 causal attributions values emotions FENN Causal Attributions 2 Intelligence Theories Spearman sTheory Thurstone s The ory Catte Il s Theory Carroll39s Theory Gardner39s Theory Piaget39s Theory Sternberg39s Theory Sternberg 3 kinds of abilities that need to be coordinated Validity Reliability Selfhandicapping show up late wait til last minute for paper Defensive Pessimism I just want a C instead of I39ll do my best 2 types of intellince General szpe i c General intelligence doesn39t exist only speci c quot of int39 lligence F d abilities problemasolving 39 facts 3 types of intelligence Stratum III general abilities Stratum II broad abilities Stratum I narrow speci c abilities Multiple intelligenc s Intelligence is an equilibrium resulting from accommodation and assimilation of s chemata intelligence involves s Adapting knoMng to behave in a certain envt c Shap39 q canr39shape an envt to best ma urin duleD 0 SI ting choosmgt e L that ts you 1 Analytical problemsolving 2 Creative cognitively exible 3 Practical real life skills Really testin intelligence Canyon get the same results every time What percent of intelligence variability is accounted for by heritability 50 What percent of the variability in school achievement is accounted for by 25 What is aptitude 2 o Likelihood of success in a specific situation 0 Sometimes synonymous w intelligence and achievement Types of aptitude tests GRE CSAP Tailoring instruction to a student s specific needs Ability Grouping Dividing people up by abilities and teaching according to their learning styles Tailoring instruction to a student s specific needs Differentiated Instruction Different levels of challenge based on your abilities Mastery Learning Everyone moves at their own pace and when 90 get the concept move on Executive Functioning Involves 4 1 Working Memory 2 Planning 3 Shifting cognitive exibilityhandling changes 4 Inhibition Executive Functioning Theoretical Constructs Unitary EF is 1 foundational ability and other subsystems EF Theoretical Constructs Dissociable There are several different systems that work independently and arrive at different times EF Theoretical Constructs Integrative An underlying foundation exists but some points arrive at different times Hot EF Ability to wait for a reward in an emotionally significant situation marshmallow Cool EF Selfcontrol in neutral contexts Prefrontal Cortex Last to arrive and first to leave Brain positive mechanisms Grey and white matter Brain negative mechanisms Pruning and more efficient growth Goal Structure Ability to obtain a goal get a toy EF skills associated with 1 Academic achievement and readiness 2 Social skills 3 Adaptive behavior 4 Healthrelated outcomes in disabled children How to measure EF Caregiver report Shifting problem symptoms 3 1 Upset with new situations 2 Upset by change in routine 3 Take a long time to feel comfortable in a new place The Just Right Challenge A challenge slightly out of the ability range of the child Theories of Cognitive Development Learning Edward Thorndike 5 1 Father ofmodern educational psychology 2 Popularized the use of text books 3 Kids will mold to teaching method 4 Students need teachers to regulate learning 5 Learning happens between the stimulus question and the response answer Edward Thorndike Law of Effect Rewards and punishment will repeat behavior if receive a reward won t if receive punishment Edward Thorndike Law of Exercise Rehearsal can improve learning Edward Thorndike Law of Readiness If ready to learn something you re more likely to learn it or make a stimulusresponse connection Theories of Cognitive Development Learning Piaget Cognitive Structures SchemeSchemata physical mental Piaget Nativism v Empiricism Nativism nature Empiricism nurture Piaget Constructivism 2 Kids have internal drive to learn and teachers set the stage Piaget Adaptation Assimilation Accommo dation Assimilation take in and integrate information with schema Accommodation Change existing schema to accommodate new info Piaget Stages of Development 4 Sensorimotor Preoperations Concrete Operations Formal Operations rFWNH Piaget applying his thinking to education 2 Needs to be developmentally appropriate 0 Kids need contradictions different ways of experiencing things Theories of Cognitive 0 Mental representation of things in Development Learning Schema the world My 2 0 There are schemas about Objects rattlesnakes snow ocean etc and Events 4 Functions of Schemata 1 Categorize 2 Remember 3 Comprehend 4 Problem Solve Schemas are acquired through When we first start to gather abstraction information about something the first time you see an egg Gist Extraction Remembering the gist of an eventinfo but don t remember the details Schemas can change by 3 1 Accretion assimilation taking in info and applying it to an existing schema 2 Tuning assimilation knowledge about 1 thing increasing 3 Restructuring accommodation Give kids lots of examples and study aides Try to tie in points of schema from ast H Vygotsky 3 types of concepts first form Pseudoconcepts tell square form a of knowledge circle Spontaneous all dogs aren39t Barley Scientific understand exact 7 definition of a square circle etc Vygotsky functions 5 second form of Language the primary way wegcan knowledge change how kids learn Thinking Perception Attention Memory Internalizing Adult Instruction scaffolding Zone of Proximal Development just beyond ability to do on own almost capable of standing so use table to stabilize self Vygotsky HOW to educate 2 Workwithin kids ZPD and enCourage self talk39through dif cult tasks WM 4 Vygotsky we learn in 3 ways wweweww Theories of Cognitive Moving info to long term memory DevelopmentLearning Information Proces 39 g Theory IPT how to educate 3 Small units of info Divide info into chunks Practice declarative and procedural knowledge


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