Rhetoric in Western Thought (GT
Rhetoric in Western Thought (GT SPCM 201
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ryder Green on Tuesday September 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SPCM 201 at Colorado State University taught by Thomas Dunn in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see /class/210225/spcm-201-colorado-state-university in Speech & Communication at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 09/22/15
What is rhetoric o The practice of oratory o The study of the strategies of effective oratory o The use of language written or spoken 0 To inform or persuade o The study of the persuasive effects of language 0 The study of the relation between language and knowledge The Story of the quotInventionquot of Rhetoric ie what happened in Syracuse 0 After a tyrant was dethroned people were given their things back However after so long being under a tyrant no one knew which was whose anymore so they had to argue their case in front of a court It wasn t long before certain people were winning cases and taking what wasn t theirs just because they were better at speaking So Corax and Tisias taught classes of rhetoric as a means of self defense 0 Corax and Tisias o Invention of rhetoric o 460 BC 0 Took notes on what worked well and what was effective The Importance of Probability Eikos in Early Rhetoric 0 To prove the probability in uncertain situations 0 Based on common sense 0 Imperfect way to make a decision on an uncertain situation The Parable of the Weak Man and Strong Man 0 Strong man and weak man get into a fight In court the strong man says that the weak man started the fight weak man says the strong one did The judge uses common sense and chooses the simplest case 0 Strong llI knew that you would think I started the fight so why would I do thatquot 0 Weak llStrong guy could beat me up why would I pick a fight with himquot 0 The Sophists and their Approach to Education and Rhetoric 0 Sophie means wise in Greek named themselves this shows arrogance Traveling teachers Were paid for their duties Gorgias 0 Written by Plato 13 years after Socrates dies 0 Plato leaves Athens travels for a decade when he may have learned rhetoric o Largely antirhetoric Socrates Plato s narration Gorgias Sophist representor Polas Gorgias young student Callicles Master of the house Gorgias gives a speech that is well received says he will answer questions Socrates wants to speak with Gorgias to learn what rhetoric is Gorgias says rhetoric is to teach speech the greatest of human affairs Socrates says that rhetoric only teaches persuasion for belief not for knowledge That it s not a true area of study you need a knack and use flattery semblance of branch of politics cookery in the soul junk food vs organic The Encomium for Helen What is it about What does it teach us about rhetoric Speech can be used for celebration and selfdefense quotSpeech is a powerful wardquot overpowered Helen it can also be used for evil quotAnd all came because of a passion which loved to conquer and a love of honor which was unconqueredquot she could have been raped or controlled by Paris but was not believed a woman forced against her will should not be blamed uses probability all rational reasons favor her innocence Dissoi Logoi Aspasia Aspasia socrate Educational Principle that one should be able to argue either side of a debate Rhetoric for Glory Greatness and Power through Pericles at times Woman using Rhetoric in a mans world very little evidence of her existence Pericles is married Aspasia his concubine whom he loved but could never marry even after wife dies because she was a foreigner s Contributions to Rhetorical Theory Much More conversational persuader often wrote speeches for men but could write them to subliminally argue her priority used logography somewhat uses Dissoi Logoi oddly speaks of war and battle falls into sophist category s Contributions to Rhetorical Theory and Distinguishing Features from other Sophists o Rhetoric for the Good of the Polis citystate 2 Rejection of the Universal 3 Laserlike focus on the practical and the Kairos Against sophists because of the was they teach need a different approach to speaking teachers can only do so much students need practical experience only teaches older students Kairos 0 creating a speech thats appropriate to the occasion opposite of the Sophists Socrates 0 As a real person and as a characterpersona for Plato o Allows for a dialogue to take place with character39s from two different perspectives Socrates usually being the winner of the arguments being Platos teacher Allows Plato to utilize the Socratic Method Plato 0 Student of Socrates similar to a sophist but different doesn39t get paid s against sophist and they against him The Allegory of the Cave and its lessons 0 people in cave can only see shadows get a false sense of reality upon leaving they discover what the world is really like represents the difference between absolute truth and contingent truths key to philosophy is finding truth for yourself because when you reenter the cave people will think you re crazy Absolute truth vs contingent truths o absolute quota desk is always a deskquot contingent more open one can be true in one society and different or the same in another The Socratic Method induction 0 A form of inquiry and debate between individuals with opposing viewpoints based on asking and answering questions to stimulate critical thinking and to illuminate ideas Various definitions of rhetoric in the Gorgias o effecting persuasion in the the minds of the audiencequot argues socrates rhetoric is not the only producer of persuasion Why does Plato dislike rhetoric as practiced by the Sophists o Sophist claim they know everything real truth is invaluble the unexamined life is not worth living Why does Plato like rhetoric under certain conditions What are those conditions 0 to extendillicit knowledge quotto point to what is justquot the only worthwhile thing to do with rhetoric The Story of the Rhetorician the Doctor and the Man Who Won t Take His Medicine 0 The idea that one should only help someone who will help you in return socrates believes you should do what is beast Pederasty and its Relevance to the Phaedrus o Pederasty a loving caring relationship between a young man and a mentor Phaedrus is about if this should relationship should be a loving one or not The Myth of the Charioteer and Plato s Vision of the Soul 0 The Chariot represents one39s soul which is pulled by two horses drives The drive for what is best and the drive for what one desire A balance of these is required to make it to heaven Plato s Views on Writing 0 He dislikes writing because importance true wisdom is remembered importance of memory at the time hard to express oneself in writing Aristotle 0 Student of Plato Teacher of Alexander the Great first to teach at academy only scientific demonstration and the analysis of formal logic can arrive at absolute truth Here he agrees with Plato bothe would call this kind of truth the only true knowledge quotWarping a carpenter s rule before using itquot Aristotle s definition of rhetoric o Rhetoric should be like scientific inquiry therefore minimizing it Rhetoric and Dialectic o Rhetoric is a counter part of dialect dialect does not use ethos pathos an logos The Usefulness of Rhetoric 0 things that are true and things that are just have a natural tendency to prevail over their opposites 2 effective when considering audience 3 must be able to employ persuasion just as strict as reasoning can be employed on opposite sides of a question 4 use of speech is more important than use of limbs Kinds of Speeches Judicial Epideictic Deliberative 0 Judicial legal or forensic speech Epideictic ceremonial Deliberative political or advisory Modes of Persuasion and Forms of Proof Artistic and Inartistic Logos Ethos Pathos The divisions of oratory Syllogisms and Enthymemes o Syllogism establishes facts from two previous facts fall a are b and all b are c then all a are c Enthymemes can be positive or negative Single word used to portray a full idea Example Vietnam is a rhetorical syllogism The topoi 0 Two types of topoi specific common Specific Arguments for youth vs arguments for age Common PossibleImpossible GreaterSmaller amplification PastFuture often can be a Rhetorical quotexamplequot Alexander the Great and his contributions to rhetoric Why do ColonistsAmericans embrace the studypractice of rhetoric in the quotNew Worldquot They were experiencing situations that never occurred in European experiences this includes the campaign to Christianize the new world Who is John Quincy Adams Why might we consider him a rhetorical thinker The Boylston Chair of Rhetoric and Oratory at Harvard University JQA was the first professor of rhetoric and oratory He spoke as a man of the world preparing others to be men of the world He promised to teach quotreason clothed with speechll Adams s defenses of rhetoric vs pedantic frivolous andor quotperniciousquot Eloquence has power Whoever in the course of human affairs is called to give advice or to ask a favor ofanother must apply to the same principles of action as those which the deliberative orator must address The rhetoric must be deliberate and to the point Must also have I Sense of purpose I Make sense and have seriousness Support proof Not used to harm others Should be simple The relationship between Liberty and Rhetoric Eloquence Like rhetoric liberty allows us the freedom to present what we want However liberty still limits you somewhat To gain a sense of eloquence one must use the aspect of liberty to their advantage Rhetoric and its relationship to the quotFree Statequot Free State is not apparent to F Douglas being a slave at one point The Free State is based on knowledge but not entirely Who is Sarah Grimk Sarah Grimke is categorized as not only an abolitionist but also a feminist because she challenged the church that touted their inclusiveness then denied her It was through her abolitionist pursuits that she became more sensitive to the rights that women were denied She opposed being subject to men so much to the point that she refused to marry Both Sarah and Angelina both became very involved in the antislavery movement they both published volumes of literature and letters on the topic When they became well known they began lecturing around the country on the issue At the time women did not speak in public this was another way that Sarah was viewed as a feminist ground breaker Sarah openly challenged women39s domestic roles and she believed that in order for women to be able to challenge slavery they also needed to be equal Grimk s letters her audiences reasons for writing etc Style how words were used practically as well as evidence Church uses languance and source of knowledge against the men who use it otherwise Being commanded to speak or preach by God issues among women men and God Argues that if god tried to speak through a woman it would be wrong of that woman to refuse gods request because she is a woman quotantiChristian commandments of men overpower Gods true intentionsll notion that there is a difference between what is acceptable with a man and a woman Scripture should come from God there are prophets who are women if you believe that scripture knowledge then she has to be right Who is Frederick Douglass Why must he balance authenticity and persuasion Everything I know I ve stolen Uses the law Law says all men are equal am I nota man I Involves American government and scripture against western culture Themes for Grimke and Douglass their views on Knowledge the relationships between Rhetoric and Knowledge 0 Their Views of Knowledge 0 Their Sources of Knowledge 0 Relationships between Rhetoric and Knowledge 0 Sources of Evidence 0 Their Respective Styles Grimke men s role in rhetoric is to use words to flatter women for pleasure but don t treat women as intelligent use rhetoric to gain pleasure alone something the sophists were known for their respective styles Nietzsche on Truth and Language Nietzsche asserts that there is no universal truth only illusion there is no knowledge but instead the knowledge that lla concept has no greater value than a metaphor and is itselfa condensate of metaphorsll This is the reason Nietzsche claims that all of man39s contemplations are metaphoric simply a representative figure of something less tangible Nietzsche claims that truth can be understood in different ways First there is factual truth which can be measured by tools and seen by the naked eye The second kind of truth is values The latter is more complex because it may vary by culture What is the function of the Truth for Nietzsche To order human life quotHe who is able to articulate our false truths wealds a high level of powerquot Who is Richard Weaver In The Ethics of Rhetoric Weaver evaluates the ability of rhetoric to persuade Similarly to ancient philosophers Weaver found that language has the power to move people to do good to do evil or to do nothing at all The application of science on humanity treating humans as if they re scientific by analyzing them as if they were machines he is against this Scientism and why is scientism skeptical of rhetoric Rhetoric appeals to the body and emotion notjust logic rationality won t save us Humans as quotdepersonalized thinking machines What scientism does Weaver believes What does it mean to say language is sermonic All language is inherently rhetorical means to persuade The parts of Burke s quotDefinition of Man 1 Symbol Using Animals 2 Inventor of the negative humans can conceptualizewish something was there While an animal lives in the moment what is there is there 3 Separated by nature by instruments use of tools to accomplish tasks 4 Gooded by the spirit of hierarchy desire to be better than other development of a class system 5 Man is rotten with Perfection perfection is not possible but it doesn39t stop us from trying Defining symbols Tragic Fram and Comic frame One must either be punished for doing wrong or let off easy if they did not mean to do wrong llMan is the symbolusing symbolmaking symbolmisusing animal inventor of the negative or moralized by the negative separated from his natural condition by instruments of his own making goaded by the spirit of hierarchy or moved by the sense of order and rotten with perfectionll Burke defined the rhetorical function of language as lla symbolic means of inducing cooperation in beings that by nature respond to symbolsquot His definition of humanity states that quotmanquot is llthe symbol using making and mis using animal inventor of the negative separated from his natural condition by instruments of his own making goaded by the spirit of hierarchy and rotten with perfectionquot67 For Burke some of the most significant problems in human behavior resulted from instances of symbols using human beings rather than human beings using symbols Burke proposed that when we attribute motives to others we tend to rely on ratios between five elements act scene agent agency and purpose This has become known as the dramatistic pentad Motion vs Action Animals are Motion oriented They do what they need to do Humans are still affected by motion but we also have the capacity for action Terministic screens Burke a set of symbols that becomes a kind of screen or grid of intelligibility through which the world makes sense to us Here Burke offers rhetorical theorists and critics a way of understanding the relationship between language and ideology Language Burke thought doesn39t simply quotreflectquot reality it also helps select reality as well as deflect reality Two kinds that either pull things together andor pushes them apart quotMystenf and communication separation strangeness and hierarchy mystery surronds the negotiation process Unity and scapegoating Burke notes the formation of the scapegoat as a process of status moralizing He adds quotAnd as the principle of any hierarchy involves the possibility of reversing highest and lowest so the moralizing of status makes for a revolutionary kind of expression the scapegoat f men were not apart from one another there would be no need for the rhetorician to proclaim their unity f men were wholly and truly of one substance absolute communication would be of man s very essence p22 Rhetoric quotleads us through the Scramble and is that which attempts at unity GuiItPurificationRedemption Cycle Burke explains the terms guilt purification and redemption as representing the effects of acceptance and rejection of a hierarchy He tended to see all hierarchies and social order as perpetually engaged in dramas Dramatic action occurs because people object to the functions and relationships imposed by the hierarchy Whenever a person rejects the traditional hierarchy heshe feels as if heshe fails and consequently acquires a feeling of guilt Burke compared rejection to original sin and he believed that guilt is inherent in society because people cannot accept all of the traditional hierarchy with all the demands it places on them When conditions change rejection of some of the tradition occurs Each social institutionfamily church school clubs relationships and political systemshas its own hierarchy When the demands imposed by one hierarchy conflict with those of another rejection is inevitable Burke 1965 In order to deal with rejection so common in the social drama Burke suggests society uses two forms of ritual purification mortification andor victimage as a resolution for guilt The first is mortification which involves personal sacrifice by the guilty The individual or group experiencing guilt makes a symbolic offering to appease society and thus restore balance and social order A person accused of wrongdoing acknowledges it publicly and may offer an explanation or perform some act of remorse Dramas are frequently based on the principle of victimage a purging of guilt through a scapegoat that symbolizes guilt Scott amp Brock 1972 The act of purification then must be appropriate to the sin of the guilty for the drama to succeed as an act of redemption The extent of selfsacrifice or scapegoating must equal the degree of guilt caused by the rejection of the social order Scott amp Brock 1972 otherwise redemption is not achieved The removal from office or loss of position in the hierarchy may be either insufficient or excessive punishment relative to the disruption suffered by the social order Often the scapegoat is an outsider Once the rite of purification has been performed and is commensurate with the guilt the individual feels redeemed or made acceptable again by hisher accusers Heshe is then able to function in the hierarchy until the burden of guilt becomes overbearing again and the process repeats itself Rohler amp Cook 1998 What is quotequipment for livingquot All literature high low and experimental performed a salubrious role for its audiences The Toulmin Model its purpose parts and relationships between parts Data gt Qualifiers gt Conclusion I l Warrant Unless I l Backing Rebuttals Data in every argument ifyou present no argument you have no claim from data we draw claims or conclusions Warrant logic applied to make an argument comes between data and claims syllogism are not enough Gives you backing Qualifier Meeting a certain set of requirements quotim pretty surell llits highly likelyll are qualifying arguments Rebuttal is extension of qualifier if one is unsure it acknowledges that they could be wrong Force and criteria argument fields different areas of content that we argue about quotan argument where the data and the conclusions follow the same logical typequot Toulmin looks at similarities between them common traits between argument fields are force cannot and criteria good Implications under certain contextconditions is what distinguishes one argument field from the other Toulmin s views on the syllogism Finding truth involves much more than syllogisms which use data to create a warrant to create llhighly likelyll scenarios How toulmin believes one should still acknowleged that it is not for certain What is Feminism First early 20th century The goal of this wave was to open up opportunities for women with a focus on suffrage Senaca Falls Convention Second 196090 This wave unfolded in the context of the antiwar and civil rights movements and the growing selfconsciousness of a variety of minority groups around the world began with protests against miss america pagent Third Mid 90s In this phase many constructs have been destabilized including the notions of lluniversal womanhoodll body gender sexuality and hetreronormativity The rhetoric of women s liberation as quotOxymoronquot What does that mean This writing is argues that classical rhetorical theories fail to give appropriate or useful guide of what rhetoric should be that shaped the women39s liberation Women39s liberation is an oxymoron this is because the rhetoric cannot appeal to the traditional gendered norms because it will not succeed It engaged alternative plans like small group quotconsciousness raisingquot instead of the more traditional public platform as a mean of effective persuasion ConsciousnessRaising as rhetoric Our examination of consciousnessraising rhetoric produced by selflabeled llthird wavell feminists reveals how contemporary social contexts have generated dOerent rhetorical problems and discursive responses for feminists Specifically we show how third wave feminist consciousness raising instills a critical perspective that focuses on personal and social injustices We argue that these rhetorical responses raise consciousness in the public sphere through mass media popular culture and college classrooms fostering both public and private dialogue about gender inequities that aims at selfpersuasion Feminism and invitational rhetoric Invitation to understanding as a means to create a relationship rooted in equality immanent value and self determination Constitutes an invitation to the audience to enter the rhetor s world and see it as the rhetor does PostModernism and its challenges to traditional ideas about rhetoric Distiguishes the difference and similarities between the Individual and the Subject Post modern Rhetoric 1 Individual subject Social Movements 2 Power in language Ideology 3 Discourse beyond words Visual Rhetoric 4 What rhetoric can be POROI Rhetoric is the Master Troupe any sort of communication involves some degree of rhetoric required by natural instinct language cannot be ignored Who is Michel Foucault What are his views on discourse and rhetoric Idea of Power Discourse and Institution Power who has access to power and who does not like internet access if you are in the woods your survival skills are drastically changes because ofyou lack ofaccess to the internet Discourse means of which people are able to articulate ideas or access ideas Rhetoric falls underneath this Institution structure of the institution draws bigger lessons from this prisons schools science who has the right to speak and who doesn t llI refer to the oppositions between reason and madnessll Notion ofan author is fictitious Author function author is needed to organize ideas and connected them to the web of already agreed upon ideas Discourse is power without language one cannot make an impact on the world even a genius will never be recognized Attention fragments Sentence fragment used deliberately for a persuasive purpose or to create a desired effect General Ideas about Women and Rhetoric Cixous is issuing her female readers an ultimatum of sorts either they can read it and choose to stay trapped in their own bodies by a language that does not allow them to express themselves or they can use their bodies as a way to communicate
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