Public Speaking SPCM 200
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ryder Green on Tuesday September 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SPCM 200 at Colorado State University taught by Abigail Veliquette in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see /class/210232/spcm-200-colorado-state-university in Speech & Communication at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 09/22/15
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paw mast a zn m a pm semng Chapter 2 I 9 Fquot 0 3 1 9 E 5quot 0 4 Speaking in a public setting unique because the responsibility for the organization delivery and ow of communication falls mostly on one person a Many contexts i Formal or informal ii Large or small audiences iii Serious or lighthearted issues b Decide to speak for i Matters of importance ii About our experience or expertise iii Required to speak in class or at work Types of Public Speaking Informative speech that communicates knowledge about a process an event a person a place an object or a concept Invitational Speech that allows the speaker to establish a dialogue with the audience to clarify positions explore issues and ideas or share beliefs and values Persuasive Speech whose message attempts to change or reinforce an audience s thoughts feelings or actions Introductory Speech that gives an audience a compelling perspective on the speaker or another person or that welcomes the audience to an event and familiarizes them with it Commemorative speech that praises honors recognizes or pays tribute to a person an event an idea or an institution Acceptance speech that communicates gratitude appreciation and pleasure at receiving an honor or a gift in recognition of an accomplishment Small group speaking giving a presentation to a small collection of individuals or speaking as part of a small group of people Speech making process Use the Canon of Invention which provides guidelines for generating effective content for a speech i Identifying and analyzing the audience ii Determining your purpose and thesis statement iii Deciding your main points v Collecting materials to support your ideas narratives statistics testimonies de nitions and presentational aids Canon 0f Arrangement guidelines for ordering your ideas i Intro body and conclusion Canon of Style guidelines for using language appropriately effectively and ethically Carefully consider the words and phrases used in a speech Canon of Memory guidelines for your efforts to rehearse a speech and the ways you prompt yourself to remember the speech as you give it i Break speech down into segments and practice practice practice ii Make notes on outline to help remember material and delivery techniques iii Practice in front of mirror and friends 5 Canon of Delivery managing voice gestures posture facial expression and presentational aids i Visualize ii Know intro perfectly use notes as prompts iii Make eye contact iv Breathe gesture and pause III Overcoming nervousness m g 5 To overcome 39 Prepared by doing research i1 Practice your speech iii Have realistic expectations about your delivery iv Practice visualizations visualizing yourself doing well and Affirmation tell yourself you will do well V Find points of connection with your audience Vi Be a good member of the audience yourself be engaged IV Why we sometimes fail to listen a Interference anything that stops or hinders a listener from receiving a message external or internal b Listener Interference the listener s mind wanders elsewhere Stems from poor listening habits c Speaker Interference caused by information when listeners stop listening when we present info that is overly complicated challenging or simple i Audience can get caught up in the differences in values and lose sight of the point ii Listenable speech considerate and delivered in an oral style iii Considerate speech eases the audiences burden of processing information d Speaker interference caused by language i Too formal too casual too technical too cluttered too non inclusive gender cultural spotlighting highlighting a person s differences ii Verbal clutter extra words that don t add meaning e Speaker interference caused by differences i When we are faced with differences we sometimes see them in terms of a hierarchy we become preoccupied with questions of right and wrong instead of speech V Noninclusive language words that only refer to certain groups of people VI How to listen Chapter 4 I Brainstorming the process of generating ideas randomly and uncritically without attention to logic connections or relevance Through Free association writing down all thoughts that come to mind b By Clusteringan idea in the center of a page and draw lines from the center with subideas c By Categories list categories concepts objects plans and policies events people problems natural phenomena places processes and list 5 or 6 words under each category d By Technologyintemet online indexes for journals newspapers magazines II Articulating your purpose 1 State your speci c speaking purpose clearly 2 Keep audience in forefront of your mind General purpose it s broad goal to inform invite and persuade or to introduce commemorate and accept c Specific Purpose is a focused statement that identifies exactly what a speaker wants to accomplish with a speech d Behavioral objectives the actions a speaker wants the audience to take at the end ofthe speech III Stating your thesis a Thesis statement summarizes in a single declarative sentence the main idea assumptions or arguments you want to express in a speech 9 Fquot Speech Review Chapters 58 CHAPTER 5 Master Status Significant positions occupied by a person within society that affect that person s identity in almost all social situations Ethnocentrism Belief that our own cultural perspectives norms and ways of organizing society are superior to others Speaking Environment Time and place in which a speaker will speak CHAPTER 6 Evaluating Internet Info Is the information reliable Check the domain in the URL comnot very reliablecommercia1 enterprise orgnonprofit organization edueducation institute govgovernment agency Is the info authoritative llow current is the info How complete is the info Is the info relevant Is the info consistent and unbiased Look for more sources to support the info v H H1 Vl39ll z39iz39it lsm w i l i CHAPTER 7types and tips for using 0 Examples Specific instance used to illustrate a concept experience issue or problem 0 Real Example instance that actually took place 0 Hypothetical Example instance that did not take place but could have 0 Use to clarify concepts reinforce points to bring concepts to life or to elicit emotions and to build your case or make credible generalizations 0 Tip is the example relevant and appropriate Is the hypothetical example ethical Are there enough examples to support your claim Have you accounted for the counterexamples 0 Statistics Numerical summaries of facts figures and research findings 0 Mean average ofa group of numbers 0 Median middle number in a series or set of numbers arranged in a ranked order 0 Mode number that occurs most often in a set of numbers 0 Use stats to synthesize large amounts ofinformation when the numbers tell a powerful story and when numerical evidence strengthens a claim 0 Tip Evaluate your stats carefully Use stats sparingly o Narratives Story that recounts for foretells real or hypothetical events 0 Brief Nar Short story ofvignette that illustrates a specific point 0 Extended Nar Longer story that makes an evolving connection with a broader point 0 Use to Personalize a point challenge an audience to think in new ways draw an audience in emotionally and to unite with your audience 0 Tip Does your narrative make a specific point Is the length appropriate Is the language vivid and the delivery appropriate to the story Is the story appropriate for my audience 0 Testimony Opinions or observations of others 0 Direct Quotation Exact word for word presentation of another s testimony o Paraphrase Summary of another s testimony in the speaker s own words 0 Expert Testimony Opinions or observations of someone considered an authority in a particular field 0 Peer Testimony Opinions or observations of someone who has firsthand knowledge ofa topic 0 Personal Testimony Your own opinions or observations that you use to convey your point 0 Use testimony when you need the voice of an expert to illustrate differences or agreements when your experience says it best and paraphrase testimony to improve listenability 0 Tip Is the source of your testimony credible Is the testimony biased Have you paraphrased accurately Is the testimony connected to your point 0 DefinitionsStatement of the exact meaning of a word or phrase o Denotative Definition Objective meaning ofa word or a phrase you find in a dictionary 0 Connotative definition Subjective meaning ofa word or phrase based on personal experiences and beliefs 0 Use to clarify and crease understanding to clarify an emotionally or politically charged word to illustrate what something is not and to trace the history of a word 0 Tip Is the source of the definition credible Have you avoided proper meaning superstition Have you actually defined the term CHAPTER 8 Patterns of Reasoning o Inductive Reasoning Process of reasoning that uses specific instances or examples to make a claim about a general conclusion 0 Deductive reasoning Process of reasoning that uses a familiar and commonly accepted claim to establish the truth of a very specific claim 0 Causal Reasoning Process of reasoning that supports a claim by establishing a cause and effect relationship 0 Analogical Reasoning a process of reasoning by way of comparison and similarity that implies that because two things resemble each other in one respect they also share similarities in another respect 0 Reasoning by Sign process of reasoning that assumes something exists or will happen based on something else that exists or has happened Reasoning Ethically 0 Build your Credibility 0 Use Accurate Evidence 0 Verify the structure ofyour Reasoning look at Toulin s model of reasoning p 185 in the book Speech Review Chapter 912 Chapter 9 Connectives the words and phrases we use to link ideas in a speech they show the audiences the relationship between ideas Four types Transitions phrases that indicate you are nished with one idea and are moving to a new one restate the idea you are nishing and introduce your next one Intemal Preview statement in the body of your speech that details what you plan to discuss next focus on what comes next Intemal Summary statement in the body of a speech that summarizes a point a speaker has already discussed Signpost simple word or statement that indicates where you are in your speech or highlights an important idea Preparation Outline detailed outline a speaker builds when preparing a speech that includes the title speci c purpose thesis statement introduction main points and sub points connectives conclusion and source citations of the speech Speaking Outline sometimes called speaking notes is a condensed form of your preparation outline that you use when speaking helps remember speci c information that you plan to include in your speech Chapter 10 Preparing a C quot39 I J quot 0 Ask a Question 0 Tell a Story 0 Recite a Quotation or a Poem 0 Give a Demonstration 0 Make an Intriguing or Startling Statement 0 State the Importance of the Topic 0 Share Your Expertise 0 State What s to Come Chapter 11 Concrete Language refers to a tangible objectia person place or thing Abstract Language refers to ideas or concepts but not to speci c objects Semantic Triangle of Meaning on left comer of triangle is the symbol the word or phrase spoken by the speaker On the right comer of the triangle is the referent the object concept or even the symbol represents At the top is the thought this is the memory and past experiences audience members have with an object concept or event Chapter 12 Tips for Improving Your Delivery Extemporaneous Delivery present a carefully prepared and practiced speech from brief notes rather than from memory or a written manuscript o Impromptu Delivery present a speech that you have not planned or prepared in advance quickly decide on a the main points you want to make introduce your main points support main points with subpoints summarize your main points in a conclusion 0 Manuscript Delivery read to an audience from a written text when writing the speech talk it aloud as you write practice it again and again 0 Memorized Delivery present a speech that has been written out To Memorize begin with rstline and read it aloud over and over then deliver it without reading it over and over repeat for all lines once done all the lines practice it all over and over and listen to the meaning of the words Chapter 14 Review INFORMATIVE SPEAKING Informative Speaking Environment Environment in which a speaker has expertise or knowledge that an audience needs but doesn t already have Ex quotWhen speakers create informative environments their goal is not to invite or to persuade but rather to illustrate importance and relevance 0fa topic Informative Speech Speech that communicates knowledge and understanding about a process and event a person or place an object or a concept Ex quotInformative speakers share what they know or have researched to familiarize an audience with a topic its members want or need to understand Speech about a Concept Informative speech about an abstraction something you can perceive with your senses such as an idea a theory principle a worldwide View or a belief Ex quotSocial Equality It helps your audience understand your subject its history its characteristic and its effect on society or individuals Speech about a Place or Person Informative speech that describes a significant interesting or unusual place or person Ex quotService agencies in your community These speeches can be fun to give in classroom you can share experiences with places and people etc Speech about a Process Informative speech that describes how something is done how something comes to be what it is or how something works Ex quotHow to get a passport helps audience learn how to complete task understand how something is done over time Speech about an Event Informative speech that describes 0r explains a significant interesting or unusual occurrence Ex quotHurricane Katrina Share what happens with audience to help they understand an even in the context of history or society or community Speech about an Object Informative speech about anything that is tangible that can be perceived by the senses Ex Hybrid Automobiles Something so an audience can better understands it and why it might be important of valued Chapter 15 Review INVITATIONAL SPEAKING Condition of Equality Condition of an invitational environment that requires the speaker to acknowledge that all audience members hold equally valid perspective worthy of exploration Condition of SelfDetermination Condition of an invitational environment that requires the speaker to recognize that people know what is best for them and have the right to make choices about their lives based on this knowledge Condition ofValue Condition of an invitational environment that requires the speaker to recognize the inherent value of the audience s views although those views may differ from the speaker s views Invitational Environment Environment in which the speaker s highest priority is to understand respect and appreciate the rand ofpossible position on an issue even if those position are quite different from his or her own Invitational Sp eaking Type of public speaking in which a speaker enters into a dialogue with an audience to clarify position explore issues and ideas or articulate beliefs and values Multiple Perspectives Pattern Organizational pattern that allows the speaker to address the many sides and position of an issue before opening up the speech for dialogue with the audience Speech to Articulate a Position Invitational speech in which the speaker invites an audience to understand an issue from her or his perspective and then opens up a conversation with audience members to learn their perspectives on the issue Speech to Explore an Issue Invitational speech in which the speaker attempts to engage an audience in a discussion about an idea concept topic or plan of action Chapter 16 Review PERSUASIVE SPEAKING Call to Action EXplicitly request that an audience engage in some clearly stated behavior Comparative advantages organization Organizational pattern that illustrates the advantages of one solution over others Counterarguments Arguments again the sp eaker s own position Fear Appeal Threat of something undesirable happening change does not occur Gain immediate action Encourage an audience to engage in a specific behavior or take a specific action Gain passive agreement Ask an audience to adopt a new position without also asking them to act in support of that position Monroe s Motivated sequence Step by step process used to persuade audiences by gaining attention demonstrating a need satisfying that need visualizing beneficial results and calling for action Persuasive speech speech whose message attempts to change or reinforce an audience s thoughts feelings or actions Problem cause solution organization organizational pattern that focuses on identifying a specific problem the causes of that problem and a solution to the problem Problem solution organization organizational pattern that focuses on persuading an audience that a specific problem eXists and can be solved or minimized by a specific solution Question of fact question that addresses whether something is verifiably true or not Question ofvalue question that addresses the merit or morality of an object action or belief Question ofpolicy question that addresses the best course of action or solution to a problem Two sided message Persuasive strategy that addresses both sides of an issue refuting one side to prove the other is better Chapter 13 Review VISUAL AIDES Balance Visual relationship between the items on a Visual aid Bar Graph Graph that compares quantities at a specific moment in time Demonstration Display of how something is done or how it works Drawing Diagram or sketch of someone or something Flow Chart Chart that illustrates direction or motion Font Type or style of print Font Size Size of the letters in a particular font measured points Graph Visual comparison of amounts or quantities that show growth size proportions or relationships Line Graph Graph that shows trends over time List Series ofwords or phrases that organize ideas one after the other Map Visual representation showing the physical layout of geographical features cities road systems the night sky and the like Model Copy of an object usually built to scale that represents an object in detail Object Something that can be seen or touched Organizational Chart Chart illustrates the structure of groups Picture Graph Graph that presents information in pictures or images Pie Graph Graph that shows the relative proportions of parts ofa whole