Public Speaking SPCM 200
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ryder Green on Tuesday September 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SPCM 200 at Colorado State University taught by Sonja Modesti in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see /class/210234/spcm-200-colorado-state-university in Speech & Communication at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 09/22/15
SPCM 200 Final Exam Study Guide Chapter 1 Differences between public speaking and other dialogue o Creates community it is not about the speaker but everyone 0 Audience centered considerate of the positions beliefs values and needs ofan audience 0 Encourages ethical dialogue presenting ideas fairly and honestly many perspectives can then contribute Model of the public speaking process 0 Speaker person who stimulates public dialogue by delivering an oral message 0 Message information conveyed by the speaker to the audience 0 Encoding translating ideas and feelings into words sounds and gestures o Decoding translating words sounds and gestures into ideas and feelings in an attempt to understand the message 0 Audience complex and varied group of people the speaker addresses 0 Channel means by which the message is conveyed 0 Noise anything that interferes with the understanding the message being communicated 0 Feedback verbal and nonverbal signals an audience gives a speaker o Context environmental or situation in which a speech occurs Forms of Communication apprehension Communication apprehension is the level of fear or anxiety associated with either real or anticipated communication with another person or persons 0 Trait anxiety People who are apprehensive about communicating with others in any situation 0 State or Situational anxiety People who are apprehensive about communicating with others in a particular situation Overcoming nervousness To overcome your nervousness 0 Identify whether you are trait anxious or state anxious Knowing why we become nervous will help us build our con dence 0 Do your research 0 Practice your speech 0 Have realistic Expectations 0 Practice visualization and af rmations basically have a positive mentality and believe you will succeed o Visualization is a process in which you construct a mental image of yourself giving a successful speech 0 Af rmations are positive and motivating statements Chapter 2 Why listen to others I Listening to others is a very powerful act of communication When we listen to others we con rm their humanity presence and worth When we listen and con rm we recognize acknowledge and eXpress value from another person Listening is different from hearing Hearing refers to the vibration of sound waves on our eardrums and impulses that are then sent to the brain When you listen to someone you do more than simply receive sound waves you actively engage with the information you hear Listening Simply the process of giving thoughtful attention to another person s words and understanding what you hear Why we sometimes fail to listen I We fail to listen for three reasons listener interference speaker interference and an inability to get beyond differences Interference is anything that stops or hinders a listener from receiving a message Listener interference any interference caused by the listener that detracts from their ability to engage in conversation with the speaker o tune out difficult information prepare your response while the speaker is speaking pay attention to distractions daydream etc Speaker interference when the speaker creates a speech that is not listenable o alistenable speech is considerate and delivered in an oral style This type of speech uses words meant to be heard not read 0 aconsiderate speech help our audience process information Listeners generally tune out when speeches are too complicated or fast paced 0 language interference is when the speakers language is unclear too technical too causal too noninclusive or too cluttered Interference caused by differences differences between a speaker and an audience can also cause problems with listening Although we are all similar in many ways none of us exactly match our audience in appearance mannerisms values or backgrounds Chapter 3 Why do people speak in public 0 Want to O Asked to 0 Required to Choosing your speech topic 0 For the audience 0 Something relatable and interesting if you can choose 0 Narrow your topic so it is appropriate for your speaking situation Articulating your purpose 0 General purpose to invite inform or persuade 0 Speci c purpose a focused statement that identi es exactly what a speaker wants to accomplish with a speech Chapter 4 Being Audience Centered o This is to acknowledge your audience by considering and listening to the unique diverse and common perspectives of its member before during and after your speech Considering Audience as Diverse People Considering Speaking Environment 0 People are unique for a variety of reasons that relate to some combination of culture upbringing experiences personality and even genetics Try to consider how the audience views the world by analyzing their master statuses and their standpoints 0 Consider where and when you will be speaking as to manage it with relative ease Effective speakers must consider such situational factors as the size of the audience and the physical arrangement of the speaking site the availability of technology the time of day they ll be speaking where their speech falls in a series of presentations and the length of time they have to speak Chapter 5 Evaluating Internet Information 0 If your research source ful lls the criteria listed below it s appropriate to include in your speech o Is it reliableFavor org edu and gov sites over com sites Consider the bias your source conveys on your topic What makes this source believable Citations 0 Is it authoritative Websites that have a tilde in the URL indicate the website has 1 author See if you can locate the person s credentials on or outside of the site Are they can expert o Is it current Look for the date the info was posted or last updated Ifyou don t see a date try to locate it in your browser s View or Document menu Even if you nd fantastic information if it s not relevant to the tune frame you re discussing then it s not ethical to use 0 Is it Complete Beware of sites that borrow excerpts from printed material Often what is left unsaid speaks volumes about the website s bias Try to locate the original piece of print in order to interpret the info correctly 0 Is it relevant Does the information help support your thesis and main ideas or does it get you off topic 0 Is it consistent and unbiased Can you nd other printed material interviews or websites that back up your source If you can t then your source might be making claims that aren t proven yet Keep in mind that most sources only present one side of the argument Combat all of this by cross checking the information you nd with established credible sites Avoiding Plagiarism Plagiarism nding someone else s words and ideas taking them and putting your name as the author of the thoughts It s dishonest unethical and bad for the public speaking environment 3 Types of Plagiarism 1 Patchwork stitching together a complete speech as your own from bits several varied sources 2 Global taking an entire piece of work from 1 source and calling it your own 3 Incremental selecting portions from one piece of work as compiling it as your own Tips to avoid plagiarism 1 Take notes in your original voice 2 Document where you found each idea from the get go 3 Cite sources verbally in speech even if you are just paraphrasing 4 Cite the source even if you can t nd the name of the author Consequences of Plagiarism 1 Loss of credibility 2 Failing grade 3 Possible expulsion Overall give credit when it s due Chapter 6 Five most common forms of supporting material examples narratives statistics testimony de nitions Examples Speci c instance used to illustrate a concept experience or issue Examples can be real meaning it actually took place or hypothetical meaning it didn t take place but it could have Examples can clarify reinforce points or build a case or credibility Narratives A story that recounts or foretells a real or hypothetical event These can be used to personalize a point challenge audience to think in new ways draw the audience in emotionally and to unite the audience Statistics Numerical summaries of facts gures and research ndings There are means medians and modes A mean is the average of the group of numbers Median is the middle number in a series of numbers that are arranged in a ranked order And a mode is the number that occurs most often in the set of numbers Use statistics to synthesize large amounts of information when the numbers tell a powerful story and when numerical evidence strengthens a claim o Testimony This is when a speaker uses the observations of opinions of another person These can be direct quotes or a paraphrased statement They can be expert testimonies peer testimonies or personal testimonies Use testimonies when you need the voice of an expert to illustrate differences or agreements when your own experience tells it best or to improve listenability Definitions A de nition is a statement of the exact meaning of a word or phrase These can be denotative dictionary de nition or connotative personal de nition Use de nitions to clarify and create understanding clarify an emotionally or politically charged word illustrate what something is not to trace the history of a word Chapter 7 Forms of Proofethos pathos logos mythos Aristotle s 3 types of Proof 0 Ethos Establishes speaker s credibility o Pathos Using emotionto appeal to audience 0 Logos Logical arrangement of evidence 0 Mythos Shared cultural community group beliefs and attitude Patterns of Reasoning and how they work Inductive reasoning Process of reasoning using speci c instances or examples to make a claim about a general conclusion Example 0 Speci c Instance A Oldest brother is an excellent basketball player 0 Speci c Instance B Youngest brother is an excellent swimmer 0 Speci c Instance C Oldest sister is the star of the track team 0 Conclusion Youngest sister will also be a ne athlete Deductive reasoning Process of reasoning using familiar and commonly accepted claims to establish the truth of very speci c claim 0 Major premise Generally accepted principle Ex Grade in ation negatively affects all college students 0 Minor premise Speci c Instance Ex Joey is a college student 0 Conclusion Ex Joey s negatively affected by grade in ation Casual Reasoning Establishes If then aka Cause and effect relationship 0 Not to be used ifclaim can t be proved 0 Don t assume there is only one cause for an event 0 Avoid false causes when speaker assumes one event caused another simply because the 1st happened before the 2nd 0 ID the strengths and weaknesses of the relationship you re establishing Example IfI don t study then I ll do poorly on my exam Analogical Reasoning Reasoning by way of comparison 85 similarity O Implies if 2 things resembles each other in 1 way they also share similarities in another respect 0 2 things must share similarities in order to be valid Ais like B M is in A Nis in B SoM is like N Reasoning by SigngAssumes something exists or will happen based on something else that exists or has happened 0 Sign something that represents something else infer what is likely to be 0 Consider possibly more credible alternative explanations 0 Make sure that it is not just an isolated incident Example Dark clouds are a sign of a storm rolling in MAP OF REASONING Toulmin s Model of a Sound Argument 0 Claim What do you think or want to propose 0 Grounds Why do you think this or want to propose it 0 Warrant How do you know the grounds support the claim 0 Backing How do you know the warrant supports the grounds Chapter 8 Five basic patterns for organizing main points 1 Chronological pattern Traces sequence of events 2 Spatial pattern Arranges ideas in terms of location or direction 3 Casual pattern Describes cause and effect relationship b w ideas or events 4 Problem solution ID s problem and offers possible solution 5 Topical pattern Divides main points into subtopics Chapter 9 The four functions of any introduction CREP 1 Catch the audience s attention 2 Reveal the topic to the audience 3 Establish credibility with the audience 4 Preview the speech for the audience Chapter 10 Semantic triangle of meaning Left cornerSymbol the word or phrase spoken by the speaker quotfreedomquot Right corner Referent the object concept or even the symbol represents TopThought memory or past experience that the audience has with the referent Stylistic Devices Language that creates Imagery Simile comparison using like or as tall as a tree Metaphor comparison that does not use like or as they cut a steak out of my back Personi cation attributing human characteristics to animals objects or concepts my bones are tired Language that creates rhythm Parallelism pattern to enhance the meaning Rich and poor intelligent and ignorant wise and foolish Repetition Repeating a word or phrase I have a dream Alliteration a repetition of the initial sounds of two or more words in a sentence Peter Piper pickled peppers Antithesis between words or phrases Ask not what your country can do for you but what you can do for your countryquot Chapter 1 1 Methods of Delivery Extemporaneous Delivem carefully prepared amp practiced from brief notes follows a conversational style which is more formal than everyday conversation yet remains spontaneous and relaxed Impromptu Delivery present a speech that hasn t been planned prepared meetings or public gatherings Manuscript Delivery read from a written text used for detailed and exact info when speech will be scrutinized word by word or referred to later or when speech will be used later for another purpose Memorized Delivery present a written out memorized and given word for word speech no notes Verbal Components of Delivery Use vocal variety changes in volume rate and pitch Volume loudness of speakers voice Rate speed at which we speak Pitch and In ection pitch position of tones on musical scale highness or lowness of your voice In ection manipulation of pitch to create moods Avoid monotone not altering pitch Pauses hesitations and brief silences Avoid vocalized pauses um er uh Articulation physical process of producing speci c speech sounds to make language intelligent how clearly Pronunciation act of saying words correctly how correctly Dialect pattern of speech shared by an ethnic group wash or warsh o Nonverbal Components of Delivery Personal Appearance way you dress groom and present yourself Eye Contact visual contact with another persons eyes Facial Expression movement of your eyes eyebrows mouth to convey reactions and emotions letting the audience know your attitudes emotional states and inner thoughts Posture way we position and carry our body Gestures movements usually of the hands sometimes the entire body to express meaning and emotion or offer clarity to a message Proxemics Use of space during communication Chapter 13 Types of Informative Speeches Speeches About Processes describe how something is done how something has come to be the way it is or how something works can be a quothow toquot speech Speeches About Events Speeches About Places and People Speeches About Objects includes anything tangible that can be perceived by the senses Speeches About Concepts about abstractions like an idea or beliefs Chapter 14 Creating an invitational environment 0 To speak in an invitational environment the speaker must createthe condition of equality by using appropriate language delivery and presentation of ideas to let the audience know that their knowledge and perspectives are recognized as valid and worthy The condition of value to understand the audience s different perspectives and values without judging or effort to change their opinions o The condition of selfdetermination by recognizing that all members in the audience have the right to choose for themselves and that they have enough knowledge to make the best choice Types of invitational speeches o Speeches to explore an issue the attempt to invite the audience to engage in a discussion about an idea concept or plan of action By presenting an overview of the topic and giving all different perspectives to understand the subject more fully o Speeches to articulate a position the attempt to invite the audience to explore the issue from your own perspective to gain a richer understanding of the topic Using invitational language 0 Using language such as this position makes sense because although this may not work for you all this is the position I hold tells your audience that you are only explaining your views not willing to impose and persuade it to them Use phrases that display openness and respect for all different perspectives to create an invitational environment Language is also important during the discussion part encouraging and af rming the audience s perspective will ensure that the dialogue will develop openly and effectively Chapter 15 Types of persuasive speeches Generally persuasive speeches will question fact value or policy 0 Question of fact speeches attempt to sway the audience on points that are debatable with facts and veri able points Ex using fossil evidence to theorize how dinosaurs became extinct 0 Question of value speeches attempt to persuade the audience on moral issues such as actions or beliefs that may be deemed good or bad Ex is it moral to make all children say the pledge of allegiance in school 0 Question of policy speeches persuade the audience that your policy is the best way to act or solve a problem Ex How should the federal government implement mandatory drug testing Chapter 16 Forms of proof and reasoning We need proof or evidence to help support our main points There are three types of evidence speci c evidenced novel information and credible sources Specific evidence Used to convince the audience that something is true good or appropriate This evidence needs to support your claims as explicitly as possible An example is listing speci c ingredients in cigarettes or speci c ingredients in un healthy foods Novel Information Is essentially new information that the audience would not know about a subject that they do know This makes a topic that everyone knows and makes it more interesting for the audience Credible Sources Two guidelines for using credible sources are provide enough information about the source so the audience can determine if it credible and use sources that the audience will know to be trustworthy fair and unbiased Do not use sources that are extremely one sided and only show their points Use sources that have an expertise in your area and that they know what they are talking about Types of Credibility The three types of credibility are initial derived and terminal Initial Credibility The credibility a speaker has before giving a speech How the audience sees you when you rst enter the room rst impressions you give the audience Derived Credibility The credibility the speaker develops during the speech The way you deliver a speech as well as what evidence you use determine your derived credibility Terminal Credibility The credibility given to the speaker at the end of a speech What your audience is going to walk away with about you such as your level of knowledge and trustworthiness Mythos persuasion Help you persuade by using the stories told with a culture that re ect its folk knowledge and ideals Appeals to mythos tap into a culture s common sense and call to mind its shared values attitudes and patterns of behavior Mythos could refer as history tradition faith feelings common sense and membership in a community or culture When we appeal to mythos we rely on a story or myth that reminds our audience of shared principles Although our culture s myths may not be factually true their logic is meaningful Different cultures have different myths based on their different experience and histories Common logical fallacies It is an argument that seems valid but is awed because of unsound evidence or reasoning 0 CO 45 U1 0 There are more than 125 different fallacies but there are seven most common fallacies for public speaking Ad hominem it is an argument in which a speaker attacks a person rather than that person s arguments Bandwagon fallacy you are suggesting that something is correct or good because everyone else agrees with it or is doing it EitherOr this also could calledfalse dilemma is an argument in which a speaker claims our options are either A or B when actually more than two options eXist False cause Post Hoc fallacy an argument mistaking a chronological relationship for a causal relationship There are two type of false cause 1 occurs when speaker assumes that one event caused the second to occur 2 the second type of false cause fallacy is known as a single cause fallacy This occurs when speakers oversimplify and assume a particular effect has only one cause Hasty Generalization argument based on too few causes or examples to support a conclusion Red herring raising an irrelevant issue we introduce irrelevant information into an argument to distract an audience from the real issue 7 Slippery slope is an argument in which a speaker claims that taking a rst step in one direction will inevitably lead to undesirable further step Need Before presenting a policy you must demonstrate that a current problem exists and that it relates to your audience To support this claim you must use credible evidence that illustrates the severity of the problem and connects it to the audience Plan Now that your audience is persuaded that there is a need for change the next step is to present a plan that responds to the need 0 Explain your plan What does it entail What are the speci c courses of action you advocate implementing 0 State whom will enforce the plan What administration would take responsibility for the plan 0 Discuss funding Taxes reallocating existing funds etc Practicality How feasible is the plan 0 Cure Does the plan solve the problems stated in the quotneedquot 0 Advantages vs Disadvantages o Counterarguments 0 Call to action
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