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Food and Nutrition in Health

by: Arnold Osinski III

Food and Nutrition in Health FSHN 125

Arnold Osinski III
GPA 3.79

John Avens

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John Avens
Class Notes
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This 61 page Class Notes was uploaded by Arnold Osinski III on Tuesday September 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to FSHN 125 at Colorado State University taught by John Avens in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see /class/210256/fshn-125-colorado-state-university in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 09/22/15
13 September Learning Exercise 22 Aspartame is A A carbohydrate B llGenerally recognized as safequot GRAS C Carcinogenic in experimental rats D B and C only E None of above Learning Objective Explain why humans m protein in their diets Functions of protein Producing vital body structures Maintaining fluid balance Contributing to acidbase balance Forming hormones and enzymes Contributing to immune function Forming glucose Providing energy Contributing to satiety Primary function Learning Exercise 23 A The function s of food protein in the human is are A Required for formation of enzymes B To maintain fluid balance in blood and body tissues C Production of antibodies D A and B only E A Band C Learning Objective m the structural composition ofm in terms of Subunits amino acids Variety Specificity Cause of difference in variety and specificity MSLSlW a of chain Freguencyampdifferent amino acids Order of amino acids Learning Objective Explain whereghow humans obtain aHof the 20 reguired amino acids Synthesis in body cells Food Animal sources Plant sources Dairy meat and beans are best sources of protein Learning Exercise 24 What causes different proteins to have a m of differenthific characteristics Different A Amount of any specific amino acid B Total number of amino acids C Specific arrangement of amino acids D B and C only E A B and C Learning Objective m the difference between llEssential amino acids llNonessential amino acids Which are quotnecessaryquot to the human for growth and metabolism Why Lea rning Objective Explain what will happen in the human lf single llessential amino acid required in the synthesis of a particular protein is missing from the diet food Give an example of effect What will happen to the other amino acids from the diet food Protein synthesis in cell stops Learning Exercise 25 quotEssentialquot amino acids A Can be adequately manufactured within human body cells B Are necessary for normal human growth and metabolism C Must be provided in the human diet D Aand Bonly E Band Conly Learning Exercise 26 quotWheatiesquot llThe Breakfast of Champions contains all llessential amino acids necessary for Michael Phelps to develop into an Olympic champion swimmer A True B False 16 October Learning Exercise 54 Which are awatersoube vitamins A Vitamin Avitamin C folic acid B Niacin thiamine vitamin E C Vitamin BG folic acid vitamin C D Vitamin C vitamin A thiamine E Vitamin D vitamin A vitamin E and vitamin K Learning Objective Comparevitamins to Protein fat and carbohydrate In terms of Chemical structure Digestion and absorption Functional use Requirement in human diet Vitamins are Organic chemicals Carbon No characteristic structure SmaH amounts in foods M digested Absorbed intact in small intestine M yield energy E used for tissue structure Regulators of body metabolism Necessary for normal growth and body functioning Needed in human body in Mamounts Daily dietary reguirement Not synthesized by the body essential in diet Lea rning Objective Which vitamins are Fatsoluble Vitamin A Vitamin D Vitamin E Vitamin K All dogs eat kibbles Watersoluble Thiamin Riboflavin Niacin Pantothenic acid Biotin Vitamin B6 Folate folic acid Vitamin B12 Vitamin C Lea rning Objective Which are more likely to be toxic at megadose intake levels Fatsoluble vitamins Explain why Fat does not easily leave body Stores in body tissues Water moves around body readily Lea rning Objectives What should you recommend concerning vitaminsupplementation of the diet for Healthy adults eating tymal varied balanced diet don t need vit pills People with medically diagnosed vitamin deficiencies specific diseases Prescription Newborns ltime vitamin K injection Vegans Vitamin B12 Pregnant amp lactating women Folate Older people low energy intake Learning Exercise 55 Which of the following should have some vitamin supplementation A Newborn babies B Strict quotveganquot vegetarians C Healthy adults eating a balanced variety of regular food in moderation D A and B only E A B and C A multivitamin supplemented poor diet is still a poor diet Vitamins need a balance of food protein fat and carbohydrate on which to work A good diet with VBM contains more than enough of all the vitamins needed without supplementation YOUDON T NEED MEGADOSE MULTlVITAMIN SUPPLEMENTS YOU NEED VBM from real food 11 September Learning Exercise 19 Any chemical llfood additive at high enough doses will eventually cause cancer in humans or experimental animals A True B False Caffeine is a natural toxicant in coffee and a food additive in cola drinks it is not a carcinogen 10 grams caffeine 100 cups of coffee per day will not cause cancer but it will kill you Lea rning Objective Explain the distinction between a food additive that is toxicquot and a food additive that llcauses cancerquot in relation to quotsafequot levels of the food additive allowed in human food As determined by animal tests Animal Tests rats mice Life time 2 years Direct food additive Poison toxin Parts per billion NE no effect No effect level 10000 ppb quotSafequot tolerance 100 ppb Direct food additive that causes cancer NE NE NE NE NE NE Tumor increase No effect level 50000 ppb quotSafequot tolerance 0 Human dose in entire diet less than 1 ppb 17 billion seconds ago it was 1958 A billion minutes ago Julius Caesar ruled the Roman Empire A billion hours ago nothing walked on Earth on two feet Delaney Clause 1958 To the FDC Law Prohibits quotcancercausingquot food additives from being added to food if such substances llcan be detectedquot as a residue in any edible portion of the food llCancer causing in human or any test animal administered at high doses llCan be detectedquot more sensitive analytical methodology lt1 pptrillion Learning Exercise 20 The Food Drug and Cosmetic Law allows a safe tolerance in food for any cancercausing food additives determined by dividing the highest noeffect animal dose level by a safety factor of 100 A True B False Lea rning Objectives Explain the differences between Was GRAS Learning Exercise 21 Saccharin is currently allowed to be directly and intentionally added to food A By the llDelaney Clause in the Food Drug and Cosmetic Law B By congress representing the food consuming people C Because it is no longer listed as a potential cause of cancer in humans 13 November Learning Exercise 84 A healthy human eating a wide variety of foods properly balancingmacronutrients from food and not overeating total kcalories would significantly benefit from A Regular moderate exercise and more water B Megadoses of multiple vitamins and minerals C Getting more sleep and managing stress D A and C only E A B and C Nutrients Cause Prevention and Cure of Disease Protein Fat Carbohydrate Vitamins Minerals Water Lea rning Objective What are three guidelines to maintaining nutritional health Variety Balance Moderation Learning Exercise 85 Vitamin mineral and herbal supplements are reguired by federal law to be tested for safety and effectiveness prior to being allowed to be sold for human consumption A True 3 False Learning Objective By definition a lldietary supplement is a nonfood product which contains any of the following Vitamins Minerals Amino acids Herbs or other botanical substances Herbs and other botanical substances St John s Wort Ginseng Echinacea Valerian etc Some herbs may be harmless while others are potentially toxic Some herbs may be effective while others may be ineffective They are not required to be tested prior to use for safety or effectiveness Learning Exercise 86 llDietary supplements A Need a balanced varied diet of real foods to be effective B Are not needed in addition to a balanced varied diet of real foods C Are needed and effective ifdiet is unbalanced and not varied D Aand Bonly Lea rning Objective Mariety Balance and Moderation is key because no single food or food group contains all of the nutrients we need Supplements are appropriate in some situations but they cannot make up for a diet which is unbalanced Lea rning Objective Vitamin and mineral quotsupplementsquot WHY Need a balanced varied diet of real foods to be effective Are not needed in addition to a balanced varied diet of real foods Are not needed or effective if diet is unbalanced and not varied Because enough ofall vitamins and minerals are in VBM Because without VBM vitamins and minerals have nothing to react with and are useless alone Dietary Supplements A supplemented poor diet is still a poor diet Supplements are not tested prior to use for safety effectiveness and dose and therefore may be unsafe Ineffective or overdosed Lea rning Objective Criticizeclaimed advantages of megadose dietary in r ofdisease Not supported by data from controlled experiments on humans or other animals utilizing llscientific method Based on belief supported by sub39ective opinions derived from testimonial Provide a false sense of security about your health leading to incomplete diagnosis and delayed proper treatment Learning Exercise 87 What is good nutritional advice to avoid chronic disease A Don t eat certain quotbadquot foods B Eat mostly recognized quotgoodquot foods C Eat many different foods that appeal to you D Aand Bonly 27 November Learning Exercise 92 Tooth decay anemia decreased immune function and constipation are typical symptoms of A Anorexia nervosa B Bulimia nervosa C Bingeeating disorder D A and B only E Band Conly Learning Objective llEating Disorders Define Distinguish among Recognize signs of Why develop What to do self others Eating disorders Are not about food Are not dieting Are psychological in cause Are physical in effect Affect millions of Americans Have high fatality rate Can not be selfcontrolled intervention required Learning Objective What are disordered eating behaviors Starving Purging vomiting Use of laxatives and diuretics Binge eating What are physical effects of these behaviors Starving Decreased metabolic rate Deterioration of bone mass Decreased lean muscle mass Purging vomiting Inflammation of stomach lining Acid erosion of teeth enamel Damaged esophagus Vomiting blood Use of laxatives and diuretics Loss of minerals mineral imbalance Dehydration Ulcer damage to digestive tract blood stools Body becomes dependent constipation Binge eating Injury to stomach and pancreas Decreased metabolic rate Learning Exercise 93 Sarah s disordered eating A Was diagnosed as bulimia nervosa B Likely caused calcium and iron deficiency C Habits were in place for 6 years and are likely to relapse after therapy and counseling D A and B only E B and C only 20 September Learning Exercise 30 The primary function of food fat triglycerides in the human is A Provides energy B Regulates body processes C Provides body tissue structure Lea rning Objective What are the functions ofdietary fat in the human Providing energy Transporting fatsoluble vitamins Essential fatty acids linoleic linolenic Primary function Learning Objective m the structural composition of glyceride in terms of Subunits fatty acids glycerol Triglyceride made of 3 fatty acids bonded to glycerol Most food fats are triglycerides Variety Specificity What causes variety and specificity Characteristics variety specificity caused by Number of fatty acids 1 mlyceride 2 glyceride 3 riglyceride Fatty acid carbon chain length Degree of unsaturation Learning Objective m the differences between Saturated fats Unsaturated fats In terms of What is saturated Carbon bonding Saturated with what Physical characteristics Learning Exercise llSaturated fatsquot are saturated with A Cholesterol B Glycerol C Oxygen D Hydrogen E Water Saturated fatty acids Saturated with hydrogen Only single bonds Relatively large amount 40 60 of fat in animal fat solid Unsaturated fatty acids At least one double bond One monounsaturated More than one polyunsaturated Relatively large amount in vegetable oils liquid Learning Exercise 31 This fatty acids carbon chain is A Saturated B Monounsaturated C Polyunsaturated Lea rning Objective Explain what is meant by quothydrogenationquot of vegetable oils in terms of Fatty acids Physical characteristics Unsaturated bonds must be broken hydrogen added Learning Objective Compare butter fat content of Skim milk 0 2 milk 2 1 milk 1 Whole milk 325 Mostly water Learning Exercise 32 M milk contains what Qercent fat by weight A Less than 5 B 25 C 50 D 75 E 100 1 November Learning Exercise 73 Chicken quotnuggetsquot are A Breast andor thigh meat formed in a machine B An anatomical muscle of the live chicken removed intact C A nonmeat synthetic product of food science resembling meat D Waste products of chicken processing otherwise discarded E Testicles of male chickens Lea rning Objective Control transmission of microorganism from agricultural environment to the consumer via food r 9 r o 9 r r 9 I Whycontrol this transmission Slow food spoilage decomposition Increase shelflife Prevent foodborne illness Foodborne infection Foodborne intoxication Learning Exercise 74 Food preservation methods for salting smoking fermenting chilling and drying food have all been practiced A Only since scientists started to study food and apply their findings 3 For centuries before the era of food science and technology Learning Exercise 75 When a consumer purchases a further processed entr e meal item in the supermarket in addition to food tissue containing the six nutrients they are also purchasing A Convenience and time saved B Health and wellness and safety C Taste appearance and aroma D A and C only E A B and C 6 September Learning Exercise 15 Which food ingredients should you be more assured are actually safe to eat A llFood Additive substances B llGenerally Recognized As Safequot substances Food Additives Indirect Intentional Accidental Direct Intentionally added directly to food in controlled amounts during processing for specific purpose Learning Exercise 16 Unnatural chemicals may leg y be directly added to food during processing to A Make food look and taste better B Thicken and bleach food C Prevent fat from turning rancid and delay food discoloration D A B and C E None of above Lea rning Objective Explain the differences between substances added to food that are llfood additives and llgenerally recognized as safequot GRAS GRAS quotgenerally ecognized As afequot Certain substances added to food which qualified scientists generally recognized as safe M regulated llfood additives Some safety tested by FDA WHILE BEING USED IN FOOD Many not tested yet and may never be tested Learning Exercise 17 According to the federal quotFood Drug and Cosmetic Lawquot llfood additivesquotallowed in food A Are llgenerally recognized as safequot G RAS B Must be tested and determined safe before being used in food C Must accomplish intended effect at lowest concentration necessary 0 Aand Conly quotquot Band Conly llFood Additive Any substance which may directly or indirectly intentionally or unintentionally be added to food if such substance isnot llgenerally recognized as safequot Maccording to federal law bem and groven 1 Safe 2 Effective 3 Lowest concentration necessary BEFORE USED IN FOOD Learning Exercise 18 The humectant propylene glycol is added to some foods during processing for what purpose A To increase its shelf life limit spoilage B To retain moisture texture and fresh flavor C To increase its nutrient context 2 Octo be r Learning Exercise 41 Refined table sugar sucrose is a A Monosaccharide B Disaccharide C Polysaccharide One large egg contains 30 grams unsaturated fat Plus stearic acid These do not increase LDL or LDL cholesterol in blood 11 grams saturated fat Increases LDLcholesterol in blood No limit to absorption from diet No limit to storage in body cells 0210 grams cholesterol Limit to absorption from diet Limit to synthesis in liver Limit to storage in body cells Relatively small amount in diet Does not increase LDL in blood Lea rning Objective What foods provide carbohydrate in diet Animal Milk yogurt Plant Grains Vegetables Nuts Fruits Beans Learning Exercise 42 Monosaccharides disaccharides and polysaccharides are molecular components of which food nutrient A Protein B Carbohydrate C Fat D Vitamins E Minerals Lea rning Objective How do carbohydratesdifferstructurally from Qroteins and E Learning Objective m the structural differences among Msaccharides Qsaccharides Polysaccharides What are three examples of each Monosaccharide Glucose Fructose Galactose Disaccharides Sucrose glucose fructose Lactose glucose galactose Maltose glucose glucose Polysaccharides Amylose Amylopectin Glycogen Learning Exercise 43 The My function of digested available carbohydrate from food in the human body is A Body tissue structure material B Provides energy C Provides bulk Lea rning Objective Explain four functions of carbohydrates to the human Yielding energy Sparing protein for use as an energy source Preventing ketosis Promoting bowel health Primary function Learning Objective M quotfiberquot as a food carbohydrate M is one example m of Insoluble solid fiber Soluble fiber Learning Objective Why is m unavailable for energy production in the m body Explain why in terms of Digestion Enzymes Absorption Learning Exercise 44 Which is theonly listed carbohydrate produced by animals that is used for human food A Fructose B Lactose C Amylose D Sucrose E Amylopectin 25 September Learning Exercise 33 Humansm cholesterol in their A Body B Diet C A and B D Neither A not B Learning Objective M is quotcholesterolquot Animal sterol Lipid Solid at room temperature Whitish Waxy Insoluble in water Learning Exercise 34 A g vegetarian having no animal cholesterol in their M will A Manufacture more cholesterol in their body than nonvegetarians B Have much less cholesterol in their blood and body cells than nonvegetarians C Have no cholesterol in their body D Have only vegetablecholesterol in their body E Band Donly Learning Objective How do we get cholesterol in our body Made by body cells Consumed in the diet 03 grams of cholesterol ingested per day 55 absorbed 016 gram Body synthesizes 07 grams daily 19 or less of cholesterol in body comes from diet Lea rning Objective Explain why in any one normal healthy human a relatively steady level of cholesterol in the blood and tissues is maintained even after large amounts of cholesterol in food are occasionally ingested quotHomeostasisquot Stops synthesis of cholesterol in cells and absorption of cholesterol Learning Objective m we need cholesterol in our body Yes For M Component of bile helps digest fats Precursor for hormones Allows vitamin D absorption Allows selective permeability of skin to water rolls off s cholesterol quotessentialquot in our diet No Sufficient amounts produced by body Learning Exercise 35 Eating abnormally large amounts of food cholesterol occasionally will result in A All food cholesterol eaten being absorbed into lymphblood B Proportionally increased amounts of food cholesterol being absorbed into lymphblood C Slight and temporary elevated blood cholesterol levels D Reduced synthesis of cholesterol in the liver E Cand D only Learning Objective Compare the relative amount in food Fats glycerides grams Cholesterol milligrams much less Learning Exercise 36 Cholesterol can be found in A Coconut oil and palm oil B Human blood C Human skin cells and liver D B and C only E A B and C 8 November Learning Exercise 80 A scientifically valid recommendations for most humans to reduce the risk of heart disease isare A Limit saturated fat and trans fat intake B Don t eat any red meat or eggs C Eat more fruits and vegetables D A and B only E A and C only Learning Objective What are the risk factors for coronary heart disease Total blood cholesterol gt 200 mgdL Smoking Hypertension gt 13989 Diabetes HDL cholesterol lt 40 mgdL Age Men gt 45 yr Women gt 55 yr Family history of cardiovascular disease Blood triglycerides gt 200 mgdL Obesity Inactivity LDLcholesterol gt 130 mgdL Total cholesterolHDL cholesterol gt 41 Stress and emotional tension Learning Objective M are 7 diet and lifestyle goals for M to reduce M risk of heart disease Consume an overall healthy diet Aim for a healthy body weight Aim for recommended levels of lowdensity lipoprotein LDL cholesterol highdensity lipoprotein HDL cholesterol and triglycerides Aim for a normal blood pressure Aim for a normal blood glucose level Be physically active Avoid use of and exposure to tobacco products Learning Exercise 81 The three most likelyrisk factors for 39 of r heart disease are A Eating meat eggs and milk B High HDLcholesterol levels low LDLcholesterol levels total to HDLcholesterol ratio less than 41 in blood C Smoking high blood pressure high LDLcholesterol levels in blood Learning Objective What are the risk factors for cancer Genetics Lifestyle Diet Learning Exercise 82 What has been identified as the most probable risk factor for human cancer A Dietary fat B Dietary calcium C Dietary sugar D Food additives E Total energy intake Learning Objective What are some reliable dietaryrecommendationsZguidelines for reducing risk of cancer Energy less Fat less Fiber more Calcium meet requirement Obesity prevent Alcohol moderate Curedsmoked meat limit Exercise more Research has indicated A significant influence of on m rates if lacking VBM Total calorie intake Natural food carcinogens Natural anticarcinogenic substances in food That agricultural chemical residues on crops and direct food additives are not a significant cancer hazard in the USA Antioxidants are significant anticarcinogens But get them from real foods NOT supplements Smoking directly causes 20 of heart disease deaths 34 of all cancers Learning Exercise 83 Reliable dieiy recommendations for reducing risk of cancer are to consume A Less energy fat alcohol B More fruit vegetables grains C Only organically grown natural food D A and B only E A B and C 4 September Learning Exercise 11 The amount of toxic chemicals consumed per person per year as natural parts of food is greater than the amount of toxic chemicals consumed per person per year that were added during agricultural production and processing A True B False 1500 lbs foodstuffscapitayear 1361 lbs normal components of food 139 lbs food additives 129 lbs food ingredients derived from natural sources sugar salt corn syrup dextrose etc 10 lbs 9 lbs 3300 synthetic direct additives leavening agents acidity adjustors flavors colors preservatives etc 1 lb 1800 intentional or accidental indirect additives mercury pesticides lead hormones etc Most of these individual additives are consumed in amounts of less than 025 gramcapitayear The wider the variety of food intake the greater the number of different chemicals consumed and the less the chance that any one chemical will reach a hazardous level in the diet Why apply insecticides to corn crops Grasshoppers love corn which is a grass Learning Exercise 12 In testing thousands of raw food products each year for pesticide residues FDA found A Greater than half had some pesticide residues B Only 1 to 3 percent had less than legal tolerance levels C Pesticide residues in foods are generally well below EPA tolerances D A and B only E Aand Conly Maximum allowable concentration in food Mercury in fish 1 ppm Pesticides 01 1 ppm 1 ppm part per million 1 ounce sand in 3 tons concrete 1 inch in 16 miles 1 minute in 2 years 1 ounce vermouth in 7825 gallons gin a mdry martini 1 cent in 10000 Learning Objective Compare proper pesticide application concentration on crops lt1lb per acre to 1 tsp sugarbowl of cereal 25 tonsacre 1 tsp sugarcup of coffee 4 tonsacre 6 shakes saltsalad 36 lbsacre 9 tsp sugar12 oz can of cola 8 tonsacre 15 tsp sugar20 oz bot cola 8 tonsacre Learning Exercise 13 Pesticides are properly applied to food crops and fields at a concentration which is about the same as P Less than 1 pounds per acre 9 1 teaspoon sugar on a bowl of cereal or in a cup of coffee 0 6 shakes of salt on a salad 0 9 teaspoons sugar in a 12 ounce can of cola quotquot B C and D only Biological concentration in the food chain ppm pesticides 0000003 in lake Microscopic animals in lake concentrate it to 004 Small fish eat microscopic animals concentrate to 05 Large fish eat smaller fish concentrate to 2 Fisheating birdshumans eat large fish concentrate to 5 Learning Exercise 14 Where in the llfood chain would be the smallest concentration of a pesticide which leached from a field of crops into a lake A Water in the lake B Zooplankton microscopic animals in the water C Small fish which eat the zooplankton D Larger fish which eat the smaller fish E Birds which regularly eat the larger fish 28 August Learning Exercise 4 Energy from the sun is stored in A Live green plant tissue B Dead animal tissue C Living human tissue D A B and C E None of above Sun is ultimate source of energy Green plants contain chlorophyll Captures sun s energy stores it in plant tissue all parts of the plant notjust green parts Human consumes energy from plant converted to energy in human Energy from sun stored in live green plants Energy stored in dead harvested plant tissue Dead plant nutrients eaten by human Energy and nutrients from dead plantslanimals converted into live active human tissue Lumen interior of tube Absorption into blood must occur Food must be broken down physically and chemically As llfood processing machinesquot you have a problem You need to get food from this tube to inside your body tissue to convert it into your own living flesh The process is digestion followed by absorption into blood Learning Exercise 5 Digestion chemical breakdown of nutrients occurs My A In lumen of stomach before absorption B In lumen of small intestine before absorption C In lumen of large intestine colon before absorption D Inside blood vessels after absorption E Inside body tissue cells after absorption Learning Exercise 6 Remembering the analogy of the bagel used in class one should consider eaten food in the lumen of the stomach or intestine before digestion as really being A Outside the human body tissue B Inside the human body tissue 23 August Learning Exercise 1 In applying the llscientific method which is the correct order of occurrence A Theory hypotheses problem experiments B Problem experiments theory hypotheses C Problem hypotheses experiments theory D Experiments problem hypotheses theory Testimonies personal experiences Not valid evidence on which to base nutritionhealthrelated recommendations May be true Scientific method used to seek knowledge of truth facts in a deliberate manner unbiased by human desires for or beliefs of the nature of truth Scientific Method to m the m HOW By observation of facts Ask questions Answers define problem Hypotheses possible explanations for problem Investigate hypotheses by conducting experiments Confirmed hypothesis model to make predictions Investigate predictions by Conducting experiments If predictions are confirmed by experimental data a theory is developed on which decisions can be safely made based on probably truth Learning Exercise 2 In a doubleblind human nutritional study A A placebo is given to the experimental group B The research investigators working directly with the human subjects know who is receiving the test substance C The human sub39ects don t know whether or not they are receiving the test substance D A and C only E Band Conly Controlled Experiment On lab animals or humans Experimental group 9 treatment indep var 9 measurements 9 data dependent variable Dependent variable depends on treatment Control group 9 placebo 9 measurement 9 data Compare data between groups Learning Exercise 3 In a controlled experiment of a nutritional study the ll39ndependent variable is the A Treatment levels including placebo set up by the experimenters B Data from after 39 is 18 September Learning Exercise 27 Human muscle contains some of the same amino acids that were in the protein of the plants that the human ate A True B False Learning Objective m the difference between Complete higher quality protein Incomplete lower quality protein in food M are the w quality protein Human mother s milk for humans Next best chicken eggs Next cow s milk Supplies all necessary amino acids Which are the lowest quality Fruits and vegetables particularly fruits Beans and legumes Measure of Protein Quality Biological value percent of food protein amino acids absorbed that is retained in the human body metabolized into tissue Human milk 98 Chicken eggs 94 Cow s milk 85 Fish 78 Red meat 76 Poultry meat 75 Grain 60 Bea ns 40 Lea rning Objective In terms of llessential amino acids explain what is meant by llcomplementary proteinsquot and give an example Grains Wheat Oats Rice Co rn SeedsNuts Sesame Sunflower Walnuts Legumes Beans Pea spea nuts Lentils All incomplete protein sources by themselves Complement grains with legumes Or seedsnuts with legumes Intake all essential amino acids Grains and seedsnuts cannot be complemented Learning Exercise 28 Two good complementary plant protein sources are A Corn tortillas and beans B Beans and peas C Sunflower seeds and walnuts D Rice and whole wheat bread E A B C and D Who Eats Carnivore Meat flesh Omnivore Meat flesh amp Fruitarian amp olive oil Learning Objective State which of the vegetarian types May need complementing protein sources and vitamin and mineral supplements Vegans Have likely inadeguate intake of protein and other nutrients Fruitarian Learning Exercise 29 Vegans can help meet their vitamin B 12 and calcium intake requirements by consuming A Fortified soymilk B Some fortified breakfast cereals C Dairy products D A and B only E A B and C 30 August Learning Exercise 7 To label foods quotNaturalquot it is legally reguired that the foods A B O 0 quotquot Are not changed by processing after agricultural production and harvest May not contain synthetic or artificial ingredients May not be more than quotminimally processed A and B only Band Conly What do the words quotnaturalquot quothealthyquot quotorganicquot on a food label mean quotNaturalquot foods implied Are not changed by processing after agricultural production and harvest May not contain synthetic or artificial ingredients May not be more than quotminimally processedquot Only legal requirement for labeling foods quotnaturalquot All organic fertilizers including Animal manure Plant compost Rock phosphate Must break down into inorganic quotchemicalquot molecules before they can be used by growing plants Both natural quotorganic chemical fertilizers and synthetic quotinorganic chemical fertilizers contain Nitrogen potassium amp phosphate Needed by growing plants These inorganic chemicals are identical whether from synthetic or natural sources The growing plant can t tell the difference and foods produced by both types of fertilizer are nutritionally healthy and safe to eat Learning Exercise 8 The inorganic chemicals nitrogen potassium and phosphate are A Needed by growing plants B Supplied by natural organic fertilizers C Supplied by synthetic inorganic fertilizers D A and C only E A B and C An quotorganicallyquot grown potato a rather simple llnatural foodquot contains 150 different chemicals which have been identified Solanine Oxalic acid Arsenic Tannins Nitrates Many others of no nutritional value Many of these natural chemicals are carcinogenic andor toxic poisons that FDA would recommend BANNING E they were ADDED BY HUMANS BUT they are NOT Learning Exercise 9 Assuming enough fertilizer is provided llorganically grown food and llconventionally grown food using synthetic chemical fertilizers are both nutritionally healthy and safe to eat A True B False Iquot The quantities of toxic poison or carcinogenic natura chemicals in food we consume per capita per year are very large compared to synthetic llfood additives added by humans Learning Exercise 10 Normal naturally occurring chemicals not added by humans in food plants and animals A Can be highly toxic poisons B Are dangerous to humans eating normal amounts C Are present in relatively larger amounts than chemicals added by humans D A and C only E None of the above 27 September Learning Exercise 37 In the normal human body lowdensity lipoprotein LDL A Removes excess cholesterol from blood body cells and arteries B Contains fat and cholesterol from the liver 0 Carries cholesterol in blood to cells and arteries D Aand Bonly quotquot Band Conly Lipoprotein greater percentage of lipid lower density Lea rning Objective Explain how a heart attack due to dead heart muscle tissue results from blood clots and how blood clots result from plaque of atherosclerosis in arteries Athero lipid accumulation Sclerosis hardening Learning Exercise 38 A llmyocardial infarcationquot is A A coronary blood clot B Hardening of the arteries C Blood vessel plaque D Death of heart muscle tissue E A stroke Learning Exercise 39 In what adult human tissue are you most likely to find greatest buildup of excess cholesterol A Heart muscle B Blood vessel plaque C Thromboses blood clots Learning Objective What dietary factors cause an increase in blood LDLcholesterol Saturated fat natural Trans fat rehydrogenated M unsaturated fat Not cholesterol Learning Exercise 40 Which most likely causes an increase in amount of LDLcholesterol in the blood and thus would be a more effective control of heart disease by dietary limitation for most people A Dietary cholesterol consumption B Dietary saturated fat consumption C Dietary unsaturated fat consumption 21 August Learning Objectives What is quotnutritionquot Chapter 1 page 8 What are the six classes of nutrients Chapter 1 pages 11 13 What are the three major functions of nutrients 111 What is an enzyme 112 What are RDA Al DRI EER UL DV 248 50 Learning Exercise Which of the following are quotnutrientsquot A Sugars starches and amino acids B Fats and oils C Vitamins minerals and water D A and C only E A B and C 17 11 12 13 What is a compound that speeds the rate of a chemical process but is not altered by the process A Nutrient 111 B Enzyme 112 C Hormone Glossary G6 D Electrolyte 113 E Lipid 112 The specific nutrient intake to meet the needs of nearly all healthy people in a particular age and gender group is D E EER RDA Al UL DV 248 50 6 November Learning Exercise 76 Most ualifiedquot sports nutrition consultants would advise most athletes during training for and in team sports events requiring less than 60 minutes noncontinuous total exertion to A Increase percent protein in diet B Take multivitamin and amino acid supplements C Consume llsports drinksquot instead of water D A B and C E None of above Learning Exercise 77 Most athletes should obtain dietary energy kcalories in what percentages from the following macronutrients A Fat 35 B Protein 55 C Carbohydrate 10 D B and C only E A B and C Learning Objective Compare an quotathletequot to a quotnonathlete in terms of required dietary Kinds of nutrients same Amountpercent of Water more Kcalories more Carbs equal or greater Fat equal or lesser Proteinvitaminsminerals same no supplements needed Learning Objective What percent of dietary kcalories M an m obtain from Fat lt 35 Carbohydrate gt 60 Protein lt10 In addition to being unnecessary for most athletes what are the potential dangers of protein or amino acid supplements to a balanced diet Excess kcalories are stored as fat Dehydration excess protein 9 urea HZO urine Increases calcium loss in urine Displace carbohydrates decrease performance Learning Exercise 78 m athletes should A Minimize regular intake of foods high in fat sugar and sodium B Supplement a balanced diet with multivitamins minerals and amino acids C Obtain most kcalories from protein D A and C only E A B and C Lea rning Objective


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