Global Environmental Systems (GT
Global Environmental Systems (GT NR 130
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This 41 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sabina Bosco IV on Tuesday September 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to NR 130 at Colorado State University taught by Erin Berryman in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see /class/210259/nr-130-colorado-state-university in Natural Sciences at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 09/22/15
Chapter 1 gt Review Questions l2369lll3 gt Key Terms anthropogenic atmosphere biodiversity biota deforestation Earth system fossil fuels global warming greenhouse effect greenhouse gases hydrosphere ozone photosynthesis rocks sediments solid Earth stratosphere system trace gases Chapter 2 gt Review Questions ALL review questions at the end of Chapter 2 gt Key Terms albedo component coupling equilibrium state feedback loop forcing negative coupling negative feedback loop perturbation positive coupling positive feedback loop stable equilibrium state system unstable equilibrium Chapter3 gt Review Questions Review questions l256781012 equations from lecture Celsius Fahrenheit and Kelvin temperature conversions StefanBoltzmann law on page 42 gt Key Terms blackbody radiation conduction convection electromagnetic radiationspectrum ux frequency infrared radiation latent heat photon relative humidity stratosphere troposphere ultraviolet radiation visible radiation visible spectrum wavelength Chapter 4 gt Review Questions Review questions 23456710l l 12 gt Key Terms From Book condensation convergence Coriolis effect deserts divergences evaporation groundwater Hadley circulation hydrologic cycle intertropical convergence zone ITCZ latent heat of vaporization monsoon polar front zone subsidence uplift vapor pressure not in bold 7 definition is in text gt quot From Class relative humidity absolute humidity stock ow Chapter 5 Review Questions 1 78 13 Key Terms salinity gym El Ni o El Ni oSouthem Oscillation ENSO La Ni a Southern Oscillation Index o What you should know for Chapter 6 0 Review questions 12456710 0 Critical thinking question 1 0 Terms Ablation zonethe lower part of a glacier where more snow melts during the summer than accumulates during winter Accumulation zonethe upper part of the glacier where more snow accumulates during the winter than melts in the summer Continental ice sheetan ice sheet covering a rage area that spreads outward in all directions under its own weight Greenland and Antarctica Mountain glaciersice fields formed on the cold upper reaches of the mountains Permafrostpermanently frozen ground Polynyii irregularly shaped open water areas within sea ice cover Sea ice ice that forms on the surface of the ocean o What you should know for Chapter 8 0 Review questions 1 2 3 4 5 Biological pumpa transfer of C02 and nutrients from the surface waters to the deep ocean as a result of photosynthesis in shallow waters of the settling organic matter and of decomposition in deep waters much faster than thermohaline circulation Biomassthe total combined weight of organic materials at each trophic level In terrestrial ecosystems the biomass is reduced by 9099 at each higher trophic level Biosphere the part of the earth system that directly supports life including ocean atmosphere land surface and soils Coala hydrogen and carbon bearing compound produced under high pressure and high temperature conditions of burial deep within the solid earth formed from high concentrations of organic matter in terrestrial settlements Carbonate metamorphisma chemical reaction occurring at high temperatures and pressures between sedimentary carbonate minerals and silica rich sediments that forms calcium silicate minerals and releases C02 Consumersorganisms such as animals that are incapable of utilizing solar energy directly but must instead consume plants or other photosynthesizers to utilize the chemical energy stored in plant tissues Inorganic carboncarbon not associated with compounds that are typically formed by living organisms and do not contain carboncarbon or carbonhydrogen bonds Limestone a quot y rock r J of largely calcium carbonate minerals mainly calcite Methanogenesismethane production carried out by certain bacteria Nutrient substances normally obtained in the diet that are essential to organisms Organic carbon carbon associated with compounds that are typically formed by living organisms that contain CH or CC bonds Photic zone portion of the ocean where there is significant sunlight for photosynthesis Photosynthesis duh Primary producer plant that provides energy for consumers Primary productivity the amount of organic matter produced by photosynthesis in a unit of time or a unit area of earth s surface Residence time the average length of time a substance spends in a given reservoir that is at a steady state with respect to the process that add and remove the substance to and from the reservoir reservoir rate of inflow or outflow Steady state a condition in which the state of the system component is unchanging in time Carbon sink Carbon source 0 know how to calculate residence time o What you should know for Chapter 9 0 Review questions 125789 Autotrophs create own food Biodiversity variety of life forms in one area Biomes regions with characteristic plant communities C 39 a 39 39 39 39 39 U of two or more groups of interacting species Ecosystem subset of the biota consisting of assemblages of plant animal and microbial species that interact with each other and their surrounding environment Food chain a progression of organisms each dependent on the one before for food Food web an intricate lattice interlacing food chains more typical of natural communities Heterotrophshave to consume food Population all of the members of a single species that live in a given area Succession a progressive change in species composition of a community often in response to a disturbance 0 Critical thinking question 1 Vocab Adaptation chapter 13 A characteristic that enhances an organisms survival or reproductive success antigreenhouse effect chapter 12 absorption of sunlight and radiation of infrared energy by particles or gases high up in the stratosphere this prevents the sunlight fro reaching a planet39s surface and hence causes surface cooling Asteroids chapter 13 Pieces of rocky material composed ofminerals and metallic elements they range in size and most reside in the asteroid belt but some are diverted to planet crossing orbits by gravitational disturbance Biodiversity chapter 13 The variety of lifeforms biomassbased fuels chapter 16 liquid fuels such as methanol and ethanol that are produced from fastgrowing plants Unlike fossil fuels burning these substances does not contribute to the atmospheric C02 buildup carbon capture and storage chapter 16 CCS The technique of capturing C02 from coal or oil red power plants and burying it deep underground so that it stays out of the atmosphere carbon xation chapter 16 the biochemical process that occurs durin photosynthesis by which atmospheric C02 is converted to organic carbon carbon sequestration chapter 16 same as carbon capture and storage refers to the process of capturing and burying C02 released form fossil fuel burning cellulosic ethanol chapter 16 Ethanol Csz produced from the woody parts of plants ie cellulose In the US most comes from corn C 0 2 fertilization Comets continental shelves Dendrochronology eccentricity Endemic Species Extinction geoengineering geothermal power glacial chapter 15 An increase in he growth rate of plants by the addition of C02 to the atmosphere chapter 13 Balls of frozen gases water ammonia methane and carbon dioxide containing rocky and metallic debris that are mostly in the distant orbits around the Sun beyond Pluto chapter 14 the shallow submerged part ofcontinnental margins bounded on the landward side by the coastline and on the seaward side by steep slopes falling to great depths chapter 15 A method of dating trees by counting their annual growth rings The ring widths can be used to infer environmental conditions during the growing season chapter 14 for Earth the distance from the center of the orbit to its foci on of which is occupied by the Sun divided buy the average distance between Earth and the Sun chapter 18 Speies that are indigenous or native to a particular location are only found in that location chapter 13 The loss of all individuals within a species chapter 16 the process of directly modifying Earth39s climate in such a way as to counteract the warming effects of anthropogenic C02 Injecting sulfate aerosols into the stratosphere to increase Earth39s albedo is one of the suggested geoengineering techniques chapter 16 the production of electricity by using temperature gradients within the solid Earth as the energy source chapter 14 intervals of glaciation glacial surge Holocene Climatic Optimum Hotspots Instrumental value interglacial intrinsic value Keystone species Little Ice Age mass extinction Medieval Warm Period chapter 16 the sudden rapid movement of a glacier chapter 15 A warm period that occurred during the MidHolocene chapter 18 Biogeographic regions containing at least 05 of the world39s 300000 know vascular plants and which have lost at least 70 of their primary vegetation chapter 18 The degree to which a species39 existence bene ts another species for the purpose of this class humans in some way chapter 14 when continental ice sheets are restricted to Greenland and Antarctica Globally averaged surface temps during these intervals were about 15 C and carbon levels were about 2 80ppm chapter 18 a species39 value for its won sake regardless of whether it bene ts humans chapter 18 A species that plays a vital function in the operation of an ecosystem chapter 15 An interval of colder temperatures from the 151h to 19111 centuries interrupted by a warmer interval in the 17111 century chapter 13 an extinction event in which more than 25 of all existent families are lost chapter 15 A period of mild conditions in northern Eurpoe and the North Atlantic that reached a maximum at about AD 1 100 meteorite methane sulfonic acid moraine natural selection nuclear ssion obliquity Origination paleoclimate Palynology period photovoltaic cells chapter 13 the material remaining after a comet or asteroid strikes Earth chapter 14 MSA an acid that is produced from biogenic dimethyl sul de and forms cloud condensation nuclei in the atmosphere chapter 14 a ridge of sediment deposited by a glacier chapter 13 the unequal survival and reproduction of organisms owing to the environmental pressures that result in the preservation of favorable adaptations chapter 16 the splitting of a heavy atomic nucleus into two fragments accompanied by the release of energy note fission is SPLITTING and fusion is COMBINING fusing chapter 14 tilt formallythe angle of a planet39s spin axis relative to a line drawn perpendicular to the plane of the planet39s orbit around the sun chapter 13 The appearance ofa new species chapter 12 past climate chapter 15 The study of pollen and organic microfossils chapter 14 a unit of geologic time shorter than an era and longer than an epoch also the time it takes a planet to go around the sun totally different type of period though chapter 16 specially designed panels that directly convert sunlight into electricity Pleistocene epoch Preces sion proxy data radiative forcing seasonal temperature contrast Snowball Earth solar thermal power sunspots Taxonomy tidal power chapter 14 The geological epoch extending from 18 million years ago to 10000 years ago characterized by oscillations in and out of he glacial state chapter 14 The rotation of a planet39s spin axis around a line drawn perpendicular to its orbital plane chapter 15 data that cannot be obtained by direct measurement but can be inferred from other evidence chapter 15 term used b climatologists to describe the change in the net downward infrared ux at the tropopause caused by a given concentration of greenhouse gases clouds or aerosols chapter 14 the difference in average temperatures between summer and winter chapter 12 Episodes during which times Earth39s surface was entirely with ice and snow chapter 16 a method of conversion of sunlight into electricity in which the sunlight is first used to heat a uid that in turn drives a turbine chapter 15 dark areas of lowerthannormal temps on the surface of the sun chapter 13 The systematic organization of living or fossil organisms into a hierarchy chapter 16 the production of electricity by using long oating booms to harness the energy of ocean tides tillite wind power Younger Dryas chapter 12 rock composed oflithi ed till one ofthe types of evidence used to identify past glaciations chapter 16 the production of electricity from windmills utilizing Earth39s solar energy driven winds chapter 14 A 1300year climatic reversal to glacial conditions that began 12900 years ago after the end of the last glaciation Evidence of climate change at this time is seen in various parts of the world but the main effects appear centered on the North Atlantic region the rest of the world was coming out of an ice age but in the Northern Hemisphere a huge amount of fresh water was released into the Atlantic causing the sea ice to not form which led to N Europe cooling while the rest of the world was heating up Book Review Questions Chapter 12 2 How might the carbonate silicate cycle have helped solve the faint young Sun problem 3 Why is methane thought to have been an important greenhouse gas during the Archean era 4 What triggered the Huronian glaciation at 24 by billion years ago 6 How many separate episodes of glaciation have occurred during Earth39s history 10 What mechanisms might explain the warm climate of the Mesozoic era How might the equatortopole temperature gradient have been reduced 11 Why did climate cool during the past 40million years Chapter 13 2What two processes cause the diversity of life on earth to change through time 3 How has fossil diversity changed over time Why do these trends differ among taxonomic levels 4 What explanations have been proposed for the mass extinction at the KT boundary Why is a meteorite impact the favored theory today 5 What are the environmental consequences of the impact of a 10km diameter meteorite with Earth 6 What are 39L H for mass Ch up ter 1 4 3 Which 3 characteristics of Earth39s orbit around the Sun vary on the time scale of Pleistocene glaciations How does each of these affect the amount of energy received form the Sun 4 What orbital configuration favors glaciation Why 5 How is the oxygen isotopic record of marine limestones used to test Milankovitch39s theory of the ice ages 7 What factors might have caused atmospheric C02 variations that kept pace with glacial uctuations 8 Explain why the formation of North Atlantic Deep Water might have played a role in causing the Younger Dryas event Chapter 1 5 1 What is the Halocene epoch 2 What are proxy data Describe several examples of proxy climate data 3 Brie y describe the Younger Dryas the Holocene Climatic Optimum the European Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age 4 How do volcanoes affect climate 5 What are sunspots Why are they thought to have a possible effect on climate 6 How does the amount of C02 produced by fossil fuel consumption compare to the natural ux of C02 in the carbon cycle 7 What are the major processes that can remove C02 from the atmosphere What are the approximate time scales for these processes to be effective 8 What is the size of the fossil fuel reservoir compared with the atmospheric C02 reservoir 9 Why does the ocean have a limited capacity for C02 uptake 10 By how much is global temperature predicted to rise over the next century 11 Why do some climate models predict that the thermohaline circulation might shut down Chapter 1 6 1 What processes contribute to increases in global sea level and by how much has it gone up in the recent past 2 Why is predicting future sealevel change such a tricky task 3 How are changes in climate predicted to affect natural ecosystems including forests and insects 4 What are some of the predicted effects of global warming on human populations 6 What role can energy conservation play in combating global warming 7 What are some alternative energy sources that mightbe used to replace fossil fuels 8 How can carbon capture and storage be sued to burn coal in an environmentally safe way 9 What are some ways in which Earth39s climate might be geoengineered Chapter 1 6 3 What is meant by the term habitat Explain why it is important to issues of biodiversity and extinction 4 What is meant by the term keystone species Explain why it is important to issues of biodiversity and extinction 5 What does the greatest rate of species loss occur today 8 List four social and economic factors that contribute to tropical deforestation 11 Explain why lack of diversity in food crops might present problems for the world food supply Clicker Questions An Inconvenient Truth these are the only clicker questions I got to write for these Sorry What happened in quotClimate Gate a Scientists were discredited and fired for manufacturing evidence supporting global warming b Popular media obtained hacked emails which were manipulated1don39t have the rest ofthe question Sorry Fossil fuels are a part of the carbon cycle why might they have such a big effect on the atmosphere 1 burning fossil fuels is the largest ux of carbon to the atmosphere 2 fossilfulesar eth elargest stock of organic 7X larger than the amount of C in the atmosphere Since quotThe Inconvenient Truth came out 2006 what new data has emerged a Global average temperatures are not as warm as they predicted b 2010 is now tied with 2005 as the warmest year on record c global warming will even out precipitation patterns over the earth d stronger hurricanes are related to cooler not warmer water temperatures Which of the following feedback loops does Al Gore mention Icealbedo Carbonsilicate weathering Marine phosphorus cycle Shelf nutrient hypothesis 99591 Clicker Questions 1 Where did the Earth stabilize at I a P1 b P2 Atmospheric CH4 2 During the Mesozoic era dinosaurs was the climate warmer or cooler than today a Warmer b Cooler 3 The Himalayans were formed at the beginning of the Cenozoic exposing a lot of fresh minerals to the atmosphere The climate started cooling at about the same time Why a Decreasing 02 levels from oxidation of iron minerals b Decreasing C02 from calcium silicate mineral weathering 4 Which would be most diverse a Wheat field in eastern Colorado b Forested slope in the Rocky Mountain National Park c Rainforest in the Amazon Basin Brazil 5 the quotnastyquot totally couldn39t read my handwriting here but it for sure is nty and in W bacteria increase so much at the end of the Permian a The c02 released by the volcanoes warmed the climate preventing oceans from keeping 02 The bacteria prefer anoxic environment 6 What could have killed off most organisms during the Permian extinction a Glaciation b Release of H25 form bacteria in the ocean c Release of methane CH4 form bacteria in the ocean d Warm temperature from C02 released by volcanoes 7 IfPS stopped what would happen to atmospheric composition a C02 increase and 02 decrease b C02 decrease and 02 increase c N2 increase and CH4 decrease 8 How would biological pump have been shut down during the KT event a Surface ocean productivity stopped so there was no sinking of organic matter to the deep ocean b Upwelling stopped so there were no nutrients for phytoplankton to use for productivity 9 Burning biofuel still emits carbon How is it an improvement to fossil fuels a Biofuel emission are not greenhouse gases whereas fossil fuel emissions are b The carbon in biofuel emissions were trapped from the atmosphere less than a year ago whereas the carbon in fossil fuels were trapped from the atmosphere million ofyears ago 10 Why were Milankovirch cycles important in the Pleistocene a changes in the way the earth orbits the sun are the root cause of glacial interglacial cycles b the feedback loop in volving c02 and silicate weathering was responsible for past warming events c they were only important in the Mesozoic not the Pleistocene 11 what could cause the Northern Europe to cool while the rest of the globe stays the same a A shutdown of the thermohaline circulation which would weaken the gulf stream b A shutdown of the thermohaline circulation which would weaken El Nino events c The icealbedo feedback 12 The largest mass extinction was when the dinosaurs died out a True b False Answers Inconvenient truth B B A Clicker Questions 1 B 2 A 3 B 4 C 5 A 6 B 7 A 8 A 9 B 10A 11A 12B Generally What To Know earth s past climate earth s current climate global arming impacts and mitigation global warming impacts and mitigation past diversity current biodiversity important feedback loops thermohaline Important time periods What big changes were happening with climate and biodiversity patters and what were the major causes Archean Permian mass extinction Cretaceous mass extinction Pleistocene ice lots ofice ages and glaciation Holocene Humans ablation zone accumulation zone Archaea Autotroph bacteria black smoker biodiversity biological pump biomass chapter 6 the lower part of a glacier where more snow melts during the summer than accumulates during the winter chapter 6 the upper colder parts of a glacier where more snow accumulates in winter than melts in summer chapter 10 one of 3 primary domains of life are singlecelled prokaryotic organisms that includes methogensbacteria that produce methane chapter 9 an organism producer that can derive its energy for growth and reproduction from either solar or chemical energy chapter 10 one of the 3 primary domains of life singlecelled prokaryotic organisms chapter 10 a midocean ranged hydrothermal really hot vent from which clouds of black particles mainly made of iron sul de FeS are precipitating chapter 9 the variety of lifeforms for example the number of species in an area chapter 8 atransfer of C02 and nutrients from the surface waters to the deep ocean as a result of photosynthesis in shallow waters of the settling of organic matter and of the decomp in deep waters operates on a much faster time scale days to months than thermohaline circulation of the oceans chapter 8 the total weight of organic material in each trophic level biome biosphere bottom water carbon footprint carbon sequestration carbon sink carbon source carbonate mineral deposition chemical weathering chapter 9 all living organisms chapter 8 the part of the Earth system that directly supports life including the oceans atmosphere land surface and soils chapter 5 very dense cold water that forms along the edges of sea ice in certain areas near the poles makes u the bottom layer of the ocean water as it circulates chapter 8from lecture the mark you make in terms of C done by ldecreasing C sources and 2 increasing C sinks chapter 8from lecture the capture of CO from atmosphere into a C sink chapter 8from lecture a stock that grows overtime a stock that accumulates C chapter 8from lecture a stock that gets smaller over time a stock that loses C to anther stock chapter 8from lecture reverse of chemical weathering of a carbonate rock trapping atmospheric CO chapter 8from lecture a breakdown of chemical compounds in rock by rain water this process releases C back into the atmosphere coal community consumers continental ice sheet ecosystem EukaryaEukaryotes emissions fun food chain chapter 8 organic compound produced under high P and high T in the solid Earth a fossil fuel chapter 9 a characteristic assemblage of 2 or more groups of interacting species chapter 8 organisms eX animals that are incapable of using solar energy directly so much eat plants or other photosynthesizers to utilize the chemical energy stored in plant tissue chapter 6 an ice covering a large area that spreads outwards in all directions under its own weight mostly found in Greenland and Antarctica chapter 9 a subset of the biota consisting of assemblages of plant animal and microbial species that interact with each other and with their surrounding enVironments chapter 10 one of the 3 primary domains of life are organisms that have cell nuclei includes all higher animals and plants chapter 8from lecture the release of CO from parts of C containing compounds chapter 6 the step in the transformation of snow to glacier chapter 9 a progression of organisms each dependent on the one before food web gradient heavy bombardment period heterotroph hydrothermal vents hyperthermophilic bacteria impact degassing inorganic carbon Limestone chapter 9 an intricate interlacing of food chains that is more typical of a natural community chapter 8from lecture the change in concentrations along a pathway chapter 10 time period about 46 to 38 billion years ago where Earth was being bombarded by large space stuff chapter 9 an organisms consumer that depends on other organisms autotrophs or producers to produce its food chapter 10 cracks around the ocean oor especially around midocean spreading ridges through which heated and chemically modi ed seawater circulates chapter 10 organisms that grow in really hot places 80 degrees C 170 degrees F chapter 10 the venting of water and other volatile compounds directly into a planet s atmosphere during impacts of comets or asteroids onto its surfaces chapter 8 C not associated w compounds that are typically formed by living organisms and that don t contain CC or CH bonds chapter 8 a sedimentary rock composed mostly of Ca and C0339 minerals methanogenesis mountain glaciers nutrient organic carbon permafrost photic zone photosynthesis population primary producer chapter 8 methane production carried out by certain bacteria chapter 6 ice fields glaciers in the mountains chapter 8 substances normally obtained in the diet that are essential to organisms chapter 8 C associated with compounds that are typically formed by living organisms and that contain CC or CH bonds chapter 6 permanently frozen ground chapter 8 the portion of the oceans where there is sufficient sunlight for photosynthesis chapter 8 the process by which organisms like green plants use sunlight C02 and HZO to produce organic matter and 02 chapter 9 all of the members of a single species that live in a given area chapter 8 aplant or other type of pl 1 quot 39 or 1 quot 39 that provides energy used by consumers organisms that can use the direct energy from the sun or chemicals to get needed nutrients and such primary productivity residence time salinity sea ice steady state stress solar nebula thermohaline circulation upwelling chapter 8 the amount of organic matter produced by photosynthesis in a unit time over a unit area of Earth s surface aka productivity chapter 8 the average length of time a substance spends in a given reservoir that is at a steady state with respect to the proesses that add and remove the substance to and from the reservoir stock the reservoir size Residence time flow the rate of inflow or outflow chapter 5 salt content of water mass chapter 6 ice that forms on the surface of oceans chapter 8 a condition in which the state of a system component is unchanging in time a reservoir in in steady state when in owout ow chapter 6 a measure of force exerted per unit area chapter 10 the cloud of gas and dust surrounding the Sun shortly after it formed chapter 5 circulation of the deep oceans driven by density differences that result from variations in temperature and salinity chapter 5 the rising of cooler nutrientrich ocean water to the surface to replace warm divergent surface water g Zuestions l N V39 9 9 O Which would have a higher density a warm salty water b cold salty water c warm fresh water d cold fresh water Melting would raise sea levels a Glaciers b Continental ice sheets c Sea ice d A amp B e A B ampC Sea ice levels are at a Unstable equilibrium b Stable equilibrium As permafrost melts a Microbes will shut down and stop releasing C02 b Microbes will speed up decomposition and release more C02 Where does most of the stuff in a tree come from a The air b The ground Which of these is inorganic carbon a Fossil fuel b Limesone rock c Table sugar d A amp B Respiration is performed by a Plants b Animals c Microorganisms d All of the above What would cause primary producers to become a carbon sink a Increase respiration b Increase photosynthesis c Increase plant death Which do you think is a carbon source to the atmosphere a Backyard veggie garden b Deforested area in the tropics c Tree farm d Oldgrowth farm How can the ocean serve as a sink for the atmospheric carbon a Through ocean productivity b Through inorganic carbon uptake along a C02 gradient c Through formation of carbonate materials d All of the above What was different about the Godzilla tower 1 year later a It had fallend down probably from an earthquake b It had increased in size because of the growth of tube worms c It fell apart because it was so hot 12 How do the tubeworms living in the deep sea vents get their food a They capture organic matter oating in the sea b From singlecell bacteria living inside ofthem c From simple sugars xed by photosynthesis Answers 509 gtIQMHgtWNE U U CLU NU NCLUJ HHH PEP cram Chagter 5 Review questions pg 106 4 What is upwelling Where does upbelling occur 9 De ne the term thermohaline circulation What are the processes that drive the circulation of the deep oceans 11 What is bottom water Where and how does bottom water form 12 What is meant by the term thermohalme conveyor belt 13 Explain what effects the ocean has on modifying the global temperature distribution Chapter 6 Review questions pg 120 1 How does a snow cover affect overlying air temperatures 2 How does the snow cover affect soil temperatures 4 What is permafrost 5 Why might melting permafrost be important for future climate change 6 Explain how snow is transformed into glacier ice 7 Explain how glaciers move 10 What are the two primary ways sea ice affects climate Chapter 8 Review questions pg 174 1 Which of the following carbon reservoirs has the longest residence time plants the oceans or sedimentary limestone 3 Describe the biological pump 5 Limestone carbonate weathering does not lead to the net removal of carbon dioide from the atmosphere Why not Chapter 9 Characteristics of Life Structure of the biosphere and ecosystems How energy ows through the biosphere and where it comes from Chagter 10 Review Questions pg 208 4 5 8 4 How and when did the atmosphere and ocean form Which gases are thought to have been present in the early atmosphere 5 In what types of environments might life have originated 8 Into what three different domains are modern organisms divided Chapter 1 Anthropogenic human induced impact on the environment Atmosphere a layer of gasses that surround the earth Biota total collection of organisms or total living portion of the earth Earth system Composed of hydrosphere atmosphere solid earth and biota Fossil fuels fuels formed by natural processes Global warming process of earth s temperature rising in relation to C02 rising Greenhouse effect process of thermal radiation is absorbed by atmospheric gases and is re radiated in all directions ie back towards ground Greenhouse gases gas that absorbs and emits radiation in the thermal infrared rangeprevents it from escaping Hydrosphere all the earth s water Photosynthesis how plants generate food from water and C02 Solid Earth All the earth s minerals System interrelated parts that are diverse Chapter 2 Albedo the amount oflight re ected from the surface of the earth Component Individual parts ofa system Coupling linked components Equilibrium state Balance of a system where it will remain unless disturbed Feedback loop mechanism of change in response to that change Forcing a continuing disturbance in a system Negative coupling increase in one component decreases the other Negative feedback loop diminish the effects of the disturbance Perturbation a temporary disturbance of a system Positive coupling increase in one component increases another Positive feedback loop amplifies the effects of the disturbance Stable equilibrium everything in the equilibrium is stable Steady state Where something doesn t change easily Unstable equilibrium a slight disturbance will have catastrophic effects Chapter 3 Blackbody radiation radiant energy emitted by an object that has a temperature above zero Convection heat energy transmitted by uids Electromagnetic radiation spectrum electromagnetic wavelengths that differ in length Flux amount of energy in an electromagnetic wave that passes perpendicularly through an object per unit time Frequency amount of waves Infrared radiation radiation emitted by earth longer wavelengths than visible light Relative humidity vapor pressure over saturation vapor pressure Stratosphere just above troposphere temperature increases with altitude Troposphere Lowermost layer of atmosphere higher in tropics lower in poles Ultraviolet radiation comes from the sun has high frequency shorter wavelengths than visible light Visible radiation Radiation in the visible spectrum Wavelength Distance between crests in waves Chapter 4 Condensation when gas becomes liquid Convergence merging of air masses towards lower pressure areas Coriolis effect tendancy for air or water moving across the earth s surface to be defelected from its path Deserts high temperature high evaporation low condensation inhbited precipitation Divergence When air is pushed into high pressure areas Evaporation when liquid turns to gas Groundwater water that penetrates through soil and rock and collects below the surface Hadley circulation convergance at tropics and diverangce at 30N and 30S Hydrologic cycle All major resevoirs ofwater and their movement throughout the system Intertropical convergence zone ITCZ Converging airmasses that meet at equator that come from northern and southern hemispheres Latent heat of vaporization energy needed to turn liquids into gasses Monsoon Seasonal reversal ofwinds over landmasses and oceans Polar front zone area of steep temerpaturegradience at 60 N and S where warm meets moving cold air Subsidence Sinking of higher air in atmosphere towards surface Uplift warmer air masses move higher Vapor pressure not in bold definition is in text equilibrium pressure ofa vapor above its surface that results from evaporation of a liquid above a sample of a liquid Absolute humidity Amount ofwater per volume of air Stock A reservoir of material Flow movement ofa material from one pool to another Chapter 5 Salinity amount of salt Gyre circular circulation pattern of water El Ni o tradewinds reverse direction and drag warmer water east El Ni oSouthern Oscillation ENSO refers to variations in temperature of the tropical eastern pacific ocean La Nina extreme normal Southern Oscillation Index gives information of development and intensity of el nino or la nina bottom water heavy water with high salinity Thermohaline circulation formation of bottom water drives global conveyor belt Downwelling at areas of convergence surface water pushes down nutrient poor Upwelling divergence areas bottom water comes up nutrient rich Pycnocline steep density gradient caused by changes in temp and salinity transition between surface water and deep ocean water Mixed layer surface area of ocean that is mixed by wind action Final Review Part 1 1 Chapter 1 Review Questions 123691113 Anthropogenic induced by humans Atmosphere the thin envelope of gases that surrounds most planets one of four major components of the earth system Biotaall living organisms Earth systemthe group of39 39 g 39 39 39 39 solid earth and biota that influence the conditions of earth s surfac Fossil fuelscoal oil and natural gas that are formed from the partially decomposed organic remains of organisms concentrated in sedimentary rocks Global warminga warming of Earth s atmosphere due to an anthropogenic enhancement of the greenhouse effect Greenhouse effectthe natural mechanism by which a planet s surface is warmed by infrared absorbing gases in its atmosphere Greenhouse gasessuch as carbon dioxide methane nitrous oxide and water vapor that warm 3 planet s surface by absorbing infrared radiation and reradiating some of it back towards the surface Hydrospherethe component of earth system that includes the various reservoirs of water and ice on earth s surface Photosynthesisthe process by which an organism such as a green plant uses sunlight carbon dioxide and water to produce organic matter and oxygen Solid Earththe component of the earth system that includes all rocks and all unconsolidated rock fragments The core mantle and crust make up the solid earth Systeman entity composed of diverse but interrelated parts that function as a complex whole 2 Chapter 2 Review Questions ALL Albedothe reflectivity of a surface usually expressed as a decimal fraction of the total incident sunlight reflected from the surface Componentan individual part of a system may be a reservoir of matter or energy a system attribute or a subsystem Coupling the links between any two components of a system can be positive or negative Eguilibrium state a state in which the system is in equilibrium that is the state in which the system will remain unless something disturbs it Equilibrium state can be stable or unstable Feedback loopa linkage of two or more system components that forms a round trip flow of information can be positive or negative Forcinga persistent disturbance ofa system a longerterm disturbance than perturbation Negative coupling a link indicating that a change increase or decrease in one component leads to a change in the opposite direction in the linked component Negative feedback loopa feedback loop with an odd number of negative couplings tend to diminish the effects of disturbances Perturbationa temporary disturbance of a system shorter term than forcing Positive couplinga link indicating that a change in one component leads to a change of the same direction in the linked component Positive feedback loopwith an even number or zero negative couplings tend to amplify the effects of disturbances 9quot Stable eguilibriumif disturbed it returns to its former position and will stay in position if undisturbed Steady statea condition in which the state of a system component is unchanging in time Unstable eguilibriuma state in which the system will remain if left undisturbed but even slight disturbances will care the system to some other stable equilibrium state Chapter 3 Review questions 1256781012 equations from lecture plus CelsiusFahrenheit and Kelvin temperature conversions StefanBoltzmann law on page 42 Blackbody radiationgiven off by a blackbody this radiation is characterized by the body s absolute temperature Convectiontransfer of heat energy by the circulating motions of a fluid that is heated from below one of three primary mechanisms for heat transfer rl 39 l39 L39 I A I am I I D y 39 0 electric and magnetic wave such as visible light ultraviolet or infrared radiation the full range of different forms of electromagnetic radiation which differ by wavelength Flux the amount of energy number of photons in an electromagnetic wave that passes perpendicularly through a unit of surface area per unit time Freguency the number of wave crests that pass a fixed point per second Infrared radiationelectromagnetic radiation of fairly low energy and wavelengths longer than those of visible light from 7 to 1000 um Relative humiditythe amount of water vapor contained by a unit volume of air divided by the amount of water vapor that volume would contain if the air were saturated Stratospherethe stable atmospheric layer between 10 and 15 km and 50 km above the surface temperature increases with altitude there contains most of earth s ozone Tropospherethe lower most convective layer of earth s atmosphere between the surface and 10 to 15 km above it temperature decreases rapidly with altitude there weather is confined to the troposphere Ultraviolet radiationelectromagnetic radiation of fairly high energy and wavelengths from 400 to about 10 nm shorter than those of visible radiation Visible radiationvisible light electromagnetic radiation of moderate energy and a relatively low range of wavelengths from about 400 to 700 nm within this range the color of the light depends on its wavelength Wavelengththe distance between two adjacent wave crests 4 Chapter 4 a Review questions 234567101112 b Terms from book Condensation the process by which a gas becomes a liquid Convergence the inward movement of air or water to a region in the atmosphere or ocean Coriolis effect the apparent tendency for a fluid air or water moving across earth s surface to be deflected from its straight line path Fluids are deflected to the right of their initial path in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern hemisphere Deserts areas of low rainfall generally less than 250 mm per year deserts may be warm such as those located in the subtropics or cold such as the central plateau of Antarctica Divergence the outward movement of air or water from a region in the atmosphere or ocean Evaporationthe process by which a liquid is converted to a gas Groundwater water that penetrates through soil and rock and collects below the surface Hadley circulationthe process by which an air mass undergoes convergence at the tropics and divergence at about 30 degrees north and south in one large convection cell Hydrologic cyclethe major reservoirs of water in the earth system and the pattern of water storage and movement throughout that system ntertropical convergence zone ITCZ a region in the tropics where surface heating causes uplift in the atmosphere allowing subtropical air to flow inward to produce a convergence zone this zone moves north and south of the equator as seasons change Latent heat of vaporizationthe energy required to effect a change of phase between a liquid and a gas converting a liquid to a gas requires an addition ofenergy convertinga gas to liquid releases the energy into the environment Monsoona seasonal reversal of surface winds causes by largescale differential heating of the land and ocean surfaces Polar front zonea zone of steep temperature gradients formed at 60 n and s where cold polar air meets the warm air moving pole ward from the subtropics Subsidencethe sinking of air from higher levels in the atmosphere down towards the surface also vertical movement of earths crust towards the mantle Upliftany process by which air is forced to rise upward in the atmosphere Vapor pressureis the pressure exerted by a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phases solid or liquid at a given temperature in a closed system Relative humidityit is defined as the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor in the airwater mixture to the saturated vapor pressure of water at the prescribed temperature 5quot Absolute humiditya mixture of water vapor and other constituents of air and humidity is defined in terms of the water content of this mixture called the absolute humidity Stocksitting waterreservoir FlowRiver Chapter 5 a Review questions 1 478 9111213 b Terms Salinitythe salt content ofa water mass Gyrea large circular circulation pattern in the ocean in the northern hemisphere they rotate clockwise and in the southern hemisphere they rotate counterclockwise El Ni oa warm ocean current that appears of the coast of Peru and Ecuador shortly after Christmas and flows for only a few weeks now describes a major shift in the oceanic circulation that occurs in the region every 210 years El Ni oSouthern Oscillation ENSO a climatic even in the tropical pacific ocean in which the main area of surface convection moves from the western to the central pacific is associated with largescale changes in the ocean circulation the atmospheric circulation and tropical precipitation patterns may also spread beyond tropics causing anomalous weather conditions in many midaltitude locations La Ni athe opposite phase of the southern oscillation from el Ni o conditions it represents a stronger or more extreme version of normal circulation in the tropical pacific Southern Oscillation Indexa measure if the pressure difference between the western and central eastern parts of the Pacific Ocean strong negative values indicate ENSO conditions where strong positive values indicate la Nina conditions Bottom watervery dense cold water that forms along the edges of sea ice in certain areas near the poles and subsides making up the bottom layer of ocean water as it circulates throughout the world s oceans Thermohaline circulationthe circulation of the deep oceans driven by density differences that result from variations in temperature and salinity Downwellingthe sinking of surface water cause by convergence and water accumulation at the surface Upwelling the rising of cooler nutrient rich ocean water to replace warm divergent surface water Pycnoclinea steep density gradient that marks the transition between the surface zone and deep ocean on the order of a kilometer in thickness it is characterized by rapid downward increase in density the steep density gradient in the zone makes this layer vary stable Mixed layerthe surface layer of the ocean that is mixed by wind action Definitions Chapter 6 Ablation zone low altitude area of a glacier or ice sheet where there is a loss due to melting Accumulation zone is the area above the firn line where snowfall accumulates and exceeds losses from ablation Continental ice sheet an ice sheet covering a large area that spreads outward in all directions under its own weightmost of todays ice sheets is found in Antarctica and Greenland Mountain glaciers is a large persistent body ofice that forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds ablationfor on the crests and slopes ofmountains Permafrostsoil at or below freezing for two or more years Polynyii irregularly shaped open water areas within sea ice cover Sea ice formed from seawater Chapter 8 Biological pump process that transports carbon from the surface of the euphotic zone surface to the oceans interior because of photosynthesis in shallow water Biomass total amount of organic matter produced at each trophic level Biosphere is the global sum of all ecosystemslife encompassing part of the earth Coal combustible sedimentary rock composed of mainly carbon and hydrogen produced under highpressure high temperature deep within the earth made of organic matter Carbonate metamorphismthink volcanoes carbon shifting from solid to gas Consumers needs to obtain energy from outside source cannot create its own Inorganic carbon carbon in the atmosphere C02 Limestonesedimentary rock composed of minerals from skeletal fragments of other organisms such as coralcalcium carbonate minerals Methanogenesis is the formation of methane by microbes known as methanogens Nutrient things that organisms need in order to survive Organic carbon carbon that is in organisms Photic zone is the depth that is exposed to sufficient sunlight for photosynthesis to occur Photosynthesis the process of converting C02 and water in 02 and Glucose Primary producer are the organisms in an ecosystem that produce biomass from inorganic compounds Primary productivity amount of carbon produced by a specific producer of a specific unit of time of an area of its surface Residence time is the average amount of time a that a particle spends in a particular system reservoir size reservoir in ow or out ow Steady state properties that are unchanging in time Chapter 9 Autotrophsis an organism that produces complex compounds out of simple inorganic moleculescreates its own food Biodiversity the degree of the variation oflife forms within a given species Biomes are climatically or geographically defined as similar climatic conditions on the earth such as different ecosystems community a characteristic assemblage of two or more groups ofinteracting species Ecosystema subset of biota including a bunch of organisms interacting with one another and the environment Food chain is a somewhat linear sequence oflinks starting from the bottom trophic species that eats no other to one that is eaten by no other Food web depicts feeding connections in an ecological communitywhat eats what Heterotrophs is an organism that cannot create its own energy so it has to obtain it from other organisms Population is all the organisms that belong to the same group or species and live in the same geographical area Succession a progressive change in species composition ofa community often in a response to a disturbance
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