Integrated Ecosystem Management
Integrated Ecosystem Management NR 420
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sabina Bosco IV on Tuesday September 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to NR 420 at Colorado State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 67 views. For similar materials see /class/210261/nr-420-colorado-state-university in Natural Sciences at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 09/22/15
History orthe Ecosystem Concept in 30 minutes ala Einkley Eeetegye tnetedtng Ecusystemsi ts enrnesned tn a humams uE hngutsim and eetterat untext We try te appty setenttfte rnetneds te understandth eeetegteat duesttens 7 and te serne extent we ve been successt 7 pet we stttt seern te swrn tn a take uf precancepttuns vatues ete Eeetegye and Ecusystemsi naye reets deep tn ntstery We eeetd gm tnte serne anetent Greek and Ruman tdeas pet tet s pe prtert Stamng wttn Heraetttes earne after Pythaguras befure Sucrates tn Ephesus wnten ts new eeastat Turkey Yuu eannet step tnte tne sarne rtyer WtEE fur tresn waters are eyer uvvmg tn upun yuu T tdeas er enanges tn Nature eenttnee te ttewtnreegn tne ages 7 Lucrettus Ruman nttese hen ttrst eentery act reytyed serne tdeas frum Epteeras asserted tnat netntng tasts furever enty tne pettdtng muck tasty tntngs dte and are repern Jumptuthe 19 39 A Gerrnan bm ugtsi Ernst Haeekett was ptewn away by Danwtn s VtEWS and getstne eredtt fur Emmng eeetegy ytews durtng tnts perted were strengty tn uenced py tne naturahs ts e R Watde Emersun H D Thureau Juhn Eurruughs Juhn Metr Wnen we try te ptck eet anytntng py ttse f we nnd tt nttened te eyerytntng etse tn tne entyerse Juhn Metr Jump te tne 2n Century 7 tets er characters pet tne key ene at tne pegtnntng was Fredert cternents Tne untt uf vegetattun tne Ehmax furmattun ts an ergante enttty As an enttty tne furmattun artses gruvvs matures and dtes Seeeessten tstne preeess uf repredeetten uf afurmattun and ne tttete tatt tne tndtytdeat Tnts ytew ernpeds tne tdea uf system urgamsm mtEraEItun eeeperatten tnte eeetegy e a great mtslaket cternents sneetd naye read Darwn rnere etesety cternents petteyed tn a determtmsm tnat ttes eetstde tne tdeas uf naterat seteetten Tne naterattst ytews eenttneed e and tn serne ways rnetded expttettty wttn setenttne vtEWS and ans entered tne ptEIurE tee Atde Leuputd Raenet Carsun Marty uf tne wertd s rnest penetrattng rntnds naye regarded eer surcaHEd mammante nature as a ttytng thtng and prepapty rnany er es wne naye nettner tne ttrne ner tne aptttty te reasen eet and tne eartn a eteser and deeper retatten weutd neeessarttyteuew tn Eerepe esp Resstat tdeas deyeteped areend tne Greek werd fur ummun etne ptants ttytng tn eernrnen were a pnyteeeenes ptants and antrnats a pteeeenes and tne SEIHS Envtrunment and Atmwp eE Cinatope Vegetation utome nose Mro Blogeocoenose Europe 7V Biamewse 507 fdaphatape AmineI popularon Zoocoenose organisms was the biogeocoenose The idea of coenose was occurring together it did not automatically imply the sorts of wellordered interactions that we expect from the word system This system would refer to what we call habitat as biotope or ecotope habitat is a very American way of viewing the niche of an animal or plant Much of the early part of the 20h Century was spent in debates among philosopher ecologists agreeing and defending Clements disagreeing A British scientist named Arthur Tansley disliked the complex organism idea of Clements but thought that quasiorganism was a better term sheeshl He coined the term ecosystem in 1935 for his quasiorganisms including not only the organismcomplex but also the whole complex of physical factors in the widest sense These ecosystems as we may The whole method of scienceis to isolate systems mentally for the purposes of study so that the series of isolates we make become the actual objects of our study The isolation is partly artificial but is the only possible way in which call them are of the most various kinds and sizes we can proceed Notice that he says this idea must be true or else we cannot possibly proceed This was a common theme for some ecologists in the 1930s Animal populations must exist in a state of balance for they are othenvise inexplicable AJ Nicholson 1933 Some other ecologists were willing to call em as they see em The balance of nature does not exist and perhaps has never existed The numbers of wild animals are constantly varying to a greater or lesser extent and the variations are usually irregular in period and always irregular in amplitude Each variation in the numbers of one species causes direct and indirect repercussions on the numbers of others and since many of the latter are themselves independently varying in numbers the resultant confusion is remarkable CS Elton 1930 The appreciation of the complexity of interactions continued to develop D Billings in the 1940s made up this diagram for the factors influencing each plant in a forest But despite this recognition of extreme complexity many ecologists clung to beliefs that the interactions were so tightly constrained that an ecosystem would have demonstrable repeatable predictable structure and function Think about it A car is remarkably complex tens of thousands of parts and yet it has a very regular animals genes light 7 radiation gravity gases geography repeatable predictable structure and function 80 why not an ecosystem 6 serious question not just rhetorical This is where we get into issues of scale in the 1940s A soil scientist Hans Jenny advocated the idea of a tessera This is a 3dimensional unit of a landscape that has all the pieces necessary for a functioning plantsoil system the animals that Jenny cared about were only the tiny ones that t within tesserae Take away the plants the tessera collapses Take away the decomposer microbes it collapses Take away the water the nutrients etc collapse ln Jenny s view a landscape is composed of these independentbutinteracting tesserae and putting them all together on the landscape gives a wide variety of pictures Such as Kathryn Luther s mosaic of Teddy Roosevelt a tessera is each stone element of the picture 1quot 47 a 13quot 1939 6 a V a v 34 3E m e K a Squot faking 4 I A t a 4 This scaleoriented view of ecosystems would reserve the term or use the term tessera for ctions would be tight mandatory and predictable No one piece could get wildly out of balance with the other pieces or the system would collapse Negative feedbacks would be very important The interactions among tessera would be much less constrained positive feedbacks would rule the day the tessera with big trees would become bigger usurping the neighboring space an anarchy in fact and the study of landscapes 1 Os to thousands of ha would be anarcheology Contrary to some initial impressions you might have these positive feedbacks can give very stable behavior of a system In the 1950s Eugene Odum from Georgia became the prophet of the ecosystem concept in ecology and his textbook shaped the thinking of a whole generation of ecologists esp those with degrees from the University of Georgia Odum s view began to incorporate and stimulate connections with the emerging eld of systems theory that had been creeping along since the 1930s All of this came together in the 1960s in diagrammatic representations of ecosystems and then in computer model representations JD Ovington s view of a forest ecosystem from 1960 The International Biological Programme funded massive studies of all the pieces of a wide variety of ecosystems around the world with the expectation that computer models could be developed that would capture the essences of these systems Reality turned out to be a bit of a surprise models were very unstable when too many pieces were put in and complex models that were somewhat stable were hard to interpret with confidence This systems view looks for similarities among types of systems an organism a company a culture an NFL team or a forest A key approach to describing systems is describing boundary conditions or invariances beyond a certain defined space the system ceases to be the same system The boundary conditions for a mouse include a body temperature that is not less than 36 C a food intake that is not less than 4 gday a supply of oxygen that does not fall below 5 of the air and no major failures of structure such as a gash that lets the blood leak out The narrower the boundary conditions the less stable a system might be Boundary conditions can be illustrated as the size of the top of a mountain a big top can let the system the ball roll around quite a bit a pointed top has very few points where the ball can remain stable and remain on the mountain top What are the boundary conditions for ecosystems A landmark book for our interest came out in 1969 Van Dyne George M Ed 1969 The Ecosystem Concept in Natural Resource Management New York Academic Press a INPUT 4 a Solar energy 7 INPUT 1 Rain dust a OUTPUT Animal migration A J I Q 2553 f 9 Plants l g Primary 397 39 39 producers 3 gm Mv 15 iquot W 39s I kk quotENEE L NR from plants quotWA u quot 7 u WI i l OUTPUT Logs etc I Own breakd weathering A m Much of this book was about how the pieces of ecosystems interact and what that means for management of forests and grasslands and tundra Some people s view of the world involves ecosystems as hierarchies the decaying log ecosystem is part of the oak forest ecosystem which is part of the Little Creek watershed ecosystem which is part of the Smoky Mountain ecosystem which is Each of these ecosystems has components animals biomolecules processes growth decay energy flux and might be chosen as an mental isolate in Tansley s view worth studying The division of the perceived universe into parts and wholes is convenient and may be necessary but no necessity determines how it shall be done deep thinker Gregorgy Bateson anthropologist and So how can we make use of the ecosystem concept in ecosystem management m lhmusln mmanher zhnul emssun 13 Eonssums nthev EMSL EVM D havevEN bmad buundaw cunmuunsradd same spamemake aw same memes me ecuw empevsms Take my hawtheuees mavnemeecuwempevsm Dues mssuundhkeaguudbaswsfuvmakmg manageme uemsmns 2 When We w m mck um arman bv 52m we mm A human m wemmng 252 m me nMuW m Vuucandutus1unemmumanewSs12m DanEmkw u Wswsnmhuthphvswu uwufumamsmsupevales mgenevamenemmngm has me quotwhan quot22 m2 7 nm me m was kmnavs mg 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