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Social Psychology

by: Geovany Crona

Social Psychology PSY 315

Geovany Crona
GPA 3.6

Jennifer Harman

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Jennifer Harman
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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Geovany Crona on Tuesday September 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 315 at Colorado State University taught by Jennifer Harman in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see /class/210264/psy-315-colorado-state-university in Psychlogy at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 09/22/15
gt CHAPTER 7 Interpersonal Attraction and Close Relationships 0 Internal Determinants of Attraction I Need to af liate even in the earliest days of life Need to Af liate the basic motive to seek and maintain interpersonal relationships Social exclusion leads to increased sensitivity to interpersonal information and actually results in less effective cognitive functioning o Situational In uence NTA When people are reminded of mortality response is to af liate with others Natural disasters bring people together Study shows that participants in an experiment who were expecting to receive an electric shock preferred to be with other facings the same shock rather than being alone Misery doesn t just love any kind of company it loves only miserable company Arousing situations lead us to nd cognitive clarity to know what is happening and emotional clarity better understanding of our own current feelings I Individual difference in the NTA NTA one of our most basic needs and concerns Dismissing avoidant attachment style a pattern in which they claim to have little or no need for emotional attachments to other and who in fact tend to avoid close relationships Study students exchanged information about selves with 3 other people The students rated each other and ranked their preference for working with each other on another task They all received the same information about each other Found out that they either were the highest rank and could choose any partner they wanted or they were told they would be assigned to work with one of them Took survey to measure mood selfesteem and attachment style Found that all human beings even people who claim otherwise have strong needs for af liation and to feel connected others THEY ARE THERE FOR EVERYONE o Affect and Attraction Feeling as Basis for Liking I Direct Effect of Emotions on Attraction We are attracted to people are nice to us positive dislike people who are mean or negative Strangers like you better if you say or do something pleasant I The Associated Effect of Emotions an Attraction We evaluate people more positively when you are feeling good and more negatively when you are feeling bad 0 For example you like a person less after reviving a bad grade then someone you meet after getting a check in the mail Classical conditioning plays a huge role of the in uence of effect on attraction When a neural stimulus is paired with a positive stimulus it is evaluated more positively than a neural stimulus that has been paired with a negative stimulus even when the person is not aware the pairing occurred I The affect Attraction Relationship and Social In uence We can be persuaded to purchase speci c products vote for speci c political candidates and support issue just because the right emotion have been aroused Advertisements goal is to make us like whatever or whoever is being sold and sometimes dislike whatever the alternative may be Attempts are made to associate candidates with positive words such as moral courageous strong caring while associated the opponent with negative words such as destructive radical incompetent Products are presented with extremely attractive people who are having fun Your behavior can be in uenced by attempts to change our mood 0 External Determinants of Attraction I The Power of Proximity Two people are likely to become acquainted if external factors such as the location of their classroom seats dormitory room of ce desks or whatever bring them into repeated contact Proximity in attraction research the physical closeness between two individuals with respect to where they live where they sit in a classroom where they work and so on The smaller the physical distance the greater the probability that the two people will come into repeated contact experiencing repeated exposure to one another positive affect and the development of mutual attraction Repeated exposure or recognition due to proximity allows for more interaction Feels good to see familiar faces People who work close in proximity are like to become acquainted become friends or even marry each other Repeated Exposure Zaj oncs nding that frequent contact with any mildly negative neural or positive stimulus result in an increasingly positive evaluation of that stimulus Mere exposure effect I Observable characteristics of others Liking 0r Disliking what we see Attraction is based on rst sight sometimes Our reactions strongly suggest that something about that person has produced the positive or negative affect that is often the basis for liking and disliking Reaction is based off of past experiences and stereotypes and attributions that are often both inaccurate and irrelevant Physical Attractiveness the combination of characteristics that are evaluated as beautiful or handsome at the positive extreme an as unattractive at the negative extreme I Physical Attractiveness Attractiveness play an important role in our liking for others People assume beautiful is good Childlike faces with wide eyes and little noses and chins are found to be similarities in attractiveness cute Mature features prominent cheekbones high eyebrows large pupils and big smile The more average faces put together the more beautiful a person is Appearance rejection sensitivity from time to time these people worry about their appearance and fear that other may snub them o Similarity and mutual liking I Birds of a feather actually do ock together I Most in uential effects on attractions 1 Our degree of similarity to others 2 Extent to which others like us I Friends and marital partners usually resemble each other I Newcomb 1956 found that similar attitudes predicted subsequent liking between students I More similarity in attitudes the more we like people when rst meeting 0 Silnilal39ity Dissilnilality consistent Predictor of Attraction I Similarity dissimilarity effect the consistent nding that people respond positively to indications that another person is similar to themselves and negatively to indications that another person is dissimilar from themselves Attitude Similarity the extent to which two individuals share the same attitudes I Experiment consisted of two steps 1 Attitudes of the participant were assessed 2 The participants were exposed to attitudes and such of a stranger and asked to evaluate this person I Results found that people consistently indicated that they like similar stranger much better than they liked dissimilar ones I Attraction is based on the j39p39P39IJ MN m We also tend to judge people similar to us as more intelligent better informed more moral and better adjusted than people who are dissimilar 39 the number of speci c indicators that two people are similar divided by the number of speci c indicators that two people are similar plus the number of speci c indicators that they are dissimilar Repulsion Hypothesis Rosenbaum s provocative proposal that attraction is not increased by similar attitudes but is simply decreased by dissimilar attitudes o INCORECT HYPOTHESIS But it is true that dissimilar attitudes tend to have negative effect that is stronger than the positive effects of similar attitudes Understanding the effect of S D on Attractions 0 Balance Theory 0 The formulations of Heider and Newcomb that specify the relationships among 1 An individual s liking for another person 2 His or her attitudes about a given topic 3 The other persons attitude about the same topic Balance liking plus agreement results in a positive emotional state Imbalance disliking plus either agreement or disagreement leads to indifference 0 Social Comparison Theory Festinger 1954 suggested that people compare themselves to others because for many domains and attributes there is no objective yardstick with which to evaluate ourselves so we compare ourselves to others to gain this information 0 We can evaluate our accuracy and normality by finding that people agree with you 0 Consensual Validation evidence that others share our views 0 Adaptive Response 0 Any physical characteristic or behavior tendency that enhance the odds of reproductive success for an individual or for other individuals with similar genes Evolutionary perspective the need to survive and reproduction explains that our ancestors were more likely to survive against others who were like them and to avoid harm by avoiding people who are unlike us 0 O o Reciprocal Liking or Disliking Liking people who like us People who compliment us and show liking for us reciprocate to us liking them and people who are rude vice versa 0 What do we desire in others We value certain traits in everyone Trust and cooperation viewed as most important traits in a college study agreeableness followed close by we value other traits differently that is to a greater or lesser degree depending on the kind of relationship we have with the other person gt Close Relationships 0 Cultural Foundations I Cultures in which we live often tell us what to expect in various relationships what are obligations are in those relationships and how these close social ties should be formed and then develop I Enemy ship this refers to a personal relationship based on hatred and malice in which one person wishes to produce another person s downfall and attempts to sabotage that person s life progress 0 African Nations are more likely to believe this whereas North American cultures don t believe in it as much 0 Interdependent Relationships I Interdependence Refers to an interpersonal association in which two people in uence eachother s lives They often focus their thoughts on one another and regularly engage in joint activities 0 These types of relationships include a sense of commitment to the relationship itself 0 Family I Lasting Importance of Parent Child Interactions It appears that the quality of the interaction between a mother or caregiver and infant determines their future interpersonal attitudes and actions as they progress into childhood adolescence and beyond Attachment Style the degree of security experienced in interpersonal relationships Differential styles initially develop in the interaction between infant and caregiver when the infant acquires basic attitudes about selfworth and interpersonal trust Infants acquire 2 basic attitudes during it earliest interactions with adults 1 Self Esteem Attitude of the self a The caregiver provides information to the infant that he or she is values important and loved or the polar opposite 2 Interpersonal Trust based on whether the caregiver is perceived as trustworthy dependable and reliable or as relatively untrustworthy undependable and unreliable o 4 Attachment Styles 1 Secure attachment a style characterized by high self esteem and high interpersonal trust a This is the most successful and most desirable attachment style 2 Fearfulavoidant attachment style a style characterized by low selfesteem and low interpersonal trust a This is the most insecure and least adaptive attachment style M Pr eoccupied attachment style a style characterized by low selfesteem and high interpersonal trust a This is a con icted and somewhat insecure style in which the individual strongly desires a close relationship but feels that he or she is unworthy of the partner and is thus vulnerable to being rejected Dismissing attachment style a style characterized by high selfesteem and low interpersonal trust Friendships a This is con icted and somewhat insecure style in which the individual feels that he or she deserves close relationships but is frustrated because of mistrust of potential partners The result is the tendency to reject the other person at some point in the relationship to avoid being the one who is rejected 0 Close Friendship A relationship in which two people spend a great deal of time together interact in variety of situation and provide mutual emotion support 0 Loneliness the unpleasant emotional and cognitive state based on desiring close relationships but being unable to attain t hem 0 Negative effects of loneliness Depression Anxiety Unhappiness Dissatisfaction Pessimism about the future etc o Loneliness can be caused by combination of Genetic factors attachment styles and the opportunity for early social experiences with peers o Loneliness can be reduced with cognitive therapy and social skills training Romantic Relationships 0 Key factors is commitment to relationship and strong attachment style 0 Selecting a mate I Males seek female attractiveness because it is associated with fertility Bilateral symmetry when the left side of the body are alike 0 Perceived as more attractive Fitness health and fertility Females seek males with resources power equals ability to raise and protect offspring 0 LOVE 0 O O O O MARIAGE A combination of emotions cognitions and behaviors that often play a crucial role in intimate relationships Passionate love an intense and often unrealistic emotional response to another person When this emotion is experienced it is usually perceived as an indication of true love but to outside observers it appears to be infatuation Unrequited love love felt by one person for another who not feel love in return Compassionate love love that is based on friendship mutual attraction shared interest respect and concern for one another s welfare Triangular model of love Sterbergs conceptualization of love relationships I Passion Sternberg striangular model of love the sexual motives and sexual excitement associated with a couple s relationship Intimacy Sterbergs triangular model of love the closeness felt by two people the extent to which they are bonded Decision commitment in Sternberg s triangular model of love these are the cognitive processes involved in deciding that you love another person and are committed to maintain the relationship Consummate love Sternberg s triangular model of love a complete and ideal love that combines intimacy passion and decision commitment 0 People who get married often have close similarity and the similarities don t change much over time 0 Marital couples show high levels of ASSUMED SIMILARITY O The extent to which two people believe they are similar 0 Dispositional Factors 0 Some individuals are just better at maintaining a positive relationships then others I Narcissism a personality disposition characterized by unreasonably high selfesteem a feeling of superiority a need for admiration sensitivity to criticism a lack of empathy and exploitative behavior Narcissists report feeling less commitment to a relationship CHAPTER 9 Pro social Behavior gt Prosocial Behavior actions by individuals that help other with no immediate bene t to the helper 0 Motivation EmpathyAltruism it feels good to help others 0 Empathy emotional reactions that are focused on or oriented toward other people and include feeling of compassion sympathy and concern Empathy Altruism Hypothesis the suggesting that some prosocial acts are motivated solely by the desire to help someone in need When empathy is low Victim and participant were dissimilar the participants preferred to end the experiment rather than engage in a painful prosocial act When empathy is high Victim and participant similar participants were much more likely to take the Victims place and receive the shocks presumably motivated simply by empathic concern for the Victim Negative state relief model the proposal that prosocial behavior is motivated by the bystanders desire to reduce his or her own uncomfortable negative emotions or feelings o in other words we do good things to stop feeling bad 0 we help others to decrease stress Empathetic joy hypothesis the View is that helpers respond to the needs of a Victim because they want to accomplish something and in doing so is rewarding in and of it Competitive Altruism Approach suggests that one important reason why people help others is that doing so boosts their own status and reputation and in this way ultimately brings them large bene ts ones that more than offset the cost of engaging in prosocial actions 0 Status is everything to some people and that s why they choose to hel Kin Selectin Theory a theory suggesting that akey goal for all organism including human being is getting our genes into the next generation On e way in which indivudal s can reach this goal is by helping others who share their genes 0 we help ourselves by helping people who share our genes 0 key goal of all organism is getting our genes into the next generation we more likely to help young relatives youreproduction we don t just help biological relative instead often we do help people who are unrelated to us 0 according to the kin selection theory this would not be useful or adaptive behavior because it would not help us transmit our gene to future generations Reciprocal Altruism Theory a View suggesting that we may be willing to help people unrelated to us because helping is usually reciprocated O I If we help them they help us so we do ultimately bene t and our chance of survival are increased I Apathy or Action 0 Bystander effect 0 Common sense is wrong in thinking safety in numbers 0 Diffusion of Responsibility A principle suggesting that the greater the number of witnesses to an emergency the less likely victims are to receive help this is because each bystander assumes that someone else will do it 0 Helping Vs not helping Steps of action 1 Noticing or failing to notice that something unusual is happening a The reason some people don t help is because we get so preoccupied and hurried sometimes that we fail to help because either we don t notice or don t have time to help 2 Correctly interpreting an event as an emergency a It is sometimes embarrassing to interpret a problem wrong b We don t know what is really going on could be joking or not serious enough c Other people will handle the problem d Following the lead if other people seem calm then I guess everything is ok e Pluralistic ignorance refers to the fact that because none of the bystanders respond to an emergency no one knows for sure what is happening and each depends on the others to interpret the situation 3 Deciding that it is our responsibility to help 4 Deciding that you have the knowledge or skills to act 5 making the nal decision to provide help 0 EXtemal and Intemal in uence on Helping I Number of bystanders I We are more likely to help people who are similar to ourselves rather than dissimilar Attraction increases prosocial response We help people who are not responsible for their problem 0 Drunken man on side walk or man in suite with cut on head on side walk 0 One did it to himself the other didn t we would help the person who it wasn t their fault I Observing others preforming prosocial behavior increases prosocial behavior I Displaying money in tip jars encourages people into giving too I In a study children either watch prosocial behavior in lassie or watched non prosocial behavior in lassie and the Brady bunch Those children who saw the prosocial behavior in lassie helped the most 0 Emotions and prosocial behavior I People are more likely to help when in a good mood I Pleasant smells increase prosocial behavior I under some speci c circumstanceshowever a positive mood can decease the probability of responding in a prosocial way because a bystander in a positive mood who encountersambigous emergency tends to interpret the situation as a nonemergency 0 People in a good mood don t want to do anything that will interfere with or reduce their pleasant feelings Although ndings suggest that people are less likely to help in unpleasant moods speci c circumstances can strongly in uence thegeneral trend 0 Ifthey feel bad they may help people to make themselves feel better Empathy emotional reactions that are focused on or oriented toward other people and include feelings of compassion sympathy and concern towards others 0 Allows us to feel sympathetic and take the place of someone else 0 Perspective taking 1 you can image how the other person perceives an event and how her or she must feel as result taking the imagine other perspective 2 you can imagine how you would feel if you were in that situation taking the imagine selfperspective 3 fantasy feeling empathy and fears of a person in a book movie or TV program empathy does increase prosocial behavior but that such effect are stronger for people to who we feel similar than for people view as being dissimilar to ourselves in various ways empathy is genetic external factors causes empathy women express higher levels of empathy Social exclusion conditions in which individuals feel that they have been excluded from some social group 0 People who feel excluded are too busy trying to deal with their own feelings of rejection and abandonment to have much emotion left for experiencing empathy concerning the problems of others I Personality and helping 0 People high in interpersonal trust engage in more prosocial acts than do people who distrust others Machiavelliam39sm an aspect of personality involving distrust cynicism egocentricity and the desire to manipulate an control others o Negatively related to helping the higher people are in Machiavellianism the less likely they are to help others in need of their assistance Altruistic personality a cluster of traits high in empathy belief in a just world that predisposes individuals to behave in prosocial manner Altruistic people are high in 5 dimensions 1 Empathy 2 Belief in ajust world 3 Social responsibility 4 Internal locus of control 5 Low egocentrism 0 Long Term Commitment to Prosocial Acts I The need to volunteer Personal values The need to understand more aboutthisdisease Desire to enhance one own personal relationships Desire to reduce negative feelings Escape from personal problems I People may being volunteering for the same thing but for quite different underlying reasons I MOTIVES Values Understanding Enhancement Career S oc ial Protective I Generativity refers to an adult s interest in and commitment opt the well being of future generations 0 Motivation and Morality I Motives are selfinterest moral integrity and moral hypocrisy Self interest egoism the view that a large portion of human behavior is based on seeking whatever provides us with the most satisfaction we seek rewards and try to avoid punishment Moral integrity refers to the extent which individuals care about considerations of goodness and fairness when they act moral integrity frequently involves accepting some sacrifice of self interest to do the right thing Moral Hypocrisy when people are driven by selfinterest but are also concerned with outward appearances CHAPTER 10 AGGRESSION Aggression behavior directed toward the goal of harming another living being who is motivated to avoid such treatment 0 Biological Factors Instincts to Evolutionary Perspective 0 Objections against Freud and Lorenz 1 Human beings aggress against others in many different wayseverything from ignoring them to performing overt acts of violence 2 The frequency of aggressive actions varies tremendously across human societies so that it is much more likely to occur in some than others 0 Accepting the evolution theory I In the past males seeking desirable mates found it necessary to compete with other males I Males tend to be more aggressive toward other males than toward females while similar difference does not exist among females 0 Drive Theories Motive to harm others I Drive Theories of aggression theories suggesting that aggression stems from external conditions that arouse the motive to harm or inure others The most famous of these is the frustrationaggression hypothesis I This theory proposes that external conditions especially frustration arouse a strong motive to harm others I This aggressive drive in turn leads to overt acts of aggression o Frustration Aggression Hypothesis the suggestion that frustration is a very powerful determinant of aggression Frustration leads to the arousal of a drive whose primary goal is that of harming some person or objectprimarily perceived as the cause of the frustration Frustration is only one of many different causes of aggression and a relatively weak one 0 Modern theories of aggression I Social Learning Perspective human beings are not born with a large array of aggressive responses at their disposal rather they must acquire these in the much the same way that they acquire other forms of social behavior Through direct experience or by observing the behavior of others Individuals learn Various ways of seeking to harm others Which people or groups are appropriate target for aggression What actions by others justify retaliation or vengeance on their part What situation or contexts are one in which aggression Is permitted or even approved In short the social learning perspective suggest that whether a specific person will aggress in a given situation depends on many factors including this person past experience the current rewards associated with past or present aggression and attitudes and values that shape this person thought concerning the appropriateness and potential effects of such behavior General Aggression Model GAM a modern theory of aggression suggesting that aggression is triggered by a wide range of input variable that in uence arousal affective stages and cognitions 2 major input variables that lead to overt aggression 0 Factors relating to the current situation situational factors 0 Frustration some kind of provocation from another person exposure to other people behaving aggressively and virtually anything that causes individuals to experience discomfort high temperatures dentist drill dull lecture 0 Factors relating to the people involved personal factors 0 individual differences across people include traits that r r some 39 quot 39 39 39 toward 39 high irritability certain attitudes and beliefs about violence a tendency to perceive hostile intention in other behavior and speci c skills related to aggression knowing how to ght 0 Situational and Individual variables lead to aggression through their impact on o Arousal they may increase physiological arousal or excitement o Affective statesthey can arouse hostile feeling and outward sign of these Cognitions they can induce individuals to think hostile though or can bring beliefs and attitudes about aggression to mind Depending on individuals interpretations of the current situation and restraining factors they then engage either in thoughtful action which might involve restraining their anger or impulsive action which can lead to overt a gressive actions 0 0 Causes of aggression I Social Determinants of Aggression 0 Individuals aggress because the words or deeds of other people provoke them 0 Frustration o Frustration doesn t always lead to aggression 0 Not all aggression stems from frustration 0 People aggress because to get what they want and not as a reaction to intense frustration I Direct provocation o Provocation actions by others that tend to trigger aggression in the recipient often because they are perceived as stemming from malicious intent Condescension expressions of arrogance or disdain on the pa1t of other are powerful Teasing provoking statements that call attention to the target s aws and imperfections the more people attribute teasing to hostile motives the more likely they are to respond aggressively People in individualist cultures should respond more negatively to teasing than people in collectivist cultures I Heightened arousal Under some condition heightened arousal whatever the source can enhance aggression in response to provocation frustration or other factors Excitation transfer theory a theory suggesting that arousal produced in one situation can persist and intensify emotional reactions occurring in later situations I Exposure to Media Violence Exposure to media violence may indeed be one factor contribution to high levels of violence in countries where such materials are viewed by large number of people Leading experts on this topic who have provide testimony in the US Senate hearing on media and violence and offered the following conclusions 0 Research on exposure to violent TV movies and video games and music indicated that such material significantly increase the likelihood of aggressive behavior by people exposed to them Such effect are both short term and long term in nature The magnitude of these effects is large at least as large as the various medical effect considered to be important by physicians The more violent films or television programs participant watched as children the likelihood that they have been arrested for violent crimes Repeated exposure to media violence can strongly affect cognitions relation to aggression gradually creating a hostile expectation bias a strong expectation that others will behave aggressively Due to exposure individuals become less sensitive to violence and its consequences Individuals who had previously played violent video games frequently showed smaller P300 reaction when viewing violent images thatindividuals who reported previously havingplayedmame nonviolent games Exposure to media violence does indeed desensitize the people who view it 00 As a result to repeated exposure individuals develop strong knowledge structures relating to aggression structures re ecting and combining these beliefs expectations schemas and scripts 0 When these knowledge structures are then activated by various event such people feel think and act aggressively because this what they learned to do I Violent Pornography Lab studies indicate that exposure to violent porn can increase men s willingness to aggress against women Repeated exposure to such material appears to produce the kind of desensitizing effect we described previously in this case such desensitization reduces emotional reaction to mistreatment or harm to sexual crimes to that the people who view them and who have been desensitized no longer nd such images highly disturbing Exposure to violent porn seems to encourage adoption of callous attitudes toward sexual violence leading both women and men to accept dangerous myths about rape and other forms of sexual violence the myth that many women unconsciously want to be raped or that almost all victims of rape are promiscuous and place themselves in situations where they are likely to be sexually assaulted I Cultural Factors Cultures of honor cultures in which there are strong norms indicating that aggression is an appropriate response to insults to one s honor sexualjealousy o in cultures of honor infidelity by women is viewed as especially threatening to male honor and can result in drastic response server punishment for both the women and men involved in such contacts 0 in cultures of honor jealousy will be a powerful determinant of aggression more powerful than it is in other cultures I Latin America and southern America 0 Personality and Aggression I TASS Model the traits as situational sensitivities model A view suggesting that many personality traits function in a thresholdlike manner in uencing behavior only when situations evoke them The tendency to behave aggressively sometime knows as trait aggressiveness will only in uence overt behavior when situational factors are strong enough to activate it High in trait weak provocation will stimulate an aggressive reaction Low in trait stronger levels of provocation are required to trigger aggression


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