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General Psychology (GT

by: Geovany Crona

General Psychology (GT PSY 100

Marketplace > Colorado State University > Psychlogy > PSY 100 > General Psychology GT
Geovany Crona
GPA 3.6

Caitlin Shepherd

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Caitlin Shepherd
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Geovany Crona on Tuesday September 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 100 at Colorado State University taught by Caitlin Shepherd in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see /class/210265/psy-100-colorado-state-university in Psychlogy at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 09/22/15
Study Helper for Exam 2 PSY100 Sections 1 amp 2 Shepherd Reminder Exam2 may include anythingfrom Modules 8 9 11 13 14 15 1 7 and 18 20 videos and anything presented in class This is a guide of some of the most important points discussed so far this semester Module 8 Infancy and Childhood 1 What does maturation mean How does this apply to motor memorycognitive and social development 0 Maturation biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior relatively unin uenced by experience 0 Motor maturation standing before walking 0 Cognitive babbling before talking nouns before adjectives 2 Explain what we mean by the term schemas How does this relate to infant development What is the difference between assimilation and accommodation 0 Schemas mental molds into which we pour our experiences 0 Infants often put all fourlegged animals all into the category of dogs 0 Assimilation involves incorporating new experiences into our current understanding 0 Accommodation process of adjusting a schema and modifying it 3 Describe Piaget39s four stages of cognitive development and the major developmental phenomena that occur during each stage eg object permanence conservation etc o Sensorimotor Stage birth to two years 0 Object permanence o Stranger anxiety 0 Preoperational Stage 2 years to 67 years of age 0 Pretend play 0 Egocentrism 0 Language development 0 Concrete operational 7 to 11 years of age 0 Conservation 0 Mathematical transformations 0 Formal operational 0 Abstract logic 0 Potential for mature moral reasonng 4 What does modern research say about Piaget s ideas 0 Development is a continuous process 0 Children express their mental abilities and operations at an earlier age 0 Formal logic is a smaller part of cognition 5 Describe Harry Harlow s famous study with infant monkeys What did it teach us about attachment 0 Infants bond with surrogate mothers because of bodily contact and not because of nourishment 6 What other factors are important in forming a secure attachment What happens if attachment is disrupted Study Helper for Exam 2 PSYlOO Sections 1 amp 2 Shepherd 7 In the Strange Situation video how did they determine whether a child had secure or insecure attachment 0 By how the child reacted when being in the room wo the parent and only the stranger gtxlt gtxlt gtxlt gtk gtxlt Module 9 Adolescence 1 What process occurs with neural networks in the brain during adolescence o Pruning unused neuronal connections are lost to make other pathways more efficient 2 What happens with the frontal cortex and the limbic system during adolescence How does this relate to adolescent behavior What does the video about adolescents and empathy tell us about adolescents and their brains development 0 The frontal cortex development lags behind the development of the limbic system Hormonal surges and limbic system may explain occasional teen impulsiveness 3 What are the three levels of moral thinking What level typically occurs in adolescence Preconventional morality avoid punishment or gain reward Conventional morality social rules and laws are upheld for their own sake Postconventional morality affirms people s agreedupon rights follows personal ethical principles gtxlt Modules 11 13 14 Introduction to Sensation and Perception 1 What are sensation and perception and how are they related 0 Sensation detecting physical energy stimulus from the environment and converting it into neural signals 0 Perception the process of selecting organizing and interpreting our sensations o Sensation and perception work together to help us make sense of stimuli 2 What is meant by topdown processing and bottomup processing 0 Topdown processing guided by higherlevel processes 0 Bottomup processing analysis that begins with the sense receptors and works up to the brain s integration of sensory information 3 What does the term Gestalt mean How does this impact how we organize sensory information Think about figure ground and grouping principles 0 Gestalt an organized whole 0 We tend to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes o Figureground the organization of the visual eld into objects the figures that stand out from their surroundings the ground What is the difference between binocular and monocular cues What are the different monocular cues that help us to perceive depth 0 Binocular cues depth cues such as retinal disparity that depend on the use of two eyes 4 Study Helper for Exam 2 PSYlOO Sections 1 amp 2 Shepherd 0 Monocular cues depth cues available to either eye alone 0 Relative size smaller image is more distant o Interposition closer object blocks distant object 0 Relative height higher objects are seen as more distant 0 Relative motion closer objects seem to move faster 0 Linear perspective parallel lines converge with distance 5 What is perceptual constancy and how does it impact our perception of the world 0 Perceptual constancy perceiving objects as unchanging color shape size lightness even as illumination and retinal image change 6 What have studies looking at sensory deprivation and restored vision taught us about the role of the environment in perceptual interpretation What have been the major ndings from these studies 0 Sensory deprivation and restored vision can distinguish colors and figureground can t recognize objects by sight recognize faces as a whole understand perceptual constancy depth Module 15 Waking and Sleeping Rhythms l Whatis 39 fromap 39 39 39 39 vi wt int 0 Consciousness our awareness of ourselves and environment 2 What is selective attention and why does it occur What are the three different types of selective attention 0 Selective attention the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus 0 Types of selective attention 0 Inattentional blindness inability to see an object of person in our midst passing the ball and the gorilla 0 Change blindness inability to notice a change in the environment not notice person change 0 Choice blindness inability to notice change in one s own choices 3 What is the circadian rhythm What is the role of light in our circadian clock 0 Circadian rhythm the biological clock regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24hour cycle 0 The biological clock can be altered by arti cial light 0 Light triggers the decrease morning of melatonin from the pineal gland and increase evening it at nightfall 4 Describe the stages of sleep including the characteristics of REM 0 Stage 1 slow breathing irregular brain waves 0 Hypnagogic sensations hallucinations falling etc 0 Stage 2 sleep talking minor noises won t disturb you 0 Stage 3 breathing and pulse have slowed down 0 4 deep sleep brain activity slows down Study Helper for Exam 2 PSY100 Sections 1 amp 2 Shepherd 0 Stage 5 REM sleep brain engages in lowamplitude fast and regular beta waves 0 Vivid dreams and increased eye movement 5 Why do we need to sleep and what happens when people don t get enough Think about the sleep deprivation video and how lack of sleep impacted the volunteers 0 Sleep theories 0 Sleep protects 0 Sleep recuperates helps restore and repair brain tissue 0 Sleep helps remembering restores and rebuilds our fading memories 0 Sleep and growth pituitary gland releases growth hormone Why do we dream How do modern dream theories differ from Freud s view 0 Dream theories 0 Freud s wishfulfillment dreams provide a psychic safety valvle expressing otherwise unacceptable feelings Information processing dreams help to sort out the day s events and consolidate our memories Physiological function regular brain stimulation from REM sleep may help develop and preserve neural pathways Activationsynthesis REM sleep triggers impulses that evoke random visual memories which our sleeping brain weaves into stories Cognitive theory dream content re ects dreamers cognitive development their knowledge and understanding 0 O O O O Module 17 Drugs and Consciousness 1 What are the three types of psychoactive drugs What are the primary properties of each What are some drugs that fall into each of these categories 0 Depressants drugs that reduce neural activity and slow body functions alcohol barbiturates and opiates Stimulants drugs that excite neural activity and speed up body functions caffeine nicotine cocaine ecstasy amphetamines and methamphetamines Hallucinogens distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input marijuana 2 What do we mean by addiction How do psychologists look at addiction Hint Think about withdrawal tolerance and dependence 0 Addiction compulsive drug craving and use 0 Tolerance with repeated exposure to the drug the drug s effect lessens and it takes greater quantities to get the desired effect Study Helper for Exam 2 PSY100 Sections 1 amp 2 Shepherd 0 Withdrawl upon stopping use of a drug users may experience the undesirable effects of withdrawl 0 Dependence absence of a drug may lead to a feeling of physical pain intense cravings physical dependence and negative emotions psychological dependence Module 18 Classical Conditioning 1 De ne learning and association 0 Leaming relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience 0 Association learning to associate two events learning to associate a response with a consequence 2 Describe how Pavlov conditioned a dog to salivate to the tone of a bell Name the UR US CR and CS In the same way describe how you might have learned to respond to the smell of fresh baking bread with salivation 0 He collected saliva from a dog He rang a bell every time he gave the dog food Eventually the dog started salivating at the sound of the bell o Unconditioned response salivation when food is in the mouth 0 Unconditioned stimulus the food 0 Conditioned response salivation o Conditioned stimulus tone 3 Know the following terms acquisition extinction spontaneous recovery generalization and discrimination 0 Acquisition initial stage in classical conditioning associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response 0 Extinction diminishing of a conditioned response when the food does not follow the tone salivation begins to decrease and eventually causes extinction o Spontaneous recovery reappearance after a rest period of an extinguished conditioned response 0 Discrimination learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli that do not signal 0 Generalization tendency to respond to stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus 4 How can classical conditioning be applied Think about the video that we watched in class of the woman suffering from Lupus 5 What do modern psychologists now know about classical conditioning that early behaviorists didn t Think about r 39 p1 ediction and 39 39 39 39 39 constraints 0 Early behaviorists believed that learned behaviors of animals could be reduced to mindless mechanisms but they now suggested that animals learn the predictability of stimulus Study Helper for Exam 2 PSY100 Sections 1 amp 2 Shepherd Early behaviorists believed that laws of learning were similar for all animals but they now know that learning is constrained by an animal s biology Taste led to conditioning but sight and sound did not Module 19 Operant Conditioning 1 What is the difference between positive reinforcement negative reinforcement positive punishment and negative punishment Positive reinforcement increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli such as food Negative reinforcement increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli such as shock seat belt turns off buzzer Positive punishment administers an aversive stimulus to decrease the behavior spanking or a parking ticket adding something bad Negative punishment withdraws a desirable stimulus timeout from privileges such as time with friends 2 Summarize the text s discussion of punishment and in particular physical punishments o Punishment decreases the frequency of a preceding behavior 0 Child may learn discrimination o Punishment can teach fear 0 Punishment may increase aggressiveness by modeling aggression as a way to cope with problems 3 What suggestions does your author have for people who want to extinguish an undesired behavior 0 Use reinforcement with punishment Module 20 Learning by Observation 1 Describe recent research that suggests a neural basis for learning by observation 0 A monkey imitated the other monkey in touching pictures in a certain order to obtain a reward 2 Discuss the famous Bobo doll experiments 0 Children had to watch a movie of s person being violent towards a doll When left alone in a room with only the doll the children became violent towards the doll Which models are we most likely to imitate 19 0 Is there any research to support the view that viewing violence is related to violent behavior What have been the results of experiments in establishing causeeffect relationships between viewing violence and aggressive behavior 4


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