Psychology of Human Sexuality
Psychology of Human Sexuality PSY 228
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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Geovany Crona on Tuesday September 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 228 at Colorado State University taught by Larry Bloom in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see /class/210268/psy-228-colorado-state-university in Psychlogy at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 09/22/15
Exam 2 Material Conception when sperm fertilizes ovum 1 Sperm o Produced in the testes 0 Initially start out as spermatocyte with 46 chromosomes 0 Then they split into 2 spermatids each with 23 chromosomes one with X and one with Y 2 Ova 0 Larger than a sperm cell 0 Also start with 46 chromosomes and split into two when mature 3 Conception in the Fallopian Tubes 0 Ovum moves into fallopian tube 0 Ovum is surrounded by a layer called zona pellucina o Sperm swarm around this layer and secrete the enzyme hyaluronidase o Hyaluronidase dissolves the zona pellucina so that sperm can penetrate ovum 4 Following conception o Fertilized egg is called a zygote o In the first eight weeks of gestation the zygote turns into an embryo known as a fetus 5 Development of Conceptus o Ectoderm skin and nervous system 0 Endoderm digestive system and repertory system 0 Mesoderm muscles skeletal tissue reproductive and circulatory systems 6 Support system for embryo o Placenta tissue surrounds nurtures growth 0 Umbilical cord 20 inches long attaches from embryo to placenta o Amniotic uid maintains constant temperature and cushioning forfetus 7 Development of Fetus 0 During the first trimester the embryo turns into a fetus 0 Movement is felt during and after the 18th week 2 101 trimester 0 During seventh month 3ml trimester fetus turns face down in the uterus 8 Life when do we think it starts 0 At conception 25 0 At early fetus 39 0 At late fetus 31 0 At birth 6 9 Amniocentesis 0 When doctor tests fetus for diseases or genetic problems 0 Can also determine the sex of the fetus 0 Can be tested as early as three months 10 How can chances of conception be improved 11 12 Basil Body Temperature take various temperatures have seX just prior to ovulation Vaginal Mucus Technique tracking thickness of discharge when the discharge is thinner have seX Over the counter tests to test urine Fertility problems In males low sperm count irregularly shaped sperm low sperm motility and injury to testes In females irregular ovulation obstructions or malformations of the reproductive tract endometriosis declining hormone levels Artificial Methods of Enhancing Fertilization In Vitro Fertilization IVF happens outside the body Gamete Introfallopian Transfer GIFT in body fertilization Zygote Introfallopian Transfer ZIFT fertilization happens in a dish then placed in fallopian tube Donor IVF Pregnancy Labor and Childbirth 1 Vaginal Childbirth 2 Stages of Pregnancy First Trimester OOWOOOOO Increased breast swelling Increased urination Morning sickness Vaginal discharge Increased fatigue and sleepiness Second Trimester Edema water retention in face hands ankles and feet Colostrum production milk production around the 19th week 4 Third Trimester Uterus becomes hard and large putting pressure on other organs Fetus becomes more active Uterus tightens occasionally 5 Birth Parturition Lab or Contractions of uterus mild and spaced out 1 There may be a discharge of blood 2 In 10 of women membranes containing amniotic uid rupture 3 Most women will not rupture until the first stage oflabor is done 9First stage of labor Early late transition Contractions produce effacement thinning out and dilation opening Early contractions are spaced out 15 minutes apart and last anywhere from 45 seconds to one minute Comfortable stage Late first increases contractions closer together further dilation 58 cm Transition when the cervix becomes fully dilated contractions are the strongest The first stage averages 12 to 15 hours for 1st pregnancy and 8 hours for a woman who has already had children 9Second stage oflabor Delivery 0 Baby s head or other body part moves into vagina 0 An episiotomy happens in this stage 0 Baby is delivered takes first breath and its umbilical cord is cut 9Third stage oflabor Afterbirth o Placenta is quotdeliveredquot 0 Any tears or cuts are sewn up Medications involved in Childbirth o Tranquilizers or narcotics can be administered when labor becomes intense 0 Regional and local anesthetics are used most commonly Cesarean Childbirth surgical procedure 91ndications o Cervical dysfunction Size and position of fetus Females anatomy Vaginal track problems Umbilical cord prolapse Placenta previa 9How frequently do cesarean childbirths happen 0 United States 30 0 Netherlands 10 0 Norway 12 0 England 10 Contraception 1 HormonallyBased Contraceptives o The Pill combination pills that contain both estrogen and progestin 0 Higher levels of estrogen inhibit FSH so the message to ovulate is never sent 0 Higher levels ofprogestin thicken cervical mucus 2 Monophasic biphastic triphastic quarterly and continual o Mono same amount of estrogen the whole time 0 Bi increases progestin toward the end of the month 0 Quarterly four periods seasonal and yaz o Continual no periods all year lybreal 3 Combination pill side effects 0 Slight increases in circulatory problems 0 Aggravation of already existing cancer 0 Weight gain 4 Progestin pill o Thickens cervical mucus blocking passage of sperm into uterus Plan B stops ovulation stops sperm inhibits endimetrium from nourishing Hormonally Based Contraception o The Patch hormones administered through skin 0 The Ring exible ring is placed in the vagina for three weeks InjectableImplanted o Depo Provera injections repeated at three month intervals 0 Norpland and Implanon o Mirena five years 7 Chemical Contraception o Intra Unterine Device IUD immobilizes sperm inserted in uterus creates antibodies that are toxic to sperm 8 Spermicides o Applicator pushes spermicide into vagina near cervix 0 Chemicals toxic to sperm 9 Combination barrierChemical contraception o Diaphragm o Cervical cap 0 Contraceptive sponge 10 Barrier methods 0 Female condoms 0 Male condoms 11 Other 0 Coitus interruptus o Fertility awareness o Malefemale sterilization 12 New advances 0 Male birth control 0 Silicone injection in the fallopian tube or in the vas deferens Fquot Abortion 9 Have you had an abortion 0 Yes 4 o No 96 9 Have you known someone who has had an abortion 0 Yes 54 o No 46 9 Are you in favor ofa women s right to have one 0 Yes 87 o No 13 9 Awoman wants an abortion but the baby daddy wants to keep the baby Does she have the right to have an abortion 0 Yes 67 o No 32 9 Is an abortion murder 0 Yes 25 o No 75 Abortion statistics 0 Last year in the United States there were 1588600 abortions 0 One half of all abortions were performed on women aged 25 years or older 0 17 of abortions were performed on teens o Regardless of race and ethnicity the rate of abortions goes up in times of economic hardships 60 ofwomen who had abortions last year were women who were already mothers Abortion Methods 0 Vacuum aspirations make up for 97 of abortions happen in 1st trimester o Dilation and evacuations for later term pregnancies o Induced labor make up for 1 of abortions happen late in the 2m1 trimester saline induced abortion 0 Hysterotomy happen late in pregnancy basically a cesarean section 0 Mifepristone RU 486 developed in France over 50 of women in France use this method of abortion Pill form Cross Cultural Differences in Abortion Politics 0 Egypt abortion is illegal unless mother s life is in danger 0 France abortion is legal and is covered under insurance 0 England legal but two physicians must sign off 0 Ireland illegal 0 Japan legal up to 22 weeks gestation and must have fathers consent 0 Latin America legal except in Barbados and Cuba 0 Poland illegal 0 Russia legal and frequently used as a contraceptive method Human Sexual Response 1 Excitement Phase 0 Beginning level of sexual arousal o Erection in the male 0 Lubrication in the female 0 Both result in vasocongestion 2 Plateau Phase 0 Vasocongestion reaches its peak 0 Penis is erect glans swell testes pull closer to body 0 Orgasmic platform involves a tightening of the outer third of the vagina and elevation of the clitoris 3 Orgasm climax of sexual arousal release of sexual tensions Sharp increase in pulse rate blood pressure and breathing during orgasm Males ejaculatory inevitability Females feeling begins around the clitoris and spreads outwards In both contractions of urethra Resolution Body returns to underaroused state Males enter refractory period a time in which they can not be restimulated 0 Females do not enter a refractory period 5 Vaginal and Clitoral Orgasm o Physiologically there is no difference but there may be a difference psychologically 5 Grafenberg Spot GSpot 0 Located on the top side of the vagina about halfway between the pubic bone and the cervix 4 OOWOOOO 826 Abnormal Psychology How rare are psychological disorders 9 25 of people get diagnosed with a psychological disorder a year and 50 are diagnosed with psychological disorder in their lifetime Abnormal Unusual statistically infrequent Unbearable causes psychological distress Unsuccessful self defeating behavior or impaired functioning Unsocial violations of norms Unreal faulty perseptions o Unhealthy posing a danger to oneself or others Some behavior may only be considered abnormal in certain places around the globe this idea is called cultural relativism 828 History ofAbnormal Psychology 0 The oldest document of recorded disorders was found in Egypt and is called Kahun Papurus Trepanation used in Africa Was when a hole was drilled in the head to quotrelease demons but also to relieve headaches There is a 96 survival rate Demons were thought to be the reasons for abnormalities Plato believed in the impulse passion appetite The Chinese believe in air affecting people Hippocrates talked about phobias and believed in humors Dysfunction distress deviance and dangerousness 9 reasons to be considered abnormal Thoughts on hysteria Galen believed that women had wondering uteruses which caused blindness and other things And the only cure was to get pregnant Freud said that women were being abused and that s why they were hysterical Devils and Witches had to take The Dousing Test ifyou were innocent you would drown and if you were guilty you would oat but then be killed Asylums 9 Bedlam people were collected and taken to these asylums in horrible conditions 9 which lead to The Reform Movement and Moral Therapy 9 Philippe Pinel started the movement in France Benjamin Rush started the movement in England and Dorthea DiX started the movement in the US After the asylums were shut down Modern Mental Hospitals were put into place In these MMH s patients were treated with insulin shock therapy cold wraps and hot boxes So basically patients were tortured After the MMH s were shut down Community Mental Health Movement and psychotropic medication was used Such as thorazine And once patients were considered well they were able to leave Contemporary Perspectives 1 Biological Perspective something is biologically wrong 2 Psychological Perspective having to do with life experiences 3 Sociocultural Perspective an abnormality that can t be understood without seeing the culture the patient lives in 4 Biopsychosocial Perspective taking into account all of the above things Ethics in Research 9 Institutional Review Board IRB 1 Informed consent 2 Confidentiality Research Methods 1 Experimental methods 2 Case study 3 Single participant study where the patient is studied when they re regular 9treatment9regular9treatment 4 Kinship Studies using monozygotic twins 830 How we diagnose classify and treat disorders Diagnostic and Statistical Manual DSM International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems ICD 0 We are currently on the DSM 5 o In the DSM 3 9 pharmaceutical boom and homosexuality was listed as a disorder It is multidimensional 9 clinical disorders awareness of general medical conditions that may in uence psychological behavior psychosocial and environmental problems global assessment of functioning on a scale of 0 to 100 Features many cultural syndromes 1 Amok brooding state followed by violent outbreak Malaysia hence the term quotrunning amok Ataque de Nervious stress causes fits aggression dissociative experiences South America 3 Dhat concerns about discharge of semen fear that it will cause fatigue India Koro anxiety that sex organs are retracting into body East Asia Pibloktoq withdrawal followed by violent attack and bizarre behavior Invits Taijn Kyofusho worry that one s body will embarrass themselves like farting in public Iapan N V U1lgt VK d Ch V 0 Evaluating the DSM accelerated and advanced research amp treatment a cultural document specifying diagnostic criteria we have to think about the category vs the spectrum we also have to think about the weaknesses vs the strengths stigma What is a psychological assessment 0 Collecting relevant information to reach conclusion 0 A clinical assessment 0 It works like a funnel we begin very broad and end in very specific Standards ofpsychological assessment 0 Reliability internal consistency testing and retesting reliability interrater reliability 0 Validity consent validity asking ourselves do the items on the test cover the material criterion validity do these test scores predict what they39re supposed to construct validity does the overall pattern of relationships 0 Reliability and validity work together 0 Sensitivity correctly identifying people true positive failure of sensitivity is when we misdiagnose people who don t have a disorder 0 Specificity avoids misidentifying people true negative failure of specificity false negative is when we miss people who do have a disorder 0 We want high sensitivity and high specificity Methods ofpsychological assessment 1 Clinical Interview can be unstructured ask whatever you want semi structured branch list or structured ask every question 2 Computerized Interview always semi structured 3 Psychological Tests are structured standardized and follow norms 4 Intelligence Testing they define intelligence give you and IQ score 5 Objective Testing itis objective which rules outlying Minnesota Multiphastic Personality Inventory and The Millon Clinical MultiaXial Inventory 9 4 Can you see what s going on in someone s mind without asking YES using 1 Physiological Measurement Structural Imaging CT scans using Xrays and MRI s which spin water molecules in magnetic field of the brain and Functional Imaging EEG s using electrodes PET scan using positrons and FMRI s show where the brain is being used Neuropsychological Testing Such as The Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test being asked to draw certain shapes Other assessment approaches behavior assessment selfmonitoring little surveys analogue measures importance behavior checklistsrating scales cognitive assessment projective testing the Rorschach ink blot test however the research is not very good and Thematic Apperception Test aka TAT includes asking the patient to tell you a story and ask what s going on N V W V 911 Perspectives behavioral classical conditioning and psychoanalytic theory Behavior Therapy uses associations consequences and observation 0 Systematic desensitation 0 Exposure paired with relaxation o Other examples token economies therapist modeling virtual reality Does behavior therapy work 0 Yes several types work for depression 0 8090 success rate for panic disorders 0 success for other anxiety disorders 0 used successfully for back pain insomnia obesity 99 Defense Mechanisms 1 Repression 2 Regression 3 Displacement 4 Denial 5 Reaction formation 6 Rationalization 7 Projection 8 Sublimation Karen Horney social focus on relationships How you form relationships when you re younger translates to how you will make relationships when you re older Erikson development is continuous psychoanalysis Freud dream analysis 916 The Biological Perspective 0 Central nervous system brain and spinal cord 0 The peripheral nervous system linked to stress Messages from into organs to brain Motor commands Links body to the outside world The Autonomic Nervous System Sympathetic Nervous System and Parasympathetic System The Somatic Nervous System Sodium goes in and potassium goes out Vesicles are vessels Parts of the brain frontal lobe reasoning decision making personality temporal lobe memories occipital lobe processes visual information parietal lobe space navigation cerebellum smoothes motor activities and loves oxygen and glucose cerebral cortex Thalamus sensation router hypothalamus feeding fighting eeing fucking hormones are found here as well hippocampus forming and finding memories amygdala emotions primarily fear and anger but also very positive emotions ponsmedulla automatic things like breathing Biological Treatments 0 Surgery 0 Electric stimulations o Psychopharmacology anti anxiety antipsychotic antidepressants mood stabilizers o Medications in a synapse may act on reuptake on neurotransmitters on receptor sites and on vesicles Social Cultural Perspective 0 Ethnicity and psychological disorders 9 stereotyping barriers treatment disparity 0 Members of ethical and racial minority groups are 9 less often insured less access to mental health care receive lower quality mental health care 0 African American people are 9 more likely to be admitted to a mental hospital involuntarily committed to treatment and more often diagnosed with schizophrenia Culture and Its In uence on Human Sexuality I Culture Overview a Norms i Each culture proscribes norms for sex ii In uences people from time they are born 1 Example if you ome from culture where sex before marriage is wrong it effects one s sexual experiences b Learning i Learning is of utmost importance bc it guides sexual expectations and experiences 1 Sex is psychophysiological a Mind and body b Brain is most important sex organ II Inis Beag a Location off coast of Ireland b Attitude i Most sexually repressive culture ii Sex ed virtually does not exist parents don t talk about it 1 No knowledge of a French kissing b Oral stim Of organsgenitals c Oral sex d Homosexuality iii Women are afraid of menstruating and menopause esp menopause l Seen as unhappy events iv Men having sex zaps strength v Nudity is taboo vi Premarital sex is not practiced c Sex involves i Man initiates male is always in superior position couples keep underclothes on 1 Male orgasms as quickly as possible then sleeps 2 Female orgasms don t exist considered deviant 3 Sex is for his pleasure only a She s doing her duty b Lasts 30 secs15 min III Mangaia a Location island in South Paci c b Attitude i One of most sexually liberal places in world ii Sexual pleasure for both males and females iii Boys girls are enxouraged from early age to explore themselves 1 Boys girls learn about masturbation around age 7 regularly masturbate at age 89 a Manhood ritual age 13 i Has super incision elder male uses sharp knife to make small incision from base of penis to head ii Receives lessons like how to oral sex on her how to mess with her breasts bring women to orgasm 2X before he does iii After 2 weeks older woman volunteers and sexs him teaches him her moves b Womanhood ritual age 13 i Taught how to move body certain ways how to verbally communicate her pleasure then has intercourse with older male relative c After the rituals they can seek each other out and have sex every night i Sleep crawlers group of men who woosex same girl in one night ii Parents listen in to make sure daughter s having a good time d Monogamous after marriage IV Mehinaku a Location Brazilian village b Attitude i Between Mangaia and Inis Beag ii A lot of sex and lot of anciety about it iii Interested in sex iv Extramarital relationships are common 1 Culture is gendersegregated except in marriage a Do activites w own sex 2 Women are believed to have weaker sex drive a No recognition of female orgasm w partner V Conclusion a Normatives i Norms becomecause sexual scripts l 88 how one is supposed to be and act sexually ii In our society 1 males should be aggressive ready all the time for sex virile playas more experienced stoic 2 females should be emotional whores if sex too much exude sexuality less experienced N First Poll Lady can t get pregnant 1st time she has sex False Menstrating lady can get pregnant False highly unlikely but possible If man takes penis out of lady before ejaculating then lady won t get pregnant False It s bad for man s health if his erection just fades away after intense arousal False Swallowing semen is harmful True if it s contaminated by virus Ladies can get pregnant by swallowing semen False Ladies can tell when dude climaxes True Dudes can tell when lady climaxes False Stats show that ladies have more orgasms wout add stimulus False Sexual Information Survey Most parents in US favor sex ed in schools 62 True 38 False The incidence of sex crimes is correlated with availability of porno material 55 True 45 False Masturbation occurs more frequently in highly educated males than w males of little education 53 True 47 False Most married couples have violated the law in their private sexual practices 68 True 32 False In comparison w most other cultures the US is quite restrictive in its regulation of sexual activity 63 True 37 False Impotenceinability to achieve orgasm usually re ects learning and experiences rather than biology 83 True 17 False The sex ofthe child is determined by the egg 14 True 86 False Excessive masturbation can cause serious physical and emotional problems 34 True 66 False The hymen is very tough membrane that is intact in female Virgin 67 True 33 False Sexual Orienation Kinsey Continuum I 0 exclusively heterosexual I 1 mostly heterosexual with incidental homosexual experience I 2 heterosexual with substantial homosexual experience I 3 equally heterosexual and homosexual experience I 4 homosexual with substantial heterosexual experience I 5 mostly homosexual with incidental heterosexual experience I 6 exclusively homosexual De nitions I Lesbian female whose sexual orientation is toward other women I Gay refers to homosexual especially male homosexuals I Straight heterosexual I Transgendered anatomical sex and gender are discordant I LGBT lesbian gay bisexual transgendered Statistics Chicago Study I Exclusively heterosexual approximately 92 male 95 female I Exclusively homosexual approximately 2 male 1 female I At least one same gender experience in adulthood o 7 8 male 4 5 females Attitudes I Although changing many Americans express disagreement with same sex 55 surveyed stated it is always wrong I Many studies show LGBT individuals have been victims of some crime due to their orientation 19 of females 28 o 1973 51 of those surveyed stated that homosexual men should not be allowed to teach in a college university 0 2008 11 responded the same way 0 Homophobia a strong irrational fear of homosexuals o Antigay Prejudice negative attitudes and behaviors toward gays and lesbians o Heterosexism belief that everyone is heterosexual and should be and everything revolves around that particular belief Causal Factors I Biological theories include 0 Genetic factors 0 Prenatal factors 0 Brain factors 0 Hormonal Imbalance I PsychologicalTheories Psychoanalytic Freudian theory points to negative Oedipus complex 0 Learning Theory based upon reinforcement Coming Out 6 Stages of Identity Development I Identity Confusion not really sure how to be Identity Comparison Identity Tolerance tolerates the way they are Identity Acceptance Identity Pride Identity Synthesis integrate it into your life
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