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Date Created: 09/14/14
CHAPTER 1 BECOMING HUMAN Key Terms Evolution The process by which the difference species of the worldits plants and animalsadapted in response to their often changing environments in ways that enabled them to survive and increase in numbers Hominids Modern day humans evolved from Africa39s ape population Australopithecines men at time of apes 5 ft tall and weighed at most 110 pounds they were hunted Species a group of animals or plants possessing one of more distinctive characteristics Adaptation The ability to alter behavior and to innovated finding new ways of doing things Bipedalism the first trait to distinguish hominids from apes they became quottwofootedquot creatures Cognitive Skills powers of observation and memory problem solving and language Innovation learning and storing lessons so that humans can pass those lessons on to offspring such as those of making of toolseffective use of resources Migration a response in part of the environmental changes that were transforming the world Hunting and Gathering Language the use of sounds to make words that when strung together convey complex meaning to others Domesticate bring under human control Settled Agriculture application of human labor and tools to a fixed plot of land for more than one growing cycle entails the changeover from hunting and gathering lifestyle to one based on agriculture which req staying in one place until soil exhausted Pastoralism herding of domesticated animals REMEMBER THE WARM CYCLE MADE PEOPLE TO PUT DOWN THEIR HUNTING WEAPONS AND DOMESTICATE Early Human Facts Homo Sapiens Sapiens Modern Men and women and the sole surviving subspecies of Homo sapiens Oldest Homo Sapiens HS Records 160000 years ago Originated from Africa 200000 years ago migrated out of Africa less than 100000 years ago There were doubts that we all originated from the same place but now more evidence is being found That its not fundamental differences but cultural differences Differences between humankind39s cultures are 1500020000 years ago Each religious group has their own belief about how the world is made Besides the Chinese So when They found out that humans are related to apes it was mind boggling How Humans Came to Be Origin of universe 137 billion years Hominid separate from African pongids 67 million years ago Three groups of apes present day gorillas chimpanzees and hominids Raymond Dart finds bones that are partly human and ape mistakes it for an ape quotSouthern Ape of Africaquot Later called australopithecines These austra were not humans but carried the genetic and biological material humans have now Although they were the hunted they were excelled at adaptations Austra lived in the north as well named quotLucyquot Over three feet tall walked upright brain within ape size range and jaw amp teeth were humanlike Showed that human precursrs were waking as early as 3 mill years ago Many hominids died there39s no straightline descent tree Bipedalism these hominids began carrying food over long distances and into open savannas They could now migrate out of hostile env and into more hopsitable locations Why did these primates leave the shelter of trees and venture out into the open grasslands Why did The small number of apes evolve new traits in Africa 40 million years ago fourth great ice age earth39s temp plunged glaciers increased etc lasted until 10k years ago had alternation warm and cool phases between 40 k and 100k years Btwn 10 15miion years the climate in Africa went through one such cooling and drying phase Africa39s Rift Valley Safrica Ethopia Right north Africa cooled and dried forced contract and savannas to spread Some apes began to walk run and live in savannas OPPOSABLE THUMBS increased dexterity increased powers of observation and memory cognitive skills Gathered wild berries and grains scavenge the meat and marrow of animal that had died of natural causesthe prey of predators Social lived in 25 individuals survive by hunting small game and wild plants diverse supply of wild grains and fruits Lived this way up to 3 million years didn39t change unless they searched for better environments CHANGE brains doubled in size foreheads elongated jaws less massive mental maps created DIVERSITY A chimpanzeesized hominid was found 6 million years ago teeth closer to humans but arms and hands ape like and tied to trees African environment was generating a fair number of different hominid populations Most did not survive HOMO HABILIS After the example of Lucy and 1 mill year after the name quothomoquot or quottrue humanquot came to be Brains were growing larger the largest indicator An intact skull was 18 million years old and found called quotDearBoyquot By the time of DB early humans begun to make tools for butchering animals hunting and killing smaller animals Tools were flaked stones with sharpened edges for cutting apart animal fesh Mimicking animal bites and teeth Used tools to make tools Leakeys who discovered DB decided to call these guys Homo habilis quotSkifu Manquot DEBATE what is more humane Homo habilis or Homo erectus Iftrait is toolmaking Habilis If bipedal Erectus If brains Homo sapiens or their immediate predecessors HOMO ERECTUS Different species began to flourish together between 1 amp 25 million years ago by 1 million years many died out One emerged 18 million years ago had a large brain capacity its gait was extremely closed to modern human so called quotHomo erectusquot quotStanding Manquot Cared for their young enlarged brains therefore could not pass through at birth pelvises were too tiny Therefore offspring required a long period of protection by adults as they matured and brain size tripled quotMotheringquot req mothers to spend time with their infants and reduce assaults from other fathers relied on other women and girls to nurture and protect BIGGEST Differences Bipedalism and attempts to control the environment They could move with a smooth and rapid gait use fire and make stones 800000 years ago Fire provided heat protection from wild animas gathering point for small communities cook food cooked foods provide more energy than raw Migrated to lands of Southwest Asia traveled along the Indian Ocean shoreline moved into South AsiaSoutheast Asia and later known as China JAVA MAN central Java homo erectus dispersed into Asia 2 mill years ago Sangiran Java half size of human head 800k years ago hominids were moving northward and eastward into asia at least 1 mill years ago cnnected by land to the rest of AfroEurasian landmass Peking Man cave dweller toolmaker hunterampgatherer settled in China 400k years ago larger brain tools of quartz sandstone etc The First Modern Humans Developed 200k150k ago Moved out of Africa about 60k years ago Last Evolutionary Process Limited communication skills simple commands and hand signals but not much more after that Homo Sapiens lacked in large size and strength but had cognitive abilities The highlands of eastern Africa was one of the regions least affected by climate change and that is where the new biggerbrained more dexterous and more agile species of humans congregated HS followed the trails by earlier migrants from Africa By 30k ago the population grew to 300k Shandingdong Man HS present day China 18 k years ago had some garments a tomb of grave goods of ornaments religious HS were also migration in northeastern fringe of East Africa followed herds of large Siberian grazing animals animals bone and dungs were good fuel and building material Beringia the weedy landmass that linked Siberia and NA thousand mile long bridge Neanderthals Early wave of hominids from Africa settled in western AfroEurasia 150k years ago before HS Big brained buried dead tools rock shelters and caves not as complex as modern humans though Eventually gave into CroMagnons And overlapped N were not as equipped as CroMagnons modern They had stronger arms and legs but were awkward and CM were more intelligent N diminished during the ice age because of the lack of intelligence Art and Language The ability to draw helped HS to understand their environment bond among their groups and articulate mythologies Altamria paintings 35600 years old changed very little Oldest 41k years old Maybe used to differ themselves from animals Sculptures of animals were also made Most famous was fat and pregnant females quotVenus of Wiendorfquot Theme of reproduction Music hollowed out bone flute with five openings dated approx 35k years ago Made harmonic sounds comparable to today39s flute Language it was necessary to have a large brain and complex cognitive organization to create word groups that would convey symbolic meaning individuals could teach offspring and neighbors for survival Food Production Domestication of Animals Some communities gradually stopped going out in search of wild grains and wild animals and learned to propagate edible plants and domesticate animals Settled down in villages expanding their numbers gaining control over nature EIGHT LOCATIONS where there was independent centers of this agricultural revolution Swest Asia East Asia Seast Asia the New Guinea highlands subSaharan Africa Andean SA central Mexico and the eastern US The factors are still fought over There were warmer temperatures amp wetter climates which made the move to settled agriculture easier Population pressure hunting and gathering could not fill up the entire community The agri revolution led to a exponential expansion because menwomen could not produce more calories per unit of land than in the past HOWEVER it took many thousands of years for foragers to add farming and herding to the traditions before they eventually ONLY depended on farming Plus this did not liberate humans from natural diasters there were still droughts and floods Once they learned to domesticate plants and animals they began to settle throughout Swest Asia in attractive locations such as valleys of Taurus Mountains in Upper Mesopotamia present day Iraq Anatolian plateau modernday Turkey hillisides of presentday northern Israel Plant domestication probably started when people noticed that certain edible plants retained their nutritious grains longer than others so they collected these seeds and scattered them These crops began to get bigger Started in southern Levant spread into swest Asia Dogs first animal to be domesticated Dogs had herding instincts wild sheepgoats were next Took place in Zagros Mountains hunters probably took the babies home first fed them reproduced Later they took the animals out to grazing 5500 BCE Pastoralism Transhumance movement over short distances higher lands in summer valleys in winter Emergence of Agriculture Swest Asia control of rivers was decisive Bounded by Mediterranean Sea and Zagros Mountains Goats sheeps pigs cattle camels and horses meat milk skins and transportation horses were not domesticated 9000BCE domesticate wild ancestors of barley and wheat Took a while but around the end of the ninth millennium people could select and store seeds Southern part of China in east Asia waterrice was crucial Giant deer became extinct Hunters in the south began to make tools Japan Earthware pottery Yellow River deposited fertile soil and the Yangzi River fed a land of streams and lakes Rice cultivation Yangzi river 6500 BCE millet Yellow River5500 BCE Rice Southern China MilletWheat drier North China from Swest Asia Western Europe new cultivators borrowed from Swest Asia Technology borrowed by neighbors Swest Asia From Aegan and Greece settled agriculture and domesticated animals Domestication moved south into northern part Mediterranean sea Another path move northern into present day Germany Wheat barley plants like olive later Long houses Americas disadvantage of offering few animals that human could usefully domesticate Followed bison Later ties were cut off because land bridge melted Still more of a hunting and gathering society Pottery irrigration Maize dietary staples Did not eat the animals unlike AfroEurasians and did not domesticate animals that protect villages Llamas were used for clothing More scattered environments Africa Sahelian farmers carried skills south to West Africa and east to the Ethiopian highlands The agricultural revolution was 2 mil earlier Mountainous areas and foothills villages and towns dveloped Teeming with animals and lush with vegetation Sorghum cereal grass principal food crop Fourteen circulra houses faced each other to form a main thoroughfarestreet Revolutions in Social Organizations Villages began to collaborate to clear fields plant crops and celebrate rituals Sang danced and sacrificed nature Spirit world for fertility rain harvests Became craftworkers making pottery baskets textiles tools Farmers Pastoralists Circular pits with stones piled on top to form walls cover that rested on poles Some members prepared food others protected Securing food was very important Circular houses moved to rectangular ones divided and separated spaces 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