Mind, Brain, and Behavior
Mind, Brain, and Behavior PSY 252
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Geovany Crona on Tuesday September 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 252 at Colorado State University taught by Christopher Rowland in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see /class/210269/psy-252-colorado-state-university in Psychlogy at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 09/22/15
I Neural Communication a Neuron nerve cells 100 billion connects with 10100 thousand b Glial cells support myelin wasteclearing i More glial than neuron and ratio of glial to neuron dictates biological complexity ii Resting potential 70 MV inside axon 99 Myelin Sheath fatty tissue encasing axon Node of Ranvier space between myelin sheath gt creates high sodium levels i Ion pumps located in nodes e Action potentials limited in how fast things can go Refractory period 12 milliseconds i1 All or None transmission iii Action potential comes down signals to vesicles to make way to edge of neuron 1 They then fuse w plasma membrane Neurotransmitter released to synaptic cleft Hook up to receivers 59 Neurotransmitters determine speed of response bc depends on of synaptic gaps f Neurotransmitters NT binds to receptor i Ion channels open iii EPSP excitatory postsynaptic potential 1 Dopamine ions into cell iv IPSP inhibitory postsynaptic potential 1 Gabba ions into cell ions out of cell a Potential message b Opens another ion channel c If it meets a threshold i Fire another AP v Adding of EPSPs and IPSPs summation 1 Temporal summation must be close in time 2 Spatial summation must be close in area a Resting 70 11 Sensation and Perception a Sensation intake of raw info into brain low level b Perception organization and interpretation of sensory input high level i Stimulus energy gt sensory receptors gt neural impulses gt brain ii quot 9 pm pt i 9 c Direct Realism aka naive realism 39 l to 1 relationship between physical and mental words FALSE ii After image formed after focusing on image makes you see weirdly colored pic Physically diff things must be perceived as different FALSE 1 Metamerism matching of apparent color given diff physical ii39 characteristics iv Physically identical things must be perceived as identical FALSE 1 Chromatic induction in a given context d We perceive the world indirectly i Filtered through sensory systems and info is tweaked e Bottomup processing i Processing based on environmental stimuli 1 To build up from lower level stim to make object not just raw characteristics f Topdown processing i Processing based on existing knowledge expectations ect ii Needs context III Vision a Eyes primary purpose i Direct light to form image on back of eye ii Transform physical energy to neural energy gt transduction Fquot Eye function i Lens was developed over hundreds of generations ii In time lens redirected more light to retina c Eye spot i Primitive ii Crude sensation of light d Pinhole eyes possibly evolved from lightspot i Adjustable aperture Lensed eyes i Better refraction D ii Better image formation iii Crystalline lens 1 Accommodation adjustable focus IV The human eye a Cornea transparent outer layer b Pupil regulates amt of light entering eye i Expand when see something we like or catches our eyes ii Expand when exposed to stimuli that were previously seen c Retina 1 of More sensitive LWS MWS SWS cones types 1 Trichromacy any light can be matched by adjusting 3 primary colors RGB This is the trichromatic color theory 9 Can tell if color blind by presenting 2 ambiguous colors and seeing if can distinguish between the 2 a Some females have 4 types of cones F F ovea part of retina used to see ne details i Has no rods D Photoreceptor density distribution i In low lightto see faint object 1 Must look 1500 to the side to make it out the best bc fovea can t pick it up BUT retina can f Blind soft bundle of axons I don t know what this word was supposed to be I apologize near optic nerves no room for photoreceptors i Our brains are good lling in blanks ii Eyes are constantly moving even when still still moving slightly called saccades g Focus i Most focusing power comes from CORNEA 23 optical focusing power Body Senses Tactile Perception 1 Why important a Used for communication body language development i Tactile deprivation leads to negative consequences later in life 1 Increases aggression low body weight etc 2 Dr Harlow and his monkeys ii Everyday activities 1 Helps us recognize objects a Two second average 2 Warning system temp and pain 3 Feedback how much pressure to open door 4 Reading braille b Proprioception sense of own body s position i Introceptive sense internal to you ii Ian Waterman loss ofproprioception 11 Bits and Pieces a The skin is largest organ b EXteroceptive sense c Types of receptors i 4 mechanoreceptors in order of depth 1 Meissner corpuscles found in lipsgenitaliaeyelidspalm a Specialization light touchfine details b Fast adapting 2 Merkel disk between epidermis and dermis highly concentrated 410 receptors a Specialization low frequency vibrations b Slow adapting gtstimulus must be present 3 Ruffini endings deeper in dermis high level of neural convergence improves sensitivity a Specialization lateral skin stretching b Slow adapting 4 Pacinian Corpuscles deepest in dermis poor spatial resolution a Specialization high frequency vibrations b Fast adapting ii Thermoreceptors spread throughout body near skin 1 Can code changes in relative and absolute temperature a Fastest between 15300and 36 C i When between 15300C cold thermoreceptors increase firing ii 360 C warm thermoreceptors increase firing iii Nocioreceptors anywhere pain can be felt none in brain 1 Types a Thermal protects against bumingfreezing i Kick in once temp goes outside 15400 C b Mechanical excess pressurerespond to cuts in skin i Respond to excess pressure hitting hand in door and tearing of skin c Chemical respond to spices i Reacts to chems that could heart you like capsasienum peppers Sleeping silent respond only once injury has occurred 3 1 2 Location anywhere pain can be felt a Cornea has one of highest concentrations of nocioreceptors 3 Nerve endings a ANerve endings sharp pain i Faster b CNerve endings dull pain i Slower 4 Fun fact anesthesia works because it stops nocioreceptors from ring d Tactile Activity 2point threshold i Minimum distance between 2 points required to feel 2 points of pressure versus 1 point ii Low threshold high acuity 1 Small receptive eld e Somatosensory Cortex i Touch center of cortex ii Parietal lobe map of whole body iii Phantom Limb Syndrome 1 Phantom limbs hurt a Axons which used to reach end of limb end still re b Mirror therapy i Put mirror against existing limb and see how phantom limb would move iv Haptic Tech touch system that interfaces a machine w human 1 Video games w rumble pack Chemical Senses 1 Chemical Senses a Type of stimulus determines sense type i Vision gt light ii Hearing gt vibration iii Touch gt pressure 1 All energy 2 Smell and taste stimuli come from matter chemicals b Function gatekeeping between our inner body and environment i Brings in nutrients keeps out toxins ii Super tasters taste things at extreme level so some foods are really bitter and gross to them 1 But some food is still bitter and good for you iii Proximity to l Olfaction smell distance 2 Gustation taste closetouching you II Olfaction a Stimuli odorant i Can be picked up by olfactic system look like others but different ii Olfactory Receptor Neuron ORN l Transduce smell 2 Location olfactory mucus a Amount 40 million b Types 5001000 c Number of detectable odors 10000 i Uses combos of types to interpret smell iii Olfactory bulb l Glomeruli globes that house axons which contribute to transmission a ORN gt mital cell synapses 2 Neutrogenesis 3 a When ORN die off new neurons are produced and replace ORN 4 Links to piniform cortex amygdala and hippocampus iV Smell and Memory 1 Proust Effect a Proust writer who said a ViVid memory was triggered by scent i autobiographical memory 1 Sense of smell can more easily enhance recall of autobiographical memory bc scent has straight shot to hippocampus ii Studies found that Visual cues led to teenage memories smell cues to childhood memories b Alzheimer s use scent to try to determine if one will develop Alzheimer s i An individual is asked to distinguish between smells 1 They do poorly wout realizing they are doing poorly gt increased chance for Alzheimer s 2 Anosmia a Loss of odor perception i Can be speci c but generally applies to everything b Causes i Congenital infection nerve damage c Won t be able to taste food as much Conditioned Taste Aversion a Discovered by John Garcia i Radioactivity W rats 1 US unconditioned stimulus W 4 Primary evolutionary function of smell has to do with regulating nutrition III Auditory Perception a Sound mechanical disturbance from state of equilibrium that propagates through an elastic medium i Cannot ravel Wout material medium 1 No sound in vacuum 2 Sound is vibration that causes disturbance in medium and travels at some speed a Air 343 ms b Water 1500 ms c Solid 5930 ms ii Physical dimensions 1 Amplitude mag of displacement of sound pressure wave measured in decibels 2 Periodcycle time for one cycle to occur 3 Frequency of cycles per unit time a Cycles per second Hertz iii Pure tone rare innature sound W energy single frequency iv Complex tone sound with energy multiple frequencies b Psychological def of sound sensation perceived by the sense of hearing i Audible human range 202000 Hz ii Max sensitivity 30004000 Hz human voice 1 We don t sense everything iii Loudness related to intensity amplitude iv Pitch related to frequency v Timbre related to complexity of sound 1 2 sounds identical in loudnesspitch but perceptively do not match in timbre a Spectra richness of sound b Envelope dynamics of sound c Physiology of Audition i Outer ear Pinnae and ear canal amplify sound 1 Pinnae collects sounds amplifies by 10 dB 2 Sound waves tunneled by pinnae into ear canal a Canal protects ear drum ii Middle ear transforms sound waves into mechanical vibrations 1 Sounds hit Tympanic Membrane ear drum and displace the ossicles a The ossicles i Transform sound waves into vibrations ii Amplify sounds iii Transmit sounds from air to inner ear iv Consists of the Malleus Incus and Stapes iii Inner ear cochlea location of auditory transduction 1 Changes it to neural energy 2 Cochlea a Filled w liquid b When set in motion stimulates hair cells which transduce mech energy to neural energy 0 Tonotopic tuning of cochlea diff areas in cochlea encode diff frequencies i High frequencies maximally sensitive near base ii Low frequencies maximally sensitive near apexend 1 low frequencies travel further d Sound in 3D world i Distance closefar ii Elevation updown iii Azimuth leftright l Interaural Time Difference ITD difference in time of a1rival of sound to ears 2 Intraoral Level Difference ILD difference in levelintensity upon arrival of sound to 2 ears a If someone is directly to the left or right longest time diff occurs iv Auditory cue to elevation 1 Form and shape of pinnae helps to localize sound source v Auditory cues to distance 1 Relative intensity of sound how loud a train sounds from 3 versus 30 feet away 2 Frequency atmosphere absorbs high frequencies far away sounds are lower in frequency 3 Motion parallax when allowed to move can triangulate distance or recognize changes
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