Perspectives in Global Health
Perspectives in Global Health PSY 517
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This 18 page Class Notes was uploaded by Geovany Crona on Tuesday September 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 517 at Colorado State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see /class/210270/psy-517-colorado-state-university in Psychlogy at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 09/22/15
Global healthPerspectives on promoting good health Lorann Stallones MPH PhD Prerequisites for health Freedom from fear of war Equal opportunity for all Satisfaction of basic needs Food sufficient quantity and quality Education Clean water and sanitation Decent housing Secure work and a useful social role Political will and public support Safe Environment Control physical chemical and biological hazards Safe storage of food and refrigeration Housing quality Reduce habitat for vector borne diseases eg standing water Contamination of air water soil air pollution sewage toxic chemicals Enhance Immunity Immunizations against common childhood diseases Diphtheria Tetanus Pertussis whooping cough Poliomyelitis Measles Mumps Rubella Sensible behavior Increased emphasis on healthful behaviors Building modifying cities to encourage physical activity World Health Organization quotHealthy Citiesquot movement Adhering to healthy diets Diseases and conditions related to lifestyle include Diseases related with tobacco use hear disease cancer other respiratory diseases Traffic crashes and violence related to alcohol and drug use Dental caries related to drug use Nutrition Overnutrition is associated with diabetes obesity coronary heart disease Food shortages Deficiency diseases Vitamin A deficiency causes blindness iodine deficiency causes mental retardation Nutritional deficiencies reduces resistance to infections and infection increases metabolic demand for nutrients Well born children Every child a wanted child Population control an important issue All cultures have exercised control over numbers using methods ranging from abstinence abortion infanticide condoms contraceptive pills and other modern methods to reduce unintended pregnancies Every mother fit and healthy Good prenatal care and maternal nutrition Reducing fetal exposure to toxic substances Genetic counseling to reduce lethal inherited conditions Prudent health care Attempts to protect health have sometimes backfired Women given estrogens to prevent miscarriages gave rise to an epidemic of vaginal cancers in their daughters Use of oxygen in premature infants resulted in retrolental fibroplasia blindess Use of human growth hormone HGH resulted in CreutzfeldJacob Disease due to contaminated HGH Health and disease indicators Lorann Stallones MPH PhD Health information system Combination of vital and health statistics Health statistics Include a wide range of information illnesses hospitalizations special surveys reportable diseases Vital statistics Deaths death certificates Births birth certificates Marriages divorces court or church records Used to derive insights about health needs health resources costs use of health care services and outcomes of use by a specified population Health indicators 0 Preferred indicators are expressed as rates Number of events eg deaths in a specified period population at risk of experiencing the event during that period X a constant 10quot Population at risk39 is usually derived from a census of the population and counted by age by race and by gender Commonly used rates Infant mortality of deaths in a year among live born infants under 1 year of age of live births in the same year X 1000 Perinatal mortality Annual number of fetal deaths 28 weeks or more gestation plus deaths in first week of life Number of fetal deaths plus live births in the same year X 1000 Commonly used ratesratios Death rates Cause specific death rates Attack rates Case fatality ratios Proportionate mortality ratio proportion of deaths in a population from a specific cause of death divided by the total number of deaths X 100 Characteristics which influence death and disease rates Age structure of the population Sex structure of the population A population pyramid is used to describe the age sex structure of a given population Population pyramid Sri Lanka 2000 Sri Lanka 2888 Population 2005 11 10 21 millions Life expectancy 2004 68 75 71 years Under 5 2004 14 mortality per 1000 live births Adult mortality 2004 per 1000 Maternal 2004 mortality per 100000 live births Under 5 mortality rates per 100000 live births for highest and lowest quintiles Sri Lanka Wealthassets Lowest Highest Ratio quintiles Sex Females 35 Urbanrural Urban 40 Mothers education Higher quintiles To p te n ca u sets Off u I All causes lschemic heart disease Cerebrovascular disease Hypertensive heart disease Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Diabetes Selfeinflicted injuries Lower respiratory infections Cirrhosis of the liver Nephritis and nephrosis Asthma death all ages Sri J 145 100 15 11 13 9 9 7 9 7 54 5 4 5 4 5 4 4 3 2 2
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