Chapter 1 in Clinical Anatomy and Physiology for Veterinary Technicians
Chapter 1 in Clinical Anatomy and Physiology for Veterinary Technicians 73349
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kristi Leslie on Sunday September 14, 2014. The Class Notes belongs to 73349 at University of Massachusetts taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 155 views. For similar materials see Physiology and Anatomy of Domesticated Animals in Science at University of Massachusetts.
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Date Created: 09/14/14
AnSci 220 Cells Central Dogma of Cell Biology DNA gttranscription gt pre mRNA gt splicing gt mRNA gt translation gt Rough ER gt Smooth ER gt Golgi Apparatus Cytoplasmic membrane aka plasma lemma lipid bilayergt waterproof barrier between the extracellular amp intracellular compartment cellcell and cellmatrix moleculesgt that s how the cells are able to form organs or move transport molecules protein able to transport substances from one compartment to the next gtcapable of importing nutrients inside the cell and forming concentration gradients which are crucial for muscle contraction and neuron activity nucleus gt store genetic information ER aka endoplasmic reticulum Two main functions 1 synthesis of extracellular or transmembranes proteins Ex transport proteins 2 Store of Calcium in the cell Its release from the ER trigger very important processes like muscle contraction Cytosol contain cytoskeletal proteins necessary to give the shape of the cell Ex ActinMyosin are proteins involved in muscle contraction Mitochondria site of production of ATP DNA contains genes don t do anything just the blue print for the cells Transcription copying of the DNA Splicing removing pieces you don t need exons and introns Translationwhen mRNA is translated to a protein Ribosomes where mRNA is translated Ciium help move debris across the cell shape of a cell tells you a lot about its function only things that don t use exocytosis or endocytosis are hormones Tissues Two Main Types of Tissues epithelial gt composed of epithelial cells main function is to secrete and or protect typically line many organs can provide any or all of the following functions depending on the organs protection gt secretion gt absorption gt transportation gt receptor function connective tissue gt composed of fibroblastic cells various functions and shapes depending on the organ no clear structure Types of Epithelial Tissue lShape of the epithelial cells squamous gt cells appear at cubical gt cells appear square columnar gt cell appear rectangular 2Number of layers simple 1 layer strati ed 2 layers psuedostrati ed 1 to 2 cell Simple Epithelia involved in secretion absorption Simple Squamous found in alveoli in the lungs blood and lymph capillaries Simple Cuboidal found in ovaries kidney tubules salivary glands Simple Columnar found in lining of the digestive tract Strati ed Epithelia Stratzfed Columnar found in vasdefrens male urethra Stratzfed Cuboidal found in mammary glands sweat glands pancreas Stratzfed Squamous nonkeratinized found in oral cavity throat vagina keratinized squamous found in outer layer of skin epidermis Pseudostratzfed Columnarz found in lining of the respiratory tract 2 or more layers of nucleus Not well organized Transz39tz390naZ found in lining of bladder subjects to stretching forces Rounder cells on top is the key to identification Glandular Epithelia an epithelium that secretes compounds exmucus not all epithelia secrete things Methods of Secretion 1 Exocrine secrete outside the body exskin lumen of the GI tract anything that has contact with the outside world Type of Secretion 1 Serous Secretion watery produce poorly glycosylated protein 2 Mucus Secretion viscous and slimy Method of Secretions at the Cellular Level lMer0crz39ne exocytose of the vesicles containing the product 2 Apocrine the cell shed part of its cytoplasm which breaks down to release its content 3 Holocrine the cell disintegrates to release its content Secretion VsExcretion Secretion production and release of a useful substance by a gland or a cell Excretion discharge of waste matter Connective Tissue most abundant type of tissue composed of 3 distinct components gt extracellular ber collagen ground substance carbs anything but proteins cells that are usually mesenchymal in appearance The ratio of all 3 direct the stiffness and texture of the tissue gt tendon high fiber low GS exible gt bones high fiber high GS hard gt blood lowno fiber lowno GS gt liquid Typical Connective Tissue Loose CT gt usually low in GS and mediumlow in fiber areolar tissue packing material for organs moderate elasticity tear down easily primary GS is hyaluronic acid adipose tissue brown fat and white fat reticular tissue lymph node spleen and bone marrow Dense CT contain high ber and low to medium GS dense regular parallel collagen little GS few blood vessels gt anything that requires high tensile strength in one direction exztendons ligaments dense irregular bundles of collagen interwoven randomly gt anything that requires medium tensile strength in one multiple directionex dermis covering of organs elastic tissue contains elastin some types of ligaments require more elasticity than normal exzneck Specialized CT cartilage gt hyaline elastic fibrocartilage bones gt compact cancellous The Membranes membranes are composed of multicellular aka stratified epithelial sheet anchored to an underlying connective tissue typically line body cavities separate organs and cover surfaces 4 types mueosae gt lines organs with connection to the outside made of stratified squamous or simple columnar on a bed of loose CT called lamina propria secrete large quantities of lubricating mucus secretion usually preformed by globelet cells usually made of water electrolytes and mucin Its function is to lubricate and trap unwanted particles serosae gt lines body cavity walls the organs one continuous sheet folded over the sheet in contact with the cavity wall is called the parietal layer and the sheet in contact with the organ is called the visceral layer made of simple squamous epithelium on a bed of loose CT secretion is very watery can have different names depending on location pleural thorax peritoneal abdomen and pericardial heart prevents friction between organs common problems with the serosae effusion gt excessive amounts of uid in the serosae adhesion gt abnormal connections between parietal and visceral layers due to a lack of exudate between them mesenteries secure the organs to the body wall and form a framework for the passage of blood vessels and nerves cutaneous aka skin keratinized strati ed squamous epithelium connective tissue part is the dermis and is irregular dense rich in collagenous reticular and elastic f1bermeaning all 3 types gt strong and elastic synovial these are found exclusively in the joints they have no epithelium connective tissue manufacture the synovial liquid that participate in the shock absorption properties of these joints C1assify tissues by their shape and the number of layers