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Fundamentals of Ecology (GT

by: Berneice Emard

Fundamentals of Ecology (GT LAND 220

Berneice Emard
GPA 3.71


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Class Notes
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This 33 page Class Notes was uploaded by Berneice Emard on Tuesday September 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to LAND 220 at Colorado State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 74 views. For similar materials see /class/210310/land-220-colorado-state-university in Landscape Architecture at Colorado State University.

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Date Created: 09/22/15
Climate LAND 220 What is Climate Pertains to average weather over an extended period of time in a speci c region or on a larger scale Climate can correspond to averages over a season year or century and over a county state country or the globe o Typical Weather Conditions 39 Taken over a period of time What is Weather Pertains to occurrences from hour to hour or da to da in a speci c location Recorded at Certain Moments Wind Temperature Precipitation Climate is a key mechanism by which ecosystems interact with the total Earth System Earth system science 7 Ecosystem ecology l Community ecology Population ecology v l Physiological ecology Context Climatology Hydrology Soil science Geochemistry Mechanism Fig 12 Major goals in this lecture Understand how the climate system works Enable you to predict the climate any place on Earth Note I am not saying anything about predicting the weather Climate of any region and ocean currents is predictable from topography wind Alaska s July temperature IIIITIIIIMLJIIIIIIIII i Immiiilllnmr Wien s Law The temperature of a body determines wavelengths of energy emitted Solar radiation has high energy shortwave that readily penetrates the atmosphere Earth emits lowenergy longwave radiation that is absorbed by the atmosphere I O a 5 U 5 E E The 53g 6 g r r 04 06 06 07 5 10 15 20 Wavelength micrometers n w u Shortwave radiation lF Raga 9 1999 Wadsworth Publishing CompanyilTF O 5 10 15 Wavelength pm 20 C 9 A 4 6 9 E 8 L E c gt E 9 s g 0 Lu E L E O U Terrestrial outgoing radiation l l l l l o 5 1o 15 20 25 Visible region 1 I 39 CH4 0 1 N20 30 1 E 02 and 03 80 01 8 lt2 1 Atmosphere 0 25 Space Incoming outgoin adiation solar radiation Ba Ira nce Energy in39xenergy out Half of solar radiation reaches E arth Emission r byclog The atmosphere Is m 0 7 mostly transparent to shortane but absorbs Absorption H ammoquot onve lVe Iongwave radiation 77 g 2323 mmquot QreenhOuse effect The atmosphere is heated from the bottom by longwave radiation and convection Fig 229 Thermal structure of the 0 atmosphere The troposphere is heated from the bottom Therefore it is warmest near the surface and gets colder with increasing elevation The stratosphere is heated from the top by absorption of UV by 03 good ozone 20 100 Thermosphere 90 V Mesopause ii Height km 0 O V Strat 10 Mt Everest Tro 03 he I p39 pl Fig 2 90 60 30 0 Temperature C Seasonal variations The seasons are caused by an alteration of the Earth39s tilt with respect to the Sun In northern hemisphere summer the tilt of the Earth anwles the Arctic towards the Sun while in winter the Antarctic is angled awa from the Sun Seasonal variation in climate results from tilt in Earth s axis Changes sun angle day length and thus surface heating Zone of most intense radiation ITCZ is N of equator in July S of equator in Jan September JanuaryC lb Uneven heating of Earth s surface causes atmospheric circulation Greater heating at equator than poles 1 Sun s rays hit more directly more E per area 2 Less atmosphere to penetrate Atmosphere Therefore 1 Net gain of energy at equator 2 Net loss of energy at poles Temperate region Tropical region High latitude June 22 Dec 22 June 22 June 22 Dec 2392 5 j E E a 3 3 8 g A as Hour Hour Hour Huur N m E E 3 I g a c 9 9 E i u u E E E E o c 3 m J mJ J Month hi Month Month mm a zaps Passer Edualfnm Ln Wm 3mm Cumming Earth s circulation Fig 26 Air rises at equator and subsides at poles vertical circulation Cold subsidmg a V Warm nsm air H09 C 9 Once aloft cooling and 63 5 J J 4 convergence make air dense high P and subsidence result Circulation cells explain we 8 NE tradewmdsubtroplCal hlgh Pres iiichziiii SEEdewinds xsubvoplcal preSSu rA Earth s rotation determines 9 wind direction 8 horizontal circulation Coriolis force weStemes Cold subsiding air tropical easterlies Q QQX Polar front temperate westerlles colt5 4 QEr b Warm rising air Cold subsnding air At 30 N amp 8 air descends more strongly over cold ocean than over land At 60 N amp 8 air descends over cold land high pressure and rises over warm ocean low pressure Pressure gradients create geographic variation in prevailing winds Latitude L 9 de 180 90 0 90 90 In summer at 60 N air descends over cold ocean high pressure and rises over warm land low pressure 1 Cool equatorward flow of air on W coast of continents 2 Warm poleward flow of air on E coasts of continents Creates planetary waves 90 July Fig 27 a U 3 x 4 90 Longitude Oceans are part of the climate system Ocean currents are similar to wind patterns 1 Driven by Coriolis forces 2 Drivgen by winds 0 90 a 33 a w g 4 29 Fig 29 f1 i V 7quot a 60 60 N Pacifc Drift 7 30 Kuroshio 30 C 0 622 V V fo aC e 0 o I Latitude I m 0 90 Longitude 180 Uneven heating of Earth s surface causes atmospheric and oceanic circulation 60 of heat transport is carried by atmosphere through storms that move along pressure gradients 40 is carried by ocean currents conveyor belt surface warm currents move poleward aeep cow currents move equatorwaru Atmosphere Driven by thermohaline circulation Deepwater formation occurs near Greenland and in Antarctic cold places Warm shallow current Cold salty deep current The Pacific Ocean strongly influences the climate system because it is the largest ocean basin Normal ocean current and wind direction in central Pacific is easterly N Paci Dri l CR7 vimv wr 30 K v 4 ltgt a 5 West Wind Dri O o La tude 90 Longitude Landform effects on climate 39 Landocean interactions Monsoons Landsea breezes Mountain effects Rain shadow Effects of aspect Air drainage inversion Wmm mg IW m I 39Sheridan 77 ts Park 5 Bigh rn 39 139 Campbell Edietan 39w39as39hakioquot J hnson39 I HutSprings 39 39 Weston gt 33 Niobrara I quotmeam 1 matmm C amersef w 39 Sublo e r 5 39Lincolnrr 39 FEE305514 N r E r 7 39Swedtgwater carbon 7 39 Albany Laramui mimmng gwmmgw Wyoming Annual Precipitation Average from 19611990 E 143 292 293372 373479 E479919 Sew771 772944 9451199 7 11911495 1493 1979 millimeters Vegetation effects on climate Albedo reflectivity is determined by lightnessdarkness snow ice high vegetation intermediate water low Moisture content of surface determines latent vs sensible heat loss Vegetation structure affects roughness which determines turbulence in Ianetar boundar a er Fig 211 O I 00 00 A 24 C Surface temperature C Precipitation mm d391 O Evapotranspiration mm d391 I 0 Forest Pasture Forest Pasture Forest Pasture Time thousands of years ago Cl39mate effects on vegetation 4o Pollen abundance of total tree pollen Drier cooler climate Moister climate Drier climate Warming trend Earth s climate is now warmer than at any time in the last 1000 years 1 Increased solar input small warming effect 2 Increased sulfate aerosols reflects radiation small cooling effect 3 Increased greenhouse gas concentrations large warming effect 4 Landcover change creates a darker surface large warming effect 10 Temperature anomaly C 10 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 IIU H Changes in orbital parameters cause longterm variations in solar input to Earth Milankovitch cycles Eccentricity of orbit g 8 g P U Of gm ET FBCeSSIon solstices g E m Tilt 240 Tilt of axis g 235 g 230 225 50 o 250 200 150 100 Time thousands of years ago C imate Net Primary Productivity nu Imam nmwmmmmmm 2 11 439 t 7 9 Atlas of the Bigsphere Center far Sustainability and th Glnbal Erwimmriem University ml Wisconsin Madison Average Annual Temperature I F 39 9 gm i N d a w quot 1 fempatature In Degrees Gases HI 15 0 iii 30 Atlas of the Biosphere enter four Swlainah illuy and Ihlquot Abba Emlmrmem University 0 Wiscumirn nMadison Maui munum In human I n Dau men from 1700 Mil E lul Wu 9 alt Sealer far Snakebitin and the Glaha ltmium in rmity 0 marsh Net Primary Productivity um may Imam m4 din2mm I 392 J quot uh M 5 Atlas nf the Buosphere quot MK I all Mi Center far Sustainability and m ambit Emma Unive ity oi Wumin Madison Climate gives rise to predictable types of ecosystems or biomes Fig 221 Air temperature 0C 15 U1 0 O U1 20 25 30 Boreal forest umssei J0 p 9 Tropical 3 wet forest 3 l 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 Precipitation cm yr39 Temperature Precipitation Ice Temperate grassland Desert and arid shrublands Tundra Temperate forest Tropical snd subtropical forests Sam M MED BorealforeSl Mediterranean shrubland Savanna Jan Jui Dec Jan Jui De D Jan Jui


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