Introduction to Electronics
Introduction to Electronics PH 245
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Giovanna Yost on Tuesday September 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PH 245 at Colorado State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see /class/210315/ph-245-colorado-state-university in Physics 2 at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 09/22/15
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Kg QJlo cL5LL 60570 3970 Cosg T kus rarec M Fora 1H Lou7 pm GHJE S 1 4 3 47Lu Vv mLCI 2 quotP r 5 rms WXJ ms U We cw A I so srwlgty 39r N c39 rewgvua 126ka 4amp314 P A ss Fwdell TWE H lLrH PMS arm wa FILTest L V7 gmquot HM T IZC L R FUWMW O A AND we OM Dali Tu e w DID Maui MGNwrwbs NND Pkwy Ar vi ov W131 VT mew H olt HxGH Wquot l W 59 PathQu WE P665 PLEA k 9n View 011 TE mr 392 H 6H JP Figure l Plots of quotumquot for the lowpass lter red solid line and highpass lterblue dashed quotIN 2 Lev K Figure 2 Plots ofthe phase angle 9 for the lowpass lter red solid line and highpass llerblue dashed Plotted in degrees Colorado Gardener Certificate Training Colorado Master Gardenersm Program Colorado State University Extension University Extension GardenNoz es 233 Calculating Fertilizer Application Rates Outline Steps to calculating fertilizer application rates page 1 Fertilizer application rate table page 3 Steps to Calculating Fertilizer Application Rate Example is for a 40 foot by 100 foot lawn area using a 20100 fertilizer 1 Calculating size of area to be fertilized ft long X 7 ft Wide square feet Example feet X m feet 4000 square feet 2 Calculating fertilizer application rate 1b fertilizer sq ft 7 nutrient in fertilizer Example 1 lb nutrient per 1000 sq ft g lbs fertilizer 1000 sq ft Q nutrient in fertilizer 2331 3 F quot pounds offertilizer to applv lawn or garden application pound of fertilizer area X rate per garden or lawn sq ft 7 pounds fertilizer i pounds fertilizer X garden or lawn sq ft garden or lawn Examgle 4000 sq ft pounds fertilizer Q pounds fertilizer X 2332 Fertilizer Application Rate Table Since soil test recommendations for any given soil do not exactly match a fertilizer select a fertilizer that gives comparative amounts of N P and K as recommended by the soil test In fertilizer application it is most important to match the N requirement and compromise some for the P and K The amount of fertilizer to apply that will give the recommended amount of nitrogen can be obtained from the following table Amount of Fertilizer to Apply Based on Actual Nitrogen Recommendations Nitrogen Rate 01 lb N 100 sq ft 02 lb N 100 sq ft 1 lb N 1000 sq ft lbs fertilizer to lbs fertilizer to lbs fertilizer to Fertilizer Grade applv per 100 sq ft applv per 100 sq ft applv per 1000 sq ft 4500 urea 02 04 22 3733 03 05 27 3666 03 06 28 3300 03 06 30 3244 32310 03 06 31 3044 30010 03 07 33 2833 2846 04 07 36 2777 2733 04 07 37 2555 25312 04 08 40 24816 24015 04 08 42 2244 2263 05 09 45 21 00 21 31 2 05 10 48 202020 204 8 05 1 0 50 191919 191112 05 10 53 18612 1836 06 11 56 1688 164 8 06 13 63 151515 1555 07 13 67 1339 132512 08 15 77 121212 1244 08 17 83 101010 102010 10 20 100 1055 101020 10 20 100 61212 620 17 33 167 51010 5105 20 40 200 Example Ifthe N nitrogen recommendation is for 01 lb N100 sq ft and the fertilizer grade selected has a ratio of18 612 column 1 apply 06 lb ofthis fertilizer per 100 sq ft Note 2 cups 1 pint of dry fertilizer weighs about 1 pound 2333 Additional Information CMG GardenNotes on Soils Fertilizers and Soil Amendments 211 Introduction to Soils 231 Plant Nutrition 212 The Living Soil 232 Understanding Fertilizers 213 Managing Soil Tilth 233 Calculating Fertilizer Rates 214 Estimating Soil Texture 234 Organic Fertilizers 215 Soil Compaction 241 Soil Amendments 218 Earthworrns 242 Using Manure 219 Soil Drainage 243 Using Compost 221 Soil Test 244 Cover Crops and Green Manure Crops 222 Soil pH 245 Mulching with Wood Bark Chips Grass 223 Iron Chlorosis Clippings and Rock 224 Saline Soils 251 Asking Effective Questions About Soils Authors David Whiting Adrian Card and Carl Wilson Colorado State University Extension 00000 Colorado Master Gardener GardenNotes are available onIine at wwwcmgcoostateedu Colorado Master Gardener training is made possible in part by a grant from the Colorado Garden Show Inc Colorado State University US Department of Agriculture and Colorado counties cooperating Extension programs are available to all without discrimination No endorsement of products mentioned is intended nor is criticism implied of products not mentioned Colorado 0 Copyright 20022006 Colorado State University Extension All Rights Reserved CMG Master GardenNotes may be reproduced without change or additions for nonprofit educational use Garden Revised December 2006 ExtenSIOIl A 2334 Colorado Gardener Certificate Training Colorado State University Extension Colorado Master Gardenersm Program University Extension Garden Notes 2 1 4 Estimating Soil Texture Sandy Loamy or Cayey Outline Sand silt and clay page 1 Soil texture triangle page 2 Identifying soil texture by measurement page 3 Identifying soil texture by feel page 4 Note For additional information on managing soils refer to CMG GardenNotes 213 Managing Soil Tilth Sand Silt and Clay Texture refers to the size of the particles that make up the soil The terms sand silt and clay refer to relative sizes of the soil particles Sand being the larger size of particles feels gritty Silt being moderate in size has a smooth or oury texture Clay being the smaller size of particles feels sticky Table 1 and Figure 1 Table 1 The Size of Sand Silt and Clay Name particle diameter Clay below 0002 millimeters Silt 0002 to 005 millimeters Very fine sand 005 to 010 millimeters Fine sand 010 to 025 millimeters Medium sand 025 to 05 millimeters Coarse sand 05 to 10 millimeters Very coarse sand 10 to 20 millimeters Gravel 20 to 750 millimeters Rock greater than 750 millimters 2quot 2141 FINE SAN VERY FINE SAN CLAY SILT Note Largest circle has about same actual diameter as a pencil lead SAND l millimeter COARSE SAND Figure 1 Comparative size of sands silt and clay Soil Texture Triangle The soil texture triangle gives names associated With various combinations of sand silt and clay A coarsetextured or sandy soil is one comprised primarily of medium to coarse size sand particles A netextured or clayey soil is one dominated by tiny clay particles Due to the strong physical properties of clay a soil With only 20 clay particles behaves as sticky gummy clayey soil The term 0am refers to a soil With a combination of sand silt and clay sized particles For example a soil With 30 clay 50 sand and 20 silt is called a sandy clay loam Figure 2 100a o o 30 s39 x cuw LQA quot31W a o CLAY Lem 39 PERCENT SAND Identifying Soil Texture by Measurement 1 Spread soil on a newspaper to dry Remove all rocks trash roots etc Crush lumps and clods 2 Finely pulverize the soil 3 Fill a tall slenderjar like a quartjar 1 full of soil 4 Add water until thejar is 3A full 5 Add a teaspoon of powdered nonfoaming dishwasher detergent 6 Put on a tight tting lid and shake hard for 10 to 15 minutes This shaking breaks apart the soil aggregates and separates the soil into individual mineral particles 7 Set the jar where it will not be disturbed for 23 days 8 Soil particles will settle out according to size After 1 minute mark on the jar the depth of the sand 9 After 2 hours mark on the jar the depth of the silt 10 When the water clears mark on the jar the clay level This typically takes 1 to 3 days but with some soils it may take weeks 11 Measure the thickness of the sand silt and clay layers a Thickness of sand deposit b Thickness of silt deposit c Thickness of clay deposit d Thickness of total deposit 12 Calculate the percentage of sand silt and clay clay thickness 7 percent clay SOIL CHART total thickness silt thickness total thickness 7 percent silt sand thickness total thickness CLAY 7 percent sand SILT FINE SAND 3 Turn to the soil texture COARSE triangle SAND and look up the s01l texture class 2143 Identifying Texture by Feel Feel test 7 Rub some moist soil between ngers 0 Sand feels gritty o Silt feels smooth 0 Clays feel sticky Ball sgueeze test 7 Squeeze a moistened ball of soil in the hand 0 Coarse textures sand or loamy sands soils break with slight pressure 0 Medium texture sandy loams and silt loams stay together but change shape easily 0 Fine textured clayey or clayey loam soils resist breaking Ribbon test 7 Squeeze a moistened ball of soil out between thumb and ngers o Ribbons less than 1 o Feels gritty coarse texture sandy soil 0 Not gritty feeling medium texture soil high in silt o Ribbons 12 0 Feels gritty medium texture soil 0 Not gritty feeling ne texture soil 0 Ribbons greater than 2 ne texture clayey soil Note A soil with as little as 20 clay will behave as a clayey soil A soil needs 45 to over 60 medium to coarse sand to behave as a sandy soil In a soil with 20 clay and 80 sand the soil will behave as a clayey soil 214 4 Soil Texture by Feel Start Place soil in palm of hand Add water dropwise and knead the soil into a smooth and plastic consistency like moist putty Does the soil remain in a ball when squeezed Place ball of soil between thumb and fore nger gently pushing the soil between with the thumb squeezing it upward into a ribbon Form a ribbon of uniform thickness and width Allow ribbon to emerge and extend over the fore nger breaking from its own weight Does the soil form a ribbon No Yes Loamy Sand I What kind of ribbon does it form V K Forms a weak Forms a ribbon moisten a ribbon less 12 before pinch of soil in than 1 before breaking palm and rub breaklng with forefinger LOAM CLAY LOAM Does it feel Sand Sand Cla very gritty Yes Lolgm y Does it feel equally gritty Yes and smooth Does it feel very smooth Yes Si39ty C39ay Loam 2145 Additional Information CMG GardenNotes on Soils Fertilizers and Soil Amendments 211 Introduction to Soils 231 Plant Nutrition 212 The Living Soil 232 Understanding Fertilizers 213 Managing Soil Tilth 233 Calculating Fertilizer Rates 214 Estimating Soil Texture 234 Organic Fertilizers 215 Soil Compaction 241 Soil Amendments 218 Earthworrns 242 Using Manure 219 Soil Drainage 243 Using Compost 221 Soil Test 244 Cover Crops and Green Manure Crops 222 Soil pH 245 Mulching with Wood Bark Chips Grass 223 Iron Chlorosis Clippings and Rock 224 Saline Soils 251 Asking Effective Questions About Soils Authors David Whiting Adrian Card and Carl Wilson Colorado State University Extension and Jean Breeder PhD USDAARS retired 0 Colorado Master Gardener GardenNotes are available onIine at wwwcmgcoostateedu 0 Colorado Master Gardener training is made possible in part by a grant from the Colorado Garden Show Inc 0 Colorado State University US Department of Agriculture and Colorado counties cooperating 0 Extension programs are available to all without discrimination c llgggo o No endorsement of products mentioned is intended nor is criticism implied of products not Gardener mentioned 0 Copyright 20022008 Colorado State University Extension All Rights Reserved CMG EXtCl lSlOl l GardenNotes may be reproduced without change or additions for nonprofit educational use A Revised November 2008 2146
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