Appreciation of Philosophy (GT
Appreciation of Philosophy (GT PHIL 100
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Isai Ondricka on Tuesday September 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL 100 at Colorado State University taught by Padraig Gallagher in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see /class/210336/phil-100-colorado-state-university in PHIL-Philosophy at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 09/22/15
Reading assignment 1 p14 What is philosophy 0 Philosophy can be conceptualized as a Method or as a Subject Matter or as a type of intellectual Attitude Method often real world problems have to be solved While science and math attempt to solve them using empirical Qbsema aa Philosophy focuses more on using 39 to make and justify claims about the world EXAMPLEAbortion Science quotat what point in development does a fetus become a human 6 weeks when it has a heartbeat when its bornquot Philosophy quotHow is a fetus any different from a brain dead coma patientquot Subject Matter While philosophy can be used as a tool for analyzing scientific problems some things are purely philosophical more specifically There are unanswered questions that get deemed quotPhilosophical questionsquot due to their tendency to be unexplainable by faithscience or common sense Philosophical questions usually satisfy three criteria 1 They are of deep and lasting interest to Humans 2 They have answers but the answer hasnt been settled on 3 None or very little evidence pertaining to theese questions come from science faith or common sense All philosophical questions can be classified as versions of the Three Foundational Questions What Exists Does god exist Are numbers real What is the difference between a person and their physical body These questions of existence are dealt with by a branch of philosophy called Wig What do we know Can we be sure that gravity and evolution and relativity are true or are the simply the currently the dominant simplification of reality We all know that 224or do we is it possible we are wrong If there was a color or smell that we couldn39t perceive is it real Questions pertaining to the reality of scienti c claims are dealt with by a branch of philosophy called 39 What Should We Do If i work my whole life and make a million dollars should i donate some to the less fortunate If i save my self trouble by telling a lie but dont hurt anyone is that ok Is Fur elise any more or less valuable the Justin Bieber Questions about the moraltangible value of things are answered by a branch of philosophy called 1a1uethegry I Attitude Another way of conceptualizing Philosophy is as a state of mind To be quotPhilosophicalquot is to never stop questioning and furthermore to have and attitude of philosophy is to be unafraid to use your own reason and logic in life fileCConverterInput2b8hq7ym9dhtm4192013 94624 AM Reading assignment 2 A Brief Introduction To Arguments p511 Evaluating arguments Some terms to know o The Argument a sequence of statements intended to make a claim more plausible o The Conclusion the claim that is being defended by the argument 0 he Premises The statements that when added together are intended to make the Conclusion 90ASseem more true Often times previously made Conclusions can be used as Premises a mesure of how applicable a Premise is to the Conclusion Evaluating arguments 0 First thing to remember about evaluating arguments is that the truth of the Conclusion has NOTHING to do with the quality of the argument You can make very good arguments about things that are not true EXample Polar bears arent realI have never seen one my whole life polar bears are a lie you can also make terrible arguments about things that are true Example Chickens lay eggs This is beacuse all sentences that start with the letter quotCquot are true There are two ways to criticize an argument 0 Question the truth of the Premises 0 Question the correlation of the Premises to the Conclusion There are two types of arguments o Inductive an argument that says quotif ABand C are true then X is PROBABLYtruequot Inductive arguments are slightly less strong EXAMPLE Cats have tails every cat i have ever seen has had a tail therefore cats have tails But its possible that there is a cat somewhere that did not have a tail Inductive strength Inductive Arguments draw on logic to correlate a premise to a conclusion Typically they follow one of four formats Inductive Generalization quotX percent of F39s are G39s therefore X percent of all F39s are G39s nductive Analogy Object A and Object B are similar beacuse of the features FG and H B has feature X therefore A must have feature X X happens Theory AB and C are far less likely to be true then theory T therefore X Must an explanation of T 39 39 39 39 Suppose P is true if P were true then Q would also be true however P is absurd and cant be true there for Q is not true 0 Deductive an argument that says quotIf AB and C are true then X MUST be true Deductive arguments are the strongest arguments However deductive arguments are usually either Very strong or hopelessly weak EXAMPLE all men have a Y chromosome I am a man therefore i must have a Y chromosome Logical operators fileCConverterInputdnfd0u6yechtml4192013 94728 AM Reading assignment 2 A Brief Introduction To Arguments p511 Deductive arguments have their own quotformulasquot for arguments Just like math Think of the letters PQR as variables that could be any statment They all have crazy weird names that im sure We will get quizzed on Modus ponens quotIf P then Q P therefore Qquot Modusjgllens quotIf P then Q NotQ Therefore not Pquot Disjunctive Syllogism Either P or Q not P Therefore Q 39 39 39 if P then Q if Q then R therefore if P then R Constructive Dilemma either P or Q if P then R if Q then R therefore R o A Few Common Mistakes o In the last section of the chapter the author clears up a few misconceptions about arguments Begging the question what does it mean to quotbeg the questionquot it does not mean convincing someone to ask a speci c question it means while making an argument you assume your conclusion is true also known as quotCircular logicquot or quotpetito principiiquot EXAMPLE God exists beacuse A The bible says so BGod wrote the bible C God would never lie Ad Hominem To argue quotAd hominemquot is to attack the person giving the argument rather then attacking the argument it self EXAMPLE quotYou want to start an army well Im sure hitler would agree with ouquot the Straw Man The best tool of a lawyer the quotStraw manquot argument misrepresents the position of someone else so that it can be more easily criticized EXAMPLE quotProlife advocates want everyone to have an abortionquot fileCConverterInputdnfd0u6yechtml4192013 94728 AM HOW TO READ MY NOTES I post every single lecture note Chapter outline and outside of class research that I do If you are using my notes to study or to make up for a class you missed that39s awesome Im happy to share They are free obviously But If you feel compelled you can send me a message telling me you use my notes so I know someone relies on me This will help both of us I will be less likely to skip a day and you will continue to get daily notes and outlines Anyway here is an explanation of how I take notes a My notes are always in this bulletoutline form 0 A bullet that is further indented then the bullet above it means that it is directly related to the Bullet above it If it is indented again it means it is even more speci c then the one above that Often lectures include lists or chunks of information like this I Blah Blah Blah I Blah Blah blah More info about this A blah blah for example I live in Fort Collins 0 Fort Collins is in Colorado Colorado Is part of the United states The United States Has 50 states Was established in 1776 When it broke away from England Is a representative democracy The United states is in North America North america is in the North west Hemisphere The north west hemisphere is on planet earth Planent Earth Is a terrestrial planent It has a 365 day year It is part of the Solar system The The solar system is in the Milky way Galaxy The Milky way is in the Universe As you can see i started with Fort Collins and eventually I got all the way to the Universe I also added in a few facts along the way Lastly here is a key for some of the symbols i Use something i missed that was important quotQuotationsquot Something that is a name for a conceptThing ALL CAPS Something the Professor said twice or seems seems important Bold Underline Italics mean something different every time I use them to make notes less confusing StarsSomething i have reworded to understand better fileCConverterInputhh9ffzdxbxhtml4192013 94730 AM January 25 2013What is Philosophy Logic Deductive reasoning What is Philosophy 0 etymology Greek root PhiloLoving Sophia Wisdom o By the book Method Complementing the sciences Subject matter What exists What do we know Epistemology What should we do Ethics I Attitude Intellectual independence Dont be afraid to use your own knowledge a Sub disciplines o Epistemology Philosophy of knowledge 0 Metaphyisics Philosophy of reality 0 L0 i Philosophy of reasoning o thics Philosophy of conduct 0 Socialpoltical Philosophy of social order 0 other PHiIosophy of Aesthetics Religion Language Science Phenomenolgy Logic 0 Philosophy of reasoning 0 Common to all Philosophy 0 The subectmatter of logic is the quotargumentquot 0 Statements The building blocks of arguments to know if you are being given a statment it makes sense to as the question quotis it truequot The answer will be either true or false 0 Arguments Groups of statements One statment is called the Conclusion Supported by other statements called the Premises o Deductive arguments Formal in nature The form of the argument decides its strength they either provide abs Dedctive arguments can be right or wrong based on two things I If all the premises are true then the conclusion MUST be true True premises An argument can be valid but have false premises If a Argument is valid and the premises are true is it called being Sound fileCConverterInputsn g6aju7khtml4192013 94745 AM
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