Appreciation of Philosophy (GT
Appreciation of Philosophy (GT PHIL 100
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Heraclitus Reality is identity of unity of structure of One AND Idea reasoning VS Reality as stable unity Always the same a Flux difference opposites change Many Sensation experience Appearance as changing diversity Never the same e g Fire and Water River quotMeasuresquot lt33 accordingto lt33 Perpetual Flux Structured by orderly opposition EXAMPLES regular tension Writing Sea water Road uniform S con ict Lyre Sculpture Wheel balance resistance Justice classes WAR harmony strife LOGOS quotlogosquot logos logoi word message account quotWorld Orderquot Abstract Pattem Structure Not a quotThingquot Laws of Physics discourse thought rationale argument pattern structure Wisdom Knowing and Accepting the LogosdiVine necessityWithout Ethics Being the LogosmoderationbalanceWithin NATURE PHILOSOPHY Natural Causes laws internal to natural phenomena Mythology SuperNatural Causes laws extemal to natural phenomena Thales c 624546 The One as Water physiological and cultural dependence on water water exists in all three states of matter Empirical Observation re Concrete Material Thing Internal Eternal Source amp Cause Anaximander c 610546 The One as The Boundless omapov nonfinite infinite in itself nondetermined indeterminate to us Rational Argumentation re Abstract Ideal Force Internal Eternal Law amp Necessity gt Concept of Being Xenophanes c 570470 Only One God Theology 39 anthropomorphisms The Critical Task Homer s gods are and culturally relative 39 immoral and unworthy of our worship The Constructive Task there is One Transcendent Being Epistemology l TruthKnowledge does not occur through revelation 2 TruthKnowledge is a result of the process of seeking 3 There is no absolute certainty or truth can t distinguish knowledge from opinion 4 Some opinions are better than others approximations to truth 5 KnowledgeTruth is conditional human amp provisional hypothetical 6 God alone knows the truth Cosmogony Origin of the Universe Cosmology Order of the Universe MYTHOLOGY SuperNatural Causes laws external to natural phenomena Nature Philosophy Natural Causes laws internal to natural phenomena Homer circa 750 BCE Monarchic WorldView consolidated power Iliad amp Odyssey the gods actions capricious impulsive sudden egoistic Fate L Zeus L the gods 3 Heroes warrior culture 39 Transactions 6 the masses Excellence Moderationquot Hesiod circa 700 BCE Democratic WorldView 3diffused power Theogony amp Works and Days DiVine Action moral Popular Lore orderly Practical Affairs slow process altruistic DiVine Law Necessity I The World 239 Justice 6 the common man Concept of Uniform Regular Orderquot Atomism Reconcile One Reason Reality and Many Sensation Appearances Adhering to Parmenides Standards and Explaining Plurality and Change quotIf there were a many they would have to be such as the one is quot Melissus an original plurality of Parmenidean 39ones Reality Reality 739 N Atoms MovingRearranging in the Void l 1 Indivisible AppearancesChange Not nothing not nonbeing Eternal Has Being is part of Being Homogenous Where there is nothing no body Changeless quotempty spacequot Differing in Shape and Size Zz Nn Arrangement ZN NZ more or less Void Position Z N V V Mechanism Conventionalism Original amp Derived Motion according to Laws ofNecessity Necessary Objective Absolute in nature physis primary qualities V Reality is imperceptible Its existence depends on us It is not in the nature of reality quotman is cut offfrom the realquot Contingent Subjective Relative in humans nomos secondary qualities V Perception is unreal Epistemology Reason trumps Sensation legitimate vs bastard Ethics moderation and excellence in function St Augustine The Soul and God 10242011 95600 PM Main Foci 0 Soul doesn t fit into the materialistic world or the world of cause and effect 0 Problem of Evil and how it s going to be solved 0 unless you believe you shall not understand seeking knowledge and certainty of what is believed O Platonism o Agrees with Plato Epistemologically in terms of knowledge 0 eternal truths common to all independent inviolable truths 3 certainties v Truth itself 0 Happiness via Wisdom re Highest Enduring Good o Ontologically the Great Chain of Being 0 one absolute highest being independent selfsufficient he didn t need the created world to be god 0 God as supreme good truth and happiness 0 Will as more fundamental than intellect c Free choice of the will as source of evil Evil as privation as a lack Evil is not a substance or thing o natural evil lack of good in degrees o moral evil basically a lack of God Cupidity vs Charity 0 depends entirely on free will Anselm and Aquinas lecture 10242011 95600 PM God is one absolute highest being completely independent of the created world o Proofs for God s Existence 0 Anselm Ontological priori Argument arguing from the Essence nature way of being form of God prior to independent of experience true by concept or definition alone the ideadefinition of God implies the actual existence of god o Premises no greater being the greatest being 0 God is that being than which no greater can be conceived limits the idea god is even greater than can be conceived by us 0 It is greater to exist in actuality than to exist only in the understanding 0 it is selfcontradictory to say there is no god conceiving of a being that exists in actuality and denying that existence Conclusion God as properly conceiveddefined must exist only in the understanding a nothing greater properyconceived cannot be conceived not to exist it is impossible for such a being properly conceived to not exist o Aquinas Cosmological prosteriori Argument 0 arguing from effects what is most know to Cause explanation after dependent on experiencesensation true by reference to experience cannot begin from God s essence which is not fully comprehended or is imperfectly conceived by us and is not selfevident O O O o no infinite series in actuality no first mover no first cause 0 nothing moves itself nothing is the cause of itself 0 there has to be a first cause for everything first mover 10242011 95600 PM Chapter 10 Augustine God and Soul 10242011 95600 PM o Augustine AD 354430 late antiquity o traditions of Plato and Christian doctrine o Christian for 11 years priest for 8 bishop for 2 o Pride is the root of human predicament o studied and later taught literature and rhetoric 0 Problem of Evil o if God is all powerful all knowing and perfectly good there can be no evil 0 he could do something would know about existing evil and would want to eliminate existing evil o But there is no evil o therefore God is either not all powerful not all knowing not perfectly good or some combination of the three 0 either can t do anything doesn t know about it or doesn t care o Good God Bad Devil 0 but if Devil is from God then God is source of evil 0 Manicheanism o the reason there is evil is that there is NO omnipotent good power 0 there are two equal and opposed powers 1 good 1 evil c this opposition lives within each of us 0 good soul composed of the light 0 bad body composed of the dark earth humans are literally part divine and part demonic c we can be saved from the domination of the evil power matter if we come to know who we are 0 blessed is he that shall know his soul o claims to solve the theoretical problem of evil by denying the infinite perfection of god and the practical problem of evil by saying the soul is essentially good untouched by the evil of the body 0 Ambrose o Bishop of Milan o idea of God and Soul as immaterial 0 can be omnipresent o drawn from philosophy of Plato o allegorical interpretations of scripture rather than literal o inspired Augustine to seriously study the Bible for the first time and read into philosophy 0 Could Christianity contain the truth the philosophers were seeking o Augustine believes wisdom is one o philosophy and theology understanding and faith science and religion are inextricably bound o lover of wisdom wants truth 0 truth god faith in Christ 0 Wisdom Happiness and God o philosophy pursuit of wisdom has only one aim Happiness THE SOUL o happiness and unhappiness are condition of the soul the soul is happy when it possesses what is most desires provided what it most desires is what wisdom approves o Augustine concludes mathematical truth exists 0 the truth of a number is incorruptible and common to all who think 0 truth is something we cannot lost against our will since it is superior to our minds it is a candidate for being the highest good and the source of our happiness 0 if nothing is superior to truth then God truth and God exists The Interior Teacher o words are merely reminders of something we re acquainted with o the interior teacher 9 the Wisdom of God that lights up the truth in our souls God and the World o Neoplatonism views of Plotinus o the One o The Great Chain of Being o Rocks 9 God 0 9 more goodness more being 0 O 0 EV moral evil depends in some way on the free choices of rational agents o natural evil doesn t exist 0 deny that evil is a reality that itis evil is the privation of good a lack of the being that something should have 0 Nothing is not 9 ignorance is not just a lack of knowledge weakness is not just a lack or absence of strength 0 m o God does not outlast things he does not have a location in time at all o there was no time because he had not created it no then 0 time was created along with the world 0 Human Nature and its Corruption o humans are unitary beings one thing 0 composed of both body and soul o soul 9 to rule the body 0 superior to the body o if we are created for happiness why are we miserable 0 because we have sinned original sin c desires loves 0 sin disordered loves due to ignorance willing 0 sin is a matter of will having gone wrong failure is voluntary not necessary 0 Human Nature and its Restoration o sin causes humans to become smaller more ignorant weaker and less in control of themselves 0 divided will o Pelagius o everyone is responsible for keeping the law of God perfection is possible as it is demanded o Charity and Cupidity o Charity the motion of the soul towards God for his own sake and the enjoyment of one s self and of one s neighbor for the sake of God ordered love 0 Cupidity the motion of the soul towards the enjoyment of oneself or anything else for the sake of something other than God disordered love 0 The Two Cities o Earthly and Heavenly City 0 goal of each is PEACE 0 members of earthly city seek peace harmony and order 0 passion for glory is an unstable motivation can lead to vice and crime as easily as virtue n the earthly city is always a mix of virtue and vice 0 Earth self love reaching to contempt for God 0 Heavenly by the love of God as far as contempt for self 0 Christians and Philosophers o Augustine s belief is based on authority 0 key to mystery of life is revealed not discovered o Greek philosophy 9 unless I understand I will not believe o wisdom is something we receive 0 humans are too limited to discover truth on our own ZEN O Parmenides Onethe Concept of Beingcontradicts Common Sense Zeno Common Sense is SelfContradictory reductio ad absurdum Assume that Common Sense ideas are True On that assumption Conclusion 1 is True Conclusion 2 is True Conclusions 1 amp 2 are Contradictory Therefore the Given Assumption cannot be True Paradox beyond or contrary to accepted opinions or doctrines A theory of motion depends upon a theory of space and time Theog 1 space and time are infinitely divisible motion is continuous and smooth owing On this theory motion is impossible for a single body absolutely the Stadium Paradox It is impossible to traverse the stadium because before you reach the far end you must rst reach the halfway point before you reach the halfway point you must reach the point halfway to it and so on ad in nitum for two bodies relatively the Achilles paradox Achilles can never overtake the tortoise because by the time he reaches the point from which the tortoise started it will have moved on to another point by the time he reaches that second point it will have moved on again and so on ad in nitum Theog 2 space and time are composed of indivisible minimal units motion is quotcinematographicquot or a succession of minute jerks On this theory motion is impossible for a single body absolutely the Arrow Paradox An obj ect is at rest when it occupies a space equal to its own dimensions An arrow in ight occupies at any given moment a space equal to its own dimensions Therefore an arrow in ight is at rest for two bodies relatively the Moving Rows Paradox Zeno Remember that Parmenides deduces from the nonbeing of nonbeing that quotwhat is Being in truth and realitycannot be aplurality manyness and cannot change or be in motion there is no 39nothingness to separate Being from itself so Being is already always complete or entire in itself without parts continuous indivisible and with no 39nothingness from which or into which Being can go there is no becoming so Being is uncreated indestructible changeless and motionless The appearance of plurality and change is an illusion is not truly real or really true about the world furthermore these appearances are not a product of nor generated by BeingBeing cannot 39be39 a 39plural ux because the existence of these appearances would depend on the illogical and contradictory idea that 39nothingness39 quotwhat is notquot isexists The following is a paraphrase from quotThe Presocratic Philosophers Kirk amp Raven Zeno in defense ofthe Pal 391 One A 39 I J J A with respect to plurality change and motion Paradox means contrary to accepted opiniondoctrine The paradoxes illustrate that there are serious problems at the very heart of our common concepts about space time motion continuity or infinity they show that simple considerations lead to rather profound difficulties The attempts throughout the history of thought to resolve the paradoxes require the subtleties of modern math questions about points in nite sequences convergent series and physics questions about spaceas either a collection of points or as continuous The paradoxes of Zeno use a form of argumentation called reductio ad absurdum ie to reduce to an absurdity with the following basic form Suppose A is true IfA is true then Conclusion 1 is true and Conclusion 2 is true They both can t be true they are contradictory Therefore A can t be true The opponents of Parmenides ridiculed his theory as contradictory to common sense Zeno s paradoxes show that common sense itself is contradictory selfcontradictory assuming common sense to be true that truth generates irresolvable contradictions Thus it is said about Zeno39s response to Parmenides critics that Zeno is quotrepaying them in the same coin with something to sparequot A theory of motion would depend upon a theory of the nature of space and time In ancient times there were two opposing theories 1 space and time are infinitely divisible so motion is continuous and smoothly owing 2 space and time are composed of indivisible minimal units so motion is 39cinematographic consisting of a succession of minute jerks The paradoxes show that common sense ideas of space and time maintain simultaneously both of these contradictory theories of space and time The Achilles paradox 1 in our text argues against theory 1 furthermore showing motion to be impossible for two bodies ie relatively while the paradox in our text labeled 3 shows motion to be impossible for a single body ie absolutely The Arrow paradox 2 in our text argues against theory 2 furthermore showing motion to be impossible for a single body ie absolutely The set ofthe Four Paradoxes of Motion Motion is Impossible Absolutely Relatively Against Theory 1 quotThe Stadiumquot quotAchilles and the Tortoise Theory 2 quotThe Flying Arrowquot quotThe Moving Rowsquot THEORY Abstract to draw away General Universal amp Necessary I PRACTICE Concrete to grow together Speci c Particular amp Contingent gtllt ONE Eternal CauseSourcePrinciple for All Things gtllt Mythology quot39 Nature Philosophy quot stories quot ReasonsArguments sensory images mental concepts Gods H Heroes THEORY quothonor duequot I I PRACTICE quottransactionsquot quotCulture of Conquerorsquot H Native Peoples TyrantsDespots Homer quotquot Hesiod MONARCHY quot39 DEMOCRACY Nature Philosophy Concept of quotBeingquot Atomism quot39Sophists Socrates quot great conversationquot quotrelatiVismskepticismquot I 739 I quotfreedom of thoughtactivityquot Hedonism amp Power DEMOCRACY 39 r C COSMOLOGy Mi E am LAWNECESSI REP4R ATMN 41 SEPARATNq OGONYI WATEX MOT0N ltC6MBAlVG FlRE z x AIR WATER 2 Km Parmenides Extremely Signi cant Thinker most in uential and universally accepted Attacks Prima Assumptiona Primal Onewhich went Unquestioned and Unexamined Evamines and Analyzes this A quot in its C 39 Form the Concept of Being the concept alone purely logically abstract incorporeal nonspatialtemporal given the Law of NonContradiction Law of Identity N A amp NA A A Establishes the Concept of Being the Universal and Necessary Standards for how this Primary Assumption should be thoughtconceived Demands an EXplanationwhich adheres to the Standards of the Concept of Beingfor Plurality manyness and Change motion A Reconciliation of the One Reality and the Many Appearance 391 a The Way of Truth The Way of Opinion Reason One Senses Opposites Objects of Reason concepts Objects of Sense things BEING It is and must be quotto be and not to be are and cannot notbe the same and not the samequot quotWhat is isquot Necessity can t be otherwise Possibility can be otherwise Universality holds in all cases Particularity holds in singular cases NOTHING It is not and must notbe it is right not being quotWhat is not is notquot Impossibility quotthinking and the thought that it is are the samefor thought and being are the samequot quotiudge bV reasoning the muchcontested argument the 39 39 39 39 heart of wellrounded truthquot Premise quotbeing is and nothing is notquot There Is No Nothing Conclusions Being what is Is l cometobeout of nothing uncreated Therefore Being what is cannot passawayinto nothing indestructible Being what is Is quotnow all at oncequot Eternal Timeless EverPresentno past or future quotone and continuousquot OneHomogenous Indivisiblefull only of itself quotall alikequot ChangelessMotionless always already is where it is Spherical equal to itself on all sidesand resting uniformly within its own limits Therefore there exists NO Plurality NO Change What appears is an Illusion or Illogical quotIt Isquot eXistence quotX is eXistsquot quotBeingquot must be predication quotX is yquot quotBeingquot is one eternal indivisible unchanging identity quotX yquot quotBeingquot is thinking Jan 24 c 1 pp 19 Mythology Homer amp Hesiod 750 BC Hesiod 700BC wrote Theogeny 7 birth of the gods war among gods claims inspiraton from the Muses daughters born to Zeus amp Memory origin of all things from chaos formless mass of dark stuff marriage of opposites Heaven and Earth Justice is vengeance violating the rules of justice brings consequences Father s Heaven s oppression of children Titans Titan revenge Kronos castrates Heaven birth of Furies blood drops on land and Aphrodite blood drops on water Kronos injustice eating children because of prophesy overthrown by Zeus hidden son amp his allies history begins Relative orderliness of the Olympians amp rule over universe division of sky sea underworld WICKEDNESS IS PUNISHED VIRTUE IS REWARDED Democratic world view 7 diffused power Theogeny popular lore practical affairs mother goose while IlliadOdyssey reserved for the elite these stories more for the masses document normal everyday practical events no heroism Divine action moral orderly slow process altruistic Divine law necessity 9 the world 9 the common man world amp common man impacted by justice sun shines the same on the hero amp common man concept of uniform regular order Homer 750 BC wrote the Illiad 7 primary education in morals heroic virtues human excellence the war against Troy anger of Achilles angry because Agamemnon takes his exceptionally lovely woman in exchange for daughter of Apollo s priest refuses to fight its terrible consequences Greeks begin to lose terribly Patroclus begs Achilles to let him wear his armor gets killed by Hector Achilles kills Hector the tragedy of excess and pride Homer s gods re ect the society they govern gods want stable orderly universe excessiveness of any kind is punished reward heroic virtues Zeus is the one ruler under the domination of Fate sees that certain customs are enforced A just order to the universe Greeks punished with great losses bc Agamemnon acted unjustly by taking Achilles prize but Trojans lose because of the huge violated of the rules that Paris made by stealing Helen from her hubbs moderation as the main virtue justice is each getting his due in the quest for honor amp glory even gods quest for honor and glory gods basically same as humans except they re immortal interested in affairs of mortals as long as their honor is concerned hubris arrogance towards the gods when hum ans dishonor gods ex Agamemnon refusing to return girlrefusing priest s ransom excellence appropriate to the portion allotted to the hum an mortal lot strive for excellence using full resources at their command moderation is praiseworthy EXCELLENCE MODERATION Monarchic world view 7 consolidated power Tlliad amp Odyssey gods actions capricious impulsive sudden egotistic Fate governs Zeus 9 the gods 9 heroes 9 the masses transactions bw gods amp heroes Mythology vs Nature Philosophy Cosmology 7 order of the universe Mythology 7 supernatural causes 7 laws external to natural phenomena stories sensory images Nature Philosophy 7 natural causes 7 laws internal to natural phenomena reasonsarguments mental conce ts nature philosophers called preSocratics dissatisfied with traditional stories problem the one and the many problem reality vs appearance problem hum an reality Jan 26 c 2 pp 1019 Thales c 624 7 546 7 The One as Water called founder of philosophy if we want to understand this world look to this world not another 6 big change in Western thought the cause and element of all things is water all things are filled with gods physiological and cultural dependence on water water exists in all states of matter concrete materialism empiricism ISSUES no evidence HOW water accounts for everything water itself needs to be explained and impossibility of wet and dry thinking in opposites both exist how is it possible that origin of life is water if dry exists Anaximander c 610546 7 The One as The Boundless wants to account for origin that doesn t appeal to gods but does not reject divine altogether acknowledges principle of moderation everything has a beginning and that beginning has a beginning but there has to be one thing with no beginning the boundless steers all things it IS a beginning doesn t HAVE a beginning no limit nonfinite infinite in itself nondeterminate indeterminate to us rational argumentation internal eternal law amp necessity 9concept of being abstract idealism rationalism vortex motion like goes to like things in a pan originally indistinguishable then separate out things make reparations to one another for their injustice according to the ordinance of time simple balance in nature must be observed ex dry winter wet spring Cosmogony 7 vortex motion 7 separating and combining elements heaviest fall to core lightest at top earth water air fire stars seen through pinpricks in sky canopy thang Cosmology 7 injustice amp reparation according to LawNecessity cycle of opposites Xenophanes 7 c 570 7 470 7 Only One God irst to state religious implications of nature philosophy says Hom er s gods are unworthy of our admiration it is shameful that Homer would portray the gods as though they are no better than human beings suggests Homer is inventing stories says god does not make man in his own image but man makes gods is our image ex Ethiopian gods look different than Thrachian gods there is one god greatest among gods and men in no way similar to mortals in either body or mind only one similarity to mortal men intelligence order is the result of some intelligent action where there is order there is intelligence ex papers on a des bashes traditional gods with nature philosophy ex Iris the rainbow is not a goddess caused by natural phenomena Xenophanes and Epistemiology denies HesiodHomer were spoken to by the gods truthknowledge does not occur through revelation we must seek to look for truth better understanding in time truthknowledge is a result of the process of seeking there is no absolute certainty or truth cant distinguish knowledge from opinion although we may not know the truth some beliefs are more like the truth than others some opinions are better than others father of epistemiology 7 asking questions about truth and knowledge truth is conditional human and provisional hypothetical the one god alone knows the truth Heraclitus 7 Oneness in the Logos reputation for writing in riddles reality is a flux all things are in flux you can and cannot step into the same river same river diff waters oneness of differences sometimes opposites one holds together the many all things in continuous exchange all things come into being through opposition ex music made through tension of strings tension opposition and conflict are necessary in society to retain justice strife is not opposed to good it is a necessary presupposition Logos 7 rich term means message or discourse thought turns it into 9 rationale or argument contains conclusions 9 rational structure or pattern connected to a world order we are immersed in logos but very few recognize it like a riddle solve by using our own eyes and ears not listening to others but be careful also of our own senses moderation is a virtue can t have everything we want caused imbalance in logos not enough opposition etc not many people understand this and therefore not very many people can be wise we live in a universe united by logos where conflict is necessary to maintain logos wisdom knowing and accepting the logos understanding naturestructure of the world ehtics being the logos moderationbalance Parmenides 7 Only the One only the One exists thinking and being are inseparable nothing is not because there is no realm of not being ex you can t think about nothing nothing is something there can t be a many because they would have to be separated by what is not which is not Heraclitean flux can t be because there is no coming into beingpassing away Change is impossible change is an illusion urges us to follow reasoning alone rationalism and ignore common sense we earn from experience reject reliance on the senses attacks primary assumption that all things are changing cannot be vortex motion separating things out because all things are alike what is is one eternal indivisible and unc g39 first philosopher to rely solely on reason addresses reality vs appearance Deduces logically that what is is uncreated indestructible changeless and motionless no nothingness exists to separate itself from itself change is an illusion Zeno 7 pupil of Parmenides constructs paradoxes contrary to accepted opiniondoctrine paradoxes illustrate there are serious problems about space time motion continuity infinity use subtleties of modern mathphysics to resolve still to this day unresolved by more sophisticated understandin approaches Parmenides critics and repays them with not only contradictory messages but self consradictiors rid0ci0 ad absurdio 7 to reduce to absurdit Suppose A is true lfA is true then Concl l is true and Concl 2 is true They can t both be true therefore A can t be true unsolvable contradictions common sense generates contradictions arguments motion 1 Achilles and the tortoise Contradiction one runner can never be overtaken theoretically but we ve seen it done 2 Arrow in motion cannot move at all Cannot move in a space it does not occupy because it s not there but cannot move in the space it occupies because it takes up the whole s ace 3 Getting to a midpoint before getting to actual destination Theory of motion 1 spacetime infinitely divisible Theory of motion 2 spacetime composed of indivisible minimal units both theories prove motion to be impossible for a single body absolutely and 2 bodies relatively p0wers of 10relative to the entire universe we re standing still either motion itself is unreal or we just have the wrong perceptions of it We need to come up with a new way to explain it for it to be real Atomism the one and the many reconciled world revealed by our senses cannot be reality as is proved by Parmenides 2 philosophers associated Leucippus and Democritus The key an ambiguity Melissus says if there were a many then everything would have to have the characteristics of the One there are an infinite number of ones which Democritus names atoms what does not contain a body void which is not equal to being what is not what is can be separated from other parts of what is by a void reality atoms and the void atoms are in constant motion and indivisible so they are indestructible so they are eternal atoms not all alike but internally homogeneous when they come together in different arrangements and positions they begin to form visible bodies 39gh bodies more loosely packed than heavy bodies soft bodies more exible than hard bodies a thing comes into being when atoms get hooked together in particular ways out of being when they come apart everything occurs by necessity and mechanical laws mind and intelligence are cast out soul and mind soul atoms are spherical and due to their nature to keep moving they draw the whole body along with them and set it in motion taste 7 sweet atoms are round and good sized sour are bulky jagged and of many angles sm ell and sound 7 atoms broken up into like shape and rolled along with fragments of voice sight 7 the bodies of combined atoms give off images stamp their shape in the soft matter of the eye the soul atoms register them senses do not give us direct and certain knowledge of the world outcome of a complex set of interactions senses exist by convention 7 existence depends on us not found in nature alone cut off from reality but able to reason with it ethics how to live