Logic and Critical Thinking (GT
Logic and Critical Thinking (GT PHIL 110
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Isai Ondricka on Tuesday September 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL 110 at Colorado State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see /class/210341/phil-110-colorado-state-university in PHIL-Philosophy at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 09/22/15
PH I Ll 390 PLCC110 LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING INFORMAL FALLACIES EXPLAINING THEM TO OTHERS 1 2 3 4 Fallacies of Relevance Appeal to Force S commits an appeal to force fallacy when S urges X to perform A some action or accept some idea I by threatening X with T instead of giving relevant reasons for I such as 5 speakerauthor X listenerreader I ideaconclusion T threat quotBe careful to separate the ACTION that S is trying to convince X to do and the IDEA that is the principle behind the action The idea may be stated in the argument or if unstated is the usually that the action is rI39gItOr good 39 A Appeal to Pity 5 commits the appeal to pity fallacy when S tries to persuade X of P by appealing to X39s sympathy by giving a sad story 0 instead of giving relevant reasons for P such as Again be careful to separate the ACTION that S is trying to persuade X to do andthe IDEA behind the action P should refer to that IDEA not the ACTION 0 will often be reasons why X should perform the ACTION Ad Populum S commits an ad populum fallacy when S urges X to accept P by a appealing to E This is a fallacy because no relevant evidence is given for P or b stating that G believes P This is a fallacy because G39s belief is not a relevant reason to believe P is true P the claim S is urging acceptance of E one or more emotions or strong feelings G a group claimed to believe the claim P this may be quoteverybodyquot quot etc X a group or individual I u 90 of Americans our familyquot Ad Hominem a Abusive S commits an abusive ad hominem fallacy when S rejects or dismisses X39s claim that P by attacking X personally by saying 0 instead of giving relevant evidence that P is wrong or giving evidence for P such as Circumstantial S commits a circumstantial ad hominem fallacy when S rejects or dismisses X39s claim that P just because of the circumstance that X is 0 instead of giving relevant evidence that P is wrong or giving evidence for P such as b H P the claim that is being rejected 0 the attack or circumstance c Tu Ouoque Same as circumstantial except Q quotX does it activity in P tooquot 5 Accident 5 commits the fallacy of accident when 5 tries to apply the general rule 6 to the speci c case C without recognizing that C is an exception to G because G general rule C speci c case 6 Missing the point S commits the fallacy of missing the point when S uses premises P or P1 P2 that actually support the conclusion C But 5 draws a different conclusion D that does not follow from the premises P or P1 P2 premise or premises stated 2 conclusion that actually does follow from the premises may be stated or unstated in the argument D conclusion stated in the argument does not follow from the premises ll Fallacies of Weak Induction 1 Appeal to Authority 5 commits the fallacy of appeal to authoritywhen S tries to persuade X that P is true becauseY said it was true but Y is or may not be an appropriate authority because Y the authority cited may be a person book newspaper or might not even be stated 2 Appeal to Ignorance S commits the fallacy of appeal to ignorance when S concludes that P is true just because we can39t prove or don39t know or have no evidence that P is true This is a fallacy because it could just as easily beargued that P can be concluded because we can39t prove that P is true 0r This is a fallacy because it is still possible for P to be false because E E explanantion of how it is possible for P to be true even though there is no evidence 3 Hasty Generalization S commits the fallacy of hasty generalization when S concludes the general rule 6 based on a too few particular cases P This is a fallacy because P is not enough evidence to conclude 6 0r b exceptional cases 0 This is a fallacy because 6 cannot be concluded from 0 which is exceptional because 6 general rule this is the conclusion of the argument P premises too few particular cases not enough data O premises exceptional cases skewed data unrepresentative data 4 False Cause 5 commits the fallacy of false cause when S assumes that A causes B without any real evidence that A causes B a S makes this assumption merely because A happened and then B happened but has no real evidence that A actually caused B for exampleThis is the post hocfallacy b S didn39t recognize that B actually caused A S has confused cause and effect c S didn39t recognize that C actually caused both A and B S has neglected a common cause d S didn39t realize thatA isjust one of many causes of B including C D E etc S has committed causal oversimpli cation S didn t realize that there is no causal connection at all between A and B e H A B C D E events 5 Slippery Slope 5 commits the slippery slope fallacy when 5 claims that some proposedaction or event A is just the rst in a series of eVents E1 E2 eventually causing D But S hasno39evi dencequot that each stepwill cause the next 39 one A the rst step in the predicted chain of events 39 E1 E2 the series of steps predicted to follow sometimes these are omitted D the nal disaster predicted to occur Try to eXplain where the weakest link in the chain is which step is not likely to cause the next one lll Fallacies of Presumption 1 Begging the question a One premise argument S begs the question when he or she concludes C and appears to support it using P as a premise However P is actually only a restatement of C because show how P means the same thing as C No real evidence is given to support the conclusion C b Chain argument S begs the question when he concludes C and supports it by P1 which is supported by P2 which is supported by Pn But 5 then claims that Pn is true because C is true assuming what he or she was trying to prove No real evidence is given to support C The argument is circular C conclusion of argument P P1 P2Pn premises supposedly supporting C 2 Complex question The question P is a complex question Whoever answers it is presumed already to have answered A to another question 0 which was not asked P question in passage the complex question O hidden question A the answer presumed to have been given to O IV Fallacies of Ambiguity 1 Equivocation S equivocates on the word W When it is used in P W means M but when it is used in 1 W means N This ambiguity leads 5 to the unwarranted conclusion C W word or phrase that changes meaning P proposition or phrase in which W has rst meaning M O proposition or phrase in which W has other meaning N C conclusion that shouldn39t have been drawn it is unwarranted 2 Amphiboly The passage commits the fallacy of amphiboly Because of a mistake in the grammar of P two different meanings of P are possible One meaning is M Another meaning is N The problem with P isexplain the grammatical error a Pword phrase or sentence causing ambi uity M one meaning of passage sum M15 oF N other meaning of passage A W I W 7 J 3 Accent By emphasizing W the sentence P leads to the conclusion C which is different from conclusion D W word or phrase that is accented or in large print or used out of context P sentence containing W C conclusion drawn from P with W emphasized D conclusion drawn from P without P emphasized NOTE In each of the fallacies of ambiguity it is possible for one person to interpret the passage one way and another person to interpret the passage another way if two people are involved be sure to include in your explanation who draws which conclusion 4 Composition Because the parts of T are C S attributes C to the who thing T However it is inappropriate or wrong to say T is C because 5 Division Because the whole thing T is C S attributes C to the parts of T However it is inappropriate or wrong to say the parts of T are C because C a characteristic T a thing that has quotpartsquot
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