Modern America-week 4 notes
Modern America-week 4 notes Hist 12071
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayla Schmidt on Tuesday September 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 12071 at Kent State University taught by Brenda Faverty in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Modern America in History at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 09/22/15
Kayla Schmidt Modern History 91915 This is an online class so the text book information is important Text Book REVEL for American Stories Volume 2 Access Card 3rd Edition H W Brands T H Breen R Hal Williams Ariela J Gross 2014 ISBN13 9780134082370 Chapter 20 201 Why was there a stalemate between Republicans and Democrats until the mis1890s 202 What factors led to the formation and growth of the Farmers Alliance and People s party 203 What were the main political and labor effects of the panic and depression of the 1890s 204 What changes in outlook did the panic and depression of the 1890s bring about 205 Why was the presidential election of 1896 so important 206 What did McKinley accomplish that placed the results of the 1896 election on a solid base Introduction 0 June 1894 0 Susan Orcutt a farmer wrote a letter to her governor 0 Economic depression 0 3 million people were unemployed o 20 of the workforce 0 1890s profound lasting effects 201 Politics of Stalemate o In most states only men could vote o In 6 presidential elections from 18761896 79 of the electoral voted 0 1900 0 Women could vote nationally in Wyoming Utah Idaho and Colorado 0 National Woman Suffrage Association sued for the right to vote I 1875Supreme Court denied them 0 Minor vs Happersett I Congress denied to pursue an Amendment I 18701910 12 states wanted to grant women the right to vote 0 Black men were also denied from the polls I 1877Georgia the poll tax annual tax for the right to vote Kayla Schmidt 0 1890Mississppi required voters to be able to understand the Constitution and read it I All of them white 0 Supreme Court I Williams v Mississippi 1898 o Excluded poor white voters also blacks o 1898 Louisiana adopted quotgrandfather clause I Literacy test to disqualify black voters 0 Men who failed the test to vote anyway if their fathers and grandfathers had vote 1876 o 1896 130334 registered black voters in Louisiana 19041342 0 Civil War generation 1850s I Dominated politics in 1870s and 1880s I 5 out of 6 presidents from 18651900 serve in the Civil War 0 Democrats wanted to keep government small and local 0 Republicans wanted to progress through the entire nation government was to promote moral and material wealth I Republicans passed the Homestead Act 1862 I Granted subsides to the transcontinental railroads o 16 states voted Republican North 0 14 states voted Democratic South 0 Andrew Johnson s impeachment in 1868 scandals of Grant 1870s o 1900Mckinlet largely succeeded o 1876Rutherford B Hayes presidency reform the civil service appointed reformers to high office ended military reconstruction o 1878 vetoed a bill quotcalling for the partial coinage of silver I Congress passed the Bland Allison Silver Purchase Act I BlandAllison Silver Purchase Act 0 quotThis 1878 act called for the partial coinage of silver Those favoring silver coinage argued that it would increase the money supply and help farmers and workers repay their debts Opponents advocated a restricted money supply based solely on gold and pointed out that few other major countries accepted silver countries Congress passed the bill over President Rutherford B Hayes s veto Election of 1880 Candidate Party Popular Vote Electoral Vote Garfield Republican 4454416 214 Hancock Democrat 4444952 155 Weaver Greenback 308578 0 o Pendleton Act quotThis 1883 law created a bipartisan Civil Service Commission to administer competitive exams for civil service jobs and appoint officeholders based on merit It also outlawed compulsory political contributions from appointed officials Kayla Schmidt 0 Cleveland reflected Democratic desire to follow up on federal activities 0 He vetoed 23 of bills 0 Lowering the tariff Election of 1884 Candidate Party Popular Vote Electoral Vote Cleveland Democrat 4874986 219 Blaine Republican 4851981 182 Butler Greenback 175370 0 St John Prohibition 150369 0 Sherman Antitrust Act 0 quotThis 1890 act was the first major US attempt to deal with problem of the increasing size of business it declared illegal quotevery contract combination in the form of trust or otherwise or conspiracy in restraint of trade or commerce Sherman Silver Purchase Act 0 quotAn 1890 act that attempted to resolve the controversy over silver coinage by requiring the Treasury to purchase 45 million ounces of silver each month and issue legal tender in the form of Treasury notes for it The act pleased opponents of silver because it did not call for free coinage it pleased proponents of silver because it brought up most of the nation s silver production 202 The Rise of the Populist Movement 0 National Farmers Alliance and Industrial Union 0 quotThe alliance sought to organize farmers in the South and West to fight for reforms that would improve their lot including measures to overcome low crop prices burdensome mortgages and high railroad rates The Alliance ultimately organized the People s Populist Party Election Results 1892 Candidate Popular Vote Grover Cleveland D 5551833 Benjamin Harrison R 5179244 James B Weaver P 1041028 Election Result 1896 Candidate Popular Vote William McKinley R 7108480 Kayla Schmidt William Bryan D 6511495 Ocala Demands o quotAdopted by the Farmers Alliance in 1890 in Ocala Florida these demands became the organization s main platform They called for a subtreasury system to allow farmers to store their crops until they could get the best price the free coinage of silver an end to protective tariffs and national banks a federal income tax the direct election of senators by voters and tighter regulation of railroads People s or Populist party 0 quotThis political party was organized in 1892 by farm labor and reform leaders mainly from the Farmers Alliance t offered a broadbased reform platform reflecting the Ocala Demands After 1896 it became identified as a oneissue party focused on free silver and gradually died away 203 The Crisis of the Depression 0 Panic of 1893 0 Hit the New York stock market 0 Philadelphia and Reading Railroad went bankrupt 0 People then sold stocksto buy gold 0 April 22 I Treasury s gold reservefel below 100 million 0 Stock market went broke 0 Banks cut back on giving out loans 0 July 26 I Erie Railroad failed I August 15 0 Northern Pacific Railroad went bankrupt 0 Union Pacific and Santa Fe followed bankruptcy I 15 labor forceunemployed I Drought in Mississippi Dust Bowl 1930s 0 Pullman Strike 0 quotBeginning in May 1894 this strike at the Pullman Palace Car Company near Chicago was one of the largest strikes in American History Workers struck to protest wage cuts high rents for company housing and layoffs The American Railway Union led by Eugene V Debs joined the strike in June Extending into 27 states and territories it paralyzed the western half of the nation President Grover Cleveland secured an injunction to break the strike on the grounds that it obstructed the mail and sent federal troops to enforce it 0 Supreme Court 0 Pollock v Farmer s Loan and Trust Co Kayla Schmidt 0 The elections of 1894 crushed the Democrats 0 Lost 113 House seats 0 Republicans gained 117 204 Changing Attitudes 0 Personal failure concerns 0 Rethinking local institutionsdiscussion clubs women s clubs reform societies university extension centers church groups farmers societies 0 Pressure for reforms 0 Demand for government to fix depression 0 Husbands and fathers lost jobs 0 Women and children then had to work 0 1905 Everybody Works But Father song o 1890sworking women went from 4 million to 53 million 0 Laundresses cleaners and domestic or in offices and factories 0 Worked as telephone operators clerks and nurses 0 Black urban womensupplement their husbands meager earnings 0 Men still business offices 0 18905 0 Female labor cheaper o 1900500000 women were teachers 0 Stenographers and typists 0 Children had to work 0 1890schildren worked in textile millsSouth 0 Boys and girls under 16 years old 13 of mill labor 0 8 and 9 years old12 hour days for little wages I In the cityshoe shiners and peddlers o 1896 League for the Protection of the Family to get children in classrooms instead of working 0 The mothers congress of 1896helped the National Congress of Parents and Teachers 0 The National Council of Women and the General Federation of Women s Clubs similar issues I 1890s 150000 members wanted to improve child welfare education and sanitation Horatio Alger s novels about poor boys Louisa May Alcott s Little Women 18681869 Anna Sewell s Black Beauty 1877 Regionalist writersJoel Chandler Harris and George Washington Cable depicted South living I Hamlin Garland wrote about grim life in the Great Plains I Sarah Orne Jewett wrote about life in New England rural I Bret Harte wrote about mining camps in California 0 Mark Twain I Humorous but skeptical OOOO Kayla Schmidt I The Adventures of Tom Sawyer 1876 I The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn 1884 0 Used common language instead of proper language I Stephen Crane o Wrote about poverty and war 0 The Red Badge of Courage 1895 0 Maggie A Girl of the Streets 1893 I Jack London 0 Wrote about nature 0 The Sea Wolf 1904 o The Call of the Wild 1903 I Theodore Dreiser natural 0 Sister Carrie 1901 0 Environmental changes 205 The Presidential Election of 1896 0 quotbattle of the standards election of 1896 0 Support for free silver coinage 0 South and West 0 1896silver was a symbol 0 Moral and patriotic o McKinley proposed the favor of gold standard against the free coinage of silver Republican o SilverDemocratic party South and West 0 Not including Cleveland 20 Democratic state platformsfree silver in 1894 o Populists had a dilemma o McKinley won 50 of vote 0 Bryan s 46 of vote 206 The McKinley Administration 0 McKinley took office in 1897 in favor 0 Farm prices during 1897wheat cotton corn 0 In July 1897 the Dingley Tariff raised average tariff duties 0 18605 to the 18905 0 Republicans to promote economic growth state and national power 0 By 1900industrial systemreguate control of industrialism 0 Gold Standard Act 0 quotPassed by Congress in 1900 this law made all currency redeemable in gold The United States remained on the gold standard until 1933 Candidate Party Popular Vote Electoral Vote McKinley R 7207923 292 Bryan D 6358133 155 Kayla Schmidt Woolley Prohibition 209004 Debs Socialist 94768
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