Chapter One: Introduction
Chapter One: Introduction GLY-125-001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Sadowski on Tuesday September 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GLY-125-001 at University of North Carolina - Wilmington taught by Nooner in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views.
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Date Created: 09/22/15
Ecology BIO366 Dr Dickens Chapter One Introduction Ecoloov Evolution and the Scienti c Method Vocabulary The rst test for Dr Dickens will contain mostly vocabulary 1 Ecology the scienti c study of the abundance and distributions organisms in relation to other organisms and environmental conditions 2 Ecological system biological entities that have their own internal processes and interact with their eternal surroundings 3 Individual a living being the most fundamental unit of ecology 4 Species historically de ned as a group of organisms that naturally interbreed with each other and produce fertile offspring Currently research demonstrates that no single de nition can be applied to all organisms 5 Population the individuals of the same species living in a particular area 6 Community all populations of species living together in a particular area 7 Ecosystem one or more communities of living organisms interacting with their nonliving physical and chemical environments 8 Biosphere all of the ecosystems on Earth 9 Individual approach an approach to ecology that emphasizes the way in which an individual39s morphology and behavior enable it to survive in its environment 10Adaptation a characteristic of an organism that makes it wellsuited to its environment 11Population approach an approach to ecology that emphasizes variation over time and space in the number of individuals the density of individuals and the composition of individuals 12Community approach an approach to ecology that emphasizes the diversity and relative abundances of different kinds of organisms living together in the same place 13Ecosystem approach an approach to ecology that emphasizes the storage and transfer of energy and matter including the various chemical elements essential to life 14Biosphere approach an approach to ecology concerned with the largest scale in the hierarchy of ecological systems including movements of air and water and chemical elements they containover the Earth39s surface 15Law of conservation of matter matter cannot be created or destroyed it can only change form 16First law of thermodynamics energy cannot be created or destroyed it can only change form Also known as Law of conservation of energy 17Dynamic steady state when the gains and losses of ecological systems are balanced 18Phenotype an attribute of an organism such as its behavior morphology or physiology 19Genotype the set of genes an organism carries Ecology BIO366 Dr Dickens 20Evoution change in the genetic composition of a population over time 21Natural selection change in the frequency of genes in a population through differential survival and reproduction of individuals that possess certain phenotypes 22Fitness the survival and reproduction of an individual 23Algal bloom a rapid increase in the growth of algae in aquatic habitats typically due to an in ux of nutrients 24Producer an organism that uses photosynthesis to convert solar energy into organic compounds or uses chemosynthesis to convert chemical energy into organic compounds Also known as autotroph 25Consumer an organism that obtains its energy from other organisms Also known as heterotrophs 26Mixotroph an organism that obtains its energy from more than one source 27Predator an organism that kills and partially or entirely consumes another individual 28Parasitoid an organism that lives within and consumes the tissues of a living host eventually killing the host 29Parasite an organism that lives in or on another organism but rarely kills it 30Pathogen a parasite that causes disease in its hosts 31Herbivore an organism that consumes producers such as plants and algae 32Competition an interaction with negative effects between two species that depend on the same limiting resource to survive grow and reproduce 33Mutualism an interaction between two species in which each species receives bene ts from the other 34Commensalism an interaction in which two species live in close association and one species receives a bene t while the other experiences neither a bene t nor a cost 35Symbiotic relationship when two different types of organisms live in a close physical relationship 36Scavenger an organism that consumes dead animals 37Detritivore an organism that feeds on dead organic matter and waste products that are collectively known as detritus 38Decomposer organisms that break down dead organic material into simpler elements and compounds that can be recycled through the ecosystem 39Habitat the place or physical setting in which an organism lives 40Hypothesis an idea that potentially explains a repeated observation 41Proximate hypothesis a hypothesis that addresses the immediate changes in an organism39s hormones physiology nervous system or muscular system 42Prediction a logical consequence of a hypothesis 43Ultimate hypothesis a hypothesis that addresses why an organism responds in a certain way to its environment in terms of the tness costs and bene ts of the response 44Manipulative experiment a process by which a hypothesis is tested by altering a factor that is hypothesized to be an underlying cause of the phenomenon Ecology BIO366 Dr Dickens 45Manipuation the factor that we want to vary in an experiment Also known as the treatment 46Control a manipulation that includes all aspects of an experiment except the factor of interest 47Experimental unit the object to which we apply an experimental manipulation 48Replication being able to produce a similar outcome multiple times 49Randomization an aspect of experiment design in which every experimental unit has an equal chance of being assigned to a particular manipulation 50Microcosm a simpli ed ecological system that attempts to replicate the essential features of an ecological system in a laboratory or eld setting 51Natural experiment an approach to hypothesis testing that relies on natural variation in the environment 52Mathematical model a representation of a system of a set of equations that correspond to hypothesized relationships among the system39s components 53Greenhouse gases compounds in the atmosphere that absorb the infrared heat energy emitted by Earth and then emit some of the energy back toward Earth
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