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by: Mallory Jean Becker

India12beginningof3915-917.pdf ART 275

Marketplace > Illinois State University > Art > ART 275 > India12beginningof3915 917 pdf
Mallory Jean Becker
GPA 3.47
World Arts: Visual
Maggie Duncan-Flowers

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World Arts: Visual
Maggie Duncan-Flowers
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mallory Jean Becker on Tuesday September 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ART 275 at Illinois State University taught by Maggie Duncan-Flowers in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see World Arts: Visual in Art at Illinois State University.


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Date Created: 09/22/15
Arts and Architecture of India Indus River Valley and Vedic civilizations Janis and Hindus India 1 Map of Southeast Asia Indian is purple Indian Pakistan Afghanistan Nepal Bangladesh And Shrilanka Harapppan or Indus Civilization emerged in Indus River Bailey 0 2700 BCE1200 BCE 0 First city discovered on the river 0 Emerged nearly 5000 years ago 0 Along the river archeologists found several urban centers and over 400 towns located along the river MohenjoDaro 0 Economy trade and agriculture 0 Major Cities Harappa MohenjoDaro ChanbuDaru 0 Had a written language and standard weights and measures I Essential for trade Cross street in MohenjoDaro 0 Dead man s Lane Wellplanned and well maintained urban centers Similar in design and construction Built near the river on high and low mounds covering a square mile Supporting a population of 350004000 ppl Organized into three areas I Highest mound citadel I Residential area I On the outskirts or residential area was the commercial and industrial area Aerial view of Citadel o Served as administrative and storage area and the religious center Plan of Citadel and streets View of Drain 0 Used clay pipes encased in brick masonry drained sewage to keep the city clean Granary used to store grain and other food Great Bath at MohenjoDaro o Oldest surviving water tank and largest as well 0 Used for ritual bathing o 39 feet long and 25 wide 8 feet deep Great Bath at MohenjoDaro Key Terms 0 Kilnbaked bricks stronger than mud bricks o Bitumen natural tarlike substance used to waterproof walls 0 Gypsum mortar used to set the Kilnbaked bricks so they were steadier 000000 00000 0 000 O O O O O O O O O O O O O 0 Lower residential city arranged in grid pater Had two main intersecting axis I Divided city into sectors so they could be divided into neighborhoods Twostoried houses constructed of kilnbaked brick Neighborhood well Bath Neighborhood street Seal Stamp Impressions Square or rectangle with a pierced boss Knob on back Steatite coated with alkaline glaze I Steatite soft white stone I The impression is a positive image will stand out from the surface I Carving is negative Served as family insignia and religious talismans Most common feature in a seal is an animal I Most common animals are horned arnimals Seal with Bull Image MohenjoDaro Key Terms I Naturalism a true to life representation of nature I Twisted perspective not a straight on profile twisted so the viewer can better understand the face and bod o Goes way back to the Paleolithic cave paintings Seal with Seated Figure MohenjoDaro Key Terms I Shiva a god had many manifestations over time Dancing Mother Goddess One of the finest examples of the female fertility figures for this early period Carved out of limestone only 4 inches tall Harappa 23001700 BCE Key Terms I Yakshi fertility figurines in India I Naturalism I Prana Breath looks slight inflated or blown up 0 Represents the life force and makes the figure appear to be alive I Tribhanga Threebends figure is shown in movement turning and twisting o Refers to tradition in Indian sculpture of showing gods and goddesses in this twisted posture I Voluptuous style rather ample I Shakti an important idea developed in Indian by philosophers in regards to cosmology structural and operations of the universe the idea that the universe exists through the interaction of two types of energy female and male cosmic energy 0 Male Torso from Harappa O 2000 BCE 0 Key Terms I Yaksha male fertility figure I Prana slightly inflated particularly the abdomen 0 Map of migration of people from central Asia 0 O IndoEuropean because they moved eastward through Persia into India and then towards Europe Lasted over thousands of years Around 1700 BCE this urban phase of the Indus River Civilization began to decline People began to leave their cities and return to village life I Cause is still not well understood I Some believe there was some kind of dramatic climate shift or there was a huge earthquake that altered the structure of the river system Wasn t long before groups of nomadic peoples began settling in the Indus River valley area and then gradually began moving eastward o Indra Mounted on His Elephant Airvata O 0000 Indra was the god of the heavens a very powerful god I Every god had an animal I Had all his weapons because he was a great diamond killer Relief sculpture in a cave Bhaja Maharashtra India 2quot l century BCE Key Terms I Vedic people called themselves Arians the noble ones 0 had a big impact on India still felt today 0 had a very hierarchical social order 0 had a total of nearly 33 male gods 0 rudiments of a religiously sanctioned cast system 0 Not much art is left from this period 0 Sanskrit and Sacred Texts O O O O Sanskrit the language of the Vedic people now the classic literary language of India RigVeda the oldest of these texts a collection of 1028 hymns to the gods Devas I Date of 1700 and 1100 BCE I Indra heaven Angi Fire and Soman Sacred Potion Surya Sun god Chief among the Vedic Gods I Preserved in oral tradition not written form I Considered sruti heard or revealed literature I Of divine origin not human made I Each hymn attributed to specific rishi a holy man 4 sacred texts developed during the Vedic Period Vedas Skt knowledge sacred teachings o The Basic World View of the Vedas 0 Life is a battle between the forces of good the gods or devas and the forces of evil the daemons or asuras between order and chaos Fire is the mouth of the gods fire is the means of offering sacrifices to nourish the gods who maintain the universe Brahmin priests are the ritual specialists who conduct the rituals sing the hymns to the gods and make the fire sacrifices o The Upanishads Connections c 800 BCE600 BCE 0 Primary philosophical concern the nature of reality is the interconnectedness of all things 0 Key Terms pages 6062 Mayathe material world in which we think we live is considered to be an illusion or a dream Brahman Formlessness the nonphysical dimension in which we actually live the nonmaterial reality Atman the human soul or consciousness Atman is part of Brahman We have become separated from our true self because we are caught up in Maya Karma Karman the law of cause and effect every thought and every action makes an imprint on our soul and our conscience Samsara a very long cycle of death and rebirth You live many times from the lowest animal till you are a human Moksa quotliberationquot once one has become free of Maya one can live in a very peaceful and blissful way Nirvana when you are released from the cycle of rebirth and find absolute peace India 2 0 Holy Man at Varanasi on the Ganges River 0 Vedic religion reshaped 800400 BCE by holy sages in the Ganges River Valley 0 Teachings and wisdom of this period recorded in the Upanishads o Ascetic means training but used to describe a lifestyle of abstinence religious communities composed of shramanas Skt those who strive o Janism and Buddhism and Hinduism developed new approaches to spirituality became enduring religious traditions o Mahavira in the Shri Mahaveerji Temple 0 Shri Mahaveerji Rajasthan 0 Found ofJanism Vardhamana Prince warrior caste son of chieftain Renounced birthright became a wandering mendicant Attained moksa through asceticism and medication after 12 years Known as Mahavira Skt great hero after he achieved moska Became teacher for 30 years Immortal essence Jiva Eliminate negative karmic accretions that imprison one s Jiva 0 Right conduct no harm ahimsa o Compassion for all living things Ascetic life style 0 Mediation o Mahavira in the Cosmic Preaching Hall 0 Illumination from Kalpasutra MS 15th century 0 24 Jain heroic teachers knon as Jinas liberators victors conquerers Mahavira in the 24th and last of these sages Jinas preached from cosmic temple the heroic sages who have achieved moska Yantra also mandala instruments of support for medication o A mystical diagraph which is an abstract diagram of the internal energy patterns of the holy person Sabha Mandapa o Vimal Vashi Temple in the Dilwara Temple complex 0 Mount Abu Rajasthan 1031 o Built by Vimal Shah o Mandapa assembly hall Sacred Lake and ndragiri Hill of Sravanabelagola 0 Sacred Jain pilgrimage site since the 10thc o VardhamanaMahavira five major festival celebrations I Conception birth renunciation liberation final release at death 0 Other festival celebrations for the other Jinas o Gommatta celebrated at Sravanabelagola The second Jina Gommata aka Bahubali the handsome one o ndragiri Hill Sravanabelagola 10th century Maha Mashthaka Abhisheka o The head anointing ceremony o lustration India 3 Ganges river and Tributaries Gongotri glacier source of Bhagirathi River Bhagirathi River feeds the Ganges Ganges begins at Gaumak on the IndiaTibetan border Sadhu holy man on the banks of the Ganges o Hinduism I Roots Vedic Brahmanism I Widespread popularity began 5th century I Life a pilgrimage toward releasing atman from maya illustion o Patanjali established yogic system in his treatise the Yoga Sutra Brahma Shiva Vishnu svarapersonalized manifestations of Brahman the gods and goddesses Rasa Skt relish passion Darshan Skt sight viewing Trimurti Great Trinity Brahma the center Vishnu the preserver Shiva the destroyer Shakti female cosmic energy Mahadevi o Mahabharata Ramayana Puranas literary sources for visual imagery OOOOOOOOO Reading Chapter 3 pages 6064 Hindus 0 Believe the material world around them Maya is an illusion Only Brahman the all inclusive universal and eternal spiritual reality that extends to all temporal and divine beings is real and everlasting Nirvana a supreme form of enlightenment that frees you from all earthly concerns and desires o In sankrit it means to extinguish of blowout 0 Yoga form of meditation and discipline Means to quotyokequot o Attempt to yoke themselves to higher spiritual forces 0 Moksa state of pure consciousness and bliss o Darsana the act of visualizing the gods 0 Hindu temples o Envision them as cosmic mountains with a small inner chamber or sacred cave called quotthe womb I The womb is accented by the tall peaklike tower above it might contain symbolic images of the male and female principles that represent the unity of the cosmos o Buddhist temples 0 Some tall temples in the center 0 Surrounded by walls an smaller temples o Stupa a large hilllike shrine that symbolizes the world mountain and dome of heaven 0 Rasa the emotional reaction of pleasure and satisfaction that the visual arts music poetry and drama can give to the senses and spirit of the viewer o Indus Valley 0 The earliest Indian civilization 0 In presentday Pakistan and reaching into Afghanistan and northwest Indian 0 Called Harappan civilization 0 Economy was based on cultivation of wheat barley and peas and on trade with the Mesopotamians and others to the west 0 Houses in the city were up to three stories tall Reading Chapter 3 pages 8789 0 Jainists 0 Only about one half of a percent of Indians are Jainists 0 They believe a soul that has achieved the ultimate state of supreme being is called a jina 0 An ancient Jain text says that standing jinas should be shown quotwith posture straight and stretched with youthful limbs and without clothes the fingers reaching the knees o Tirthankaras quotfordmakersquot or quotpathfindersquot spiritually advanced humans who achieved enlightenment and subsequently became spiritual guides for later Jainists 0 Every 12 years a group of nude monks bathe the colossus at Karnataka o Nudity is not meant to be sensual I Renunciation of the world and indifference to the needs of the body 0 Jain temples have highly ornate pillars and cusped arches with finely detailed carvings on their domed ceilings


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