Bio Lecture 9: Evolution and Development
Bio Lecture 9: Evolution and Development BIO 209L-001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kiara Reyes on Tuesday September 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 209L-001 at Northern Illinois University taught by Dr. Renee Kopulos in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I Lab - SL in Biological Sciences at Northern Illinois University.
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Date Created: 09/22/15
Lecture 7 Evolution and Development Terms Developmentgradual change in an organism during its lifetime Organism Level Morphogenesis Shape Formation A B C D Formation of major body parts Locations head vs tail back vs belly eyes limbs Repetition Segmentation legs teeth then specialization arms vs legs canine vs incisor Change in timingrate developing Heteochrony meaning if structure starts growing sooner more exaggerated by adult Example Zebragt grows earlier thicker strips Zebragt grows later thinner strips Result in reproductively mature adults that resemble juvenile Poedomorphsis Note some adult animals resemble or look like offsprings Genetic Level Techniques to identify genes controlling development Trying to nd what genes control growth spam A Find locus or multiple loci control traits compare their DNA sentence and make sure there are no different in environment Note DNA sentencegt If both genes are identical then the genetic isn t the causeproblem Can also create Knockout making a gene inactive and putting it in mutation messing it up Example Control KnockoutMutation Baby fetus has eyes Baby fetus has no eyes Cell Molecular Level Development 0 Cell Differentiation process of cell specialization in structure and function Note In cell it may have all the genes but only certain genes will function Cytoplasmic determination Induction 2 different molecules in unfertillzed egg and sperm gtFertilization zygote gt Mitoic cell division cells transferred from one cell to another different partplaces Genetic Level Some loci affect spatial organization location and arrangement of body parts 0 Much of this controlled by Homeotic Genes Where different structure develop Hox Gene Important group of homeotic genes in animals Multiple copies due to Gene Duplication Expressed in the same order that they are arranged in chromosomes Expressing genes in the wrong segments can cause serious different in Phenotype Plant Development Like animals plants development includes morphogenesis different from development 0 In different plants cells also go differentiation to make different kinds of plant and tissues 0 Groups of development genes are important in plants too o MADS box genes are homeotic genes that control owers from in similar to how Hox Genes control body part formation in animals Spaced Used 0 Plants contain Hox Genes and animals contain MADS Box genes but they don t control development in either Likely inherted from singlecoiled common ancestor Programmed cell death Apoptosis disappears 9 Certain cells starts to form a shapepart of body around main cell while the rest of the cells die out 0 Molecular control of gene expression 9 Genes turn quotonoff makes more less or none of their gene products 0 DNA gt RNA gt Proteins is chemical reactions so any signal that can affect a chemical reaction can affect gene expression 9 Transcription Factor RNA or Protein bind to DNA and promote or block transcription Example Pax 6 gene gt Pax 6 protein that regulates other genes Control vs Mutation with eyes wout eyes 0 Gene Regulatory Network collection of gene that interact with each other indirectly often through RNA and proteins products 9 One gene causesconnect one triats Helps promoting or blocking
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