Anthropology 101 Weeks 2 and 3 Notes Prof. Everett and Pestle
Anthropology 101 Weeks 2 and 3 Notes Prof. Everett and Pestle 101-C
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kendall Cromartie on Monday September 15, 2014. The Class Notes belongs to 101-C at University of Miami taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 449 views. For similar materials see Intro to Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 09/15/14
Anthropology Notes Weeks 2 and 3 Week 2 9314 Material Culture 9514 Culture gt Behaviors gt Material culture artifacts o Archaeologists study these artifacts Change in material culture means there was a change in behavior meaning a change in culture Archaeology gives us a diachronic through time view Biggest change in archaeological history of our species was agriculture 0 Previously everyone had been nomadic o This change occurred extremely fast from an evolutionary perspective Ethnocentrism my culture is the best culture 0 Cultural relativism Time labor Property Health Population organized by kinships vs by class How pop around the world adopted agriculture 0 Series of small changes 0 Increase in human pop created an increase in the need for food 0 We started havingproducing more food than needed I Population growth pace increases I As more food is produced population grows and then more food is needed so on and so on Darwin 18091882 0 Convinced people about the reality of evolution 0 Natural selection 0 He had no idea of genetics so wo understanding the fundamentals of heritability and change 0 Observations I Species have high potential fertility and pop would grow exponentially yet pop size is normally stable I Nat resources limited I No two individuals exactly the same I Much of nat variation is heritable o Inferences I More bom than can be supported by av resources leads to competition for survival I Survival not random 0 Depends on genetics I Over generations selection leads to a genetic change in the population 0 Theory of evolution I Descent with modification gradualism I Multiplication of species single common ancestor I All driven by natural selection 0 Alfred Russell Wallace 18231913 0 Environment is key to evolutionary survivalnatural selection 0 Darwin s theory is still relevant because 0 It can be observed I Small scale microevolutionary changes in nature I Artificial selection I Long term macroevolutionary changes in fossil record 0 Homologies and vestigial structures in organisms 0 Single best explanation for the patterning of the diversity of life on the planet Week 3 9814 NonHuman Primate Societies 0 Social living 0 Humans and other nonhuman primates cannot survive alonesolitarily 0 Benefits I Protection from predation I Access to resources food I Access to mates I Assistance in care of offspring 0 Pronounced degree of sexual dimorphism o Bigger males can fight off bigger predators and other males for mating 0 Humans are not biologically monogamous 91014 NonHuman Primate Societies cont 0 Social chatter conversation 0 Very close motherchild bonds 0 At times aunts will care for children in the mother s absence or at rare times even the father 0 K Select 0 few offspring at once and longer life spans vs R Select like rodents 0 Eating certain plants outside the usual diet with health benefits 0 Ex antiparasite leaves 0 Hominins o Bipedalism Larger brains Dentaldietary changes Longer life history OOOO Material culture I Language 0 Theories on bipedalism 0 Energy efficiency 0 Predation avoidance o Feeding from bushestall grasses I Carrying 0 Heat dispersal 0 Benefits of a larger brain 0 Exploitation of patchy resources ecological intelligence 0 Predator avoidance 0 Social negotiation the social brain 0 Development of complex culture technical intelligence I Language I Tools I Clothing shelter 91214 The Brain 0 Several parts in the brain 0 Folds allow room for more neurons 0 Cortex broken up into two halves 0 Language happens in the Broca s production and Wemicke s comprehension area left hemisphere 0 Parts of the brain being removed during infancy often will not affect you but if it is removed during adulthood it can severely impact you 0 Eardrum vibrates and causes bones in ear to tap out messages inside the ear 0 Send info through nerves from ear to brain end up in the Wernicke s area 0 Vibrating vocal cords produces sounds o The faster they vibrate the higher the frequency of the sound you produce 0 Primal purpose of the vocal cords is to block food from entering the lungs