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Week of 9/14 Notes

by: Sydney Miller

Week of 9/14 Notes ANTH 161 001

Sydney Miller
Human Origins: An Introduction to Biological Anthropology
Dr. De La Cova

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One week of notes
Human Origins: An Introduction to Biological Anthropology
Dr. De La Cova
Class Notes
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sydney Miller on Tuesday September 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 161 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Dr. De La Cova in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Human Origins: An Introduction to Biological Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of South Carolina.


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Date Created: 09/22/15
Anthropology Notes 915918 09202015 Natural Selection in Humans amp the Sickle Cell Gene o Homozygous recessive persons low reproductive success NS in humans amp Malaria 39 NS Leads to Organism I Genes good enough to survive amp reproduce are passed on Human Variation Race is new concept suggests origins in the interaction with new groups o of these new peoples Scienti c Race Blumenbach Scienti c study of race emerges in 18th c o Marked a shift from geography to appearance What is race 0 Race what is it Race what is it not 0 Why not 0 Race amp Why its not a biological reality There is to one another than chimps are to each other How were perceived How we perceive the world 0 race very different in America vs Latin America once againcutura construct what we see our phenotypes 18th c Latin America had colonial diversity Growth amp Development 0 Increase in mass or number of cells gradual increase amp development of body to full size showing o Differentiation of cells amp their subsequent maturation A sequence of orderly often irreversible changes can occur with or without an increase in size immaturity maturity 0 Total body growth cell growth that occurs 2 ways 0 increase in cell number 0 increase in cell size Progression of changes quantitative or qualitative that lead from an undifferentiated or immature state to a highly organized specialized amp mature state immaturity maturity o Heredity will in uence size amp form 0 DNA provides blueprint that schedules growth Accelerates body growth Released more by boys Leads to muscle growth body amp facial hair Development of male sexual organs Linear growth of long bones Released more by girls Maturation of breasts sexual organs fat accumulation Regulates liver production of cholesterol Maintains body temps 0 In uence development from birth death o A child s growth rate re ects perhaps better than any other single index o Other conditions Allows us to Growth Cycle 0 Growth in height can be recorded in 2 different ways 0 used to plot growth from 1 year to next 0 refers to increments in growth value from year to year Created by National Center for Health Statistics amp CDC 0 Plot by sex amp age 0 Based on rank a child s growth in comparison to children in reference population Assess nutritional status because Process of Human Growth Orderly sequence of events o Infancy o Adolescence Rate of growth of different tissues varies with age 0 Body composition also changes Growth Cycle 5 postnatal periods have a 0 we can measure this using 0 Growth levels after infancy slow but is o Requires a diet rich in fats protein amp energy o 0 Major brain growth completed 0 Growth slows 0 Large brain socialization amp education 0I 0 Development of secondary sexual characteristics Sexual maturation Menstruation menarche amp breast development in females Facial hair deepening voice males Development of genetalia L Chronological age Thursday 917 Peak Height Velocity Growth without stressors o 2443 inchesyear for girls 0 2847 inchesyear for boys Adolescent Awkwardness o body parts grow at different rates leading to teenager gawkiness Period during growth spurt where o Exists primarily in o Gangly cracking voice o Dimorphism Stop growing by 18 At puberty small time frame Grow until 2125 Postnatal Stage Signaled by Reaching o of long bone epiphyses Growth amp development involve the o The process of maturation amp the various social cultural biological amp behavioral events that occur over a lifetime 0 Biological changes in later adulthood 0 Reduction in o Body s ability to keep all systems stable in the race of mounting environmental stress o Senescence in females 50 years but variable 0 marks end of month cycle amp ability to reproduce 0 Reduction in bone density 0 Linked to reduced estrogen levels in females 0 Compression fractures o Dowagers limp Growth used to understand the of an individual or population through use of 0 Health conditions as in uenced by the intake amp use of nutrients 0 Poor nutrition status under nutrition amp over nutrition 0 Inadequate amount of calories ampor nutrients or body s inability to absorb o Stunted growth underweight vitamin mineral de ciency 0 Result of consumption of excessive amounts of calorie nutrients vitamins ampor mineras increase in weight gain O O O O O O O 0 Catch up Growth Growth charts CDCNCHS Weight for age Heightlength for age Weightheight BMIAge Head circumferenceage Skinfolds mid upper arm circumference Continues until reach previous growth curve 0 Children have been getting bigger amp heavier over last century 0 Change in body sizegrowth over generations 0 Especially true in industrialized countries Human Variation amp Human Adaptation 0 Even though we are all members of the same species there is 0 Sizes hair shapes facial characteristics colors susceptibility to disease eye shapes o Caused by evolutionary process amp genetic change 0 These changes allow humans to adapt to environment changes hence variation 0 Genetic information transmitted at several levels 0 DNA 0 Gene 0 Chromosomes o Genome Biological beings continually work to maintain o Enables living things to better meet the demands of a changing environment on a daily basis Lightdark Coldheat Abundantscarce resources 0 Physical environments place stress upon biological beings 0 We cope by adjusting to these stresses We adapt Level of the population via natural selection Level of individual during growth amp development Not inherited amp not reversible Chest size amp altitude Short term change reversible Material culture allows us to culturally adapt in certain settings Adjustments to stress short term amp ong O alteration in response to environmental change characterized by all individuals within a population or species Body proportions Biological adjustments that occur during an individuals lifetime Development adaptations which are permanent amp response to environment change can disappear both occur in n coldhot high altitude some have led to adaptation genetic Sunlight amp dark skin Before populations of humans migrated extensively 0 As modern humans evolved in Africa As people migrated toward northern latitudes amp colder climates over course of 1000s of years 0 Long term genetic 0 Short term physiological 0 As humans migrated out of Africa 0 UV rays not as dangerous Colder temps less sunlight seasonality Melanin production tapered Humans adjusted culturally 0 Fire clothing shelters Lack of sunlight caused other problems


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