Chapter 1: Learning and Teaching Today
Chapter 1: Learning and Teaching Today PSYC 207-051
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cece Hodge on Tuesday September 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 207-051 at Louisiana Tech University taught by Brandon Waits, M. A. in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Educational Psychology in Psychlogy at Louisiana Tech University.
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Date Created: 09/22/15
Chapter One Outline Learning and Teaching Today What is Good Teaching The Role of Educational Psychology Learning and Teaching Today Student Today Dramatic Diversity and Remarkable Technology Facts about diversity in our schools 13 of US aliens in 2010 20 speak more than one language outside of school 16 mil US kids live in poverty Average white household wealth 18x higher than hispanic 20 times higher than black 1 in 6 have mild to severe developmental disability Commonalities in the midst of diversity students share technology literacy more technology literate than teachers Confidence in every context Teachers sense of efficacy belief in their own abilities to reach even difficult students to help them learn High selfefficacy a personal characteristic of teachers that predicts student achievement associated with harder work greater persistence when students are difficult to teach associated with lower rate of burnout high No Child Left Behind NCLB Act 2002 Annual standardized achievement tests in reacting math for students in grade 38 Testing in science less frequently Basis for judging schools determining whether students made adequate yearly progress All students required to reach proficiency by the end of the 201314 school year scores often used to punish schools for missing proficiency goals Criticized for negative consequences Do teachers make a difference Many studies indicate teachers make a difference quality of teacherstudent relationships predicts a number of academic and behavior outcomes through grade 8 better behavior if teachers are sensitive to students needs provide frequent and consistent feedback Quality of teaching and student achievement students in top quartile teachers classrooms increase test scores 5 from beginning of year to end students in low quartile teachers classrooms fall farther behind students who have problems benefit most from good teaching Models of good teaching Framework for teaching Charlotte Danielson identifies 22 components knowledgeskills in four domains of teacher responsibilities that promote learning 1 Planning and prep responsibilities 2 classroom environment responsibilities 3 instruction responsibilities 4 Professional responsibilities TeachingWorks national project at Univ Michigan Identifies 19 high leverage practicesactions Measures of Effective Teaching Gates Foundation Project 3 measure Student gains on state tests surveys of students perceptions of teachers classroom observations Beginning Teachers Often experience reality shock Only partially prepared for full responsibilities of teaching through student teaching Focus concerns on classroom discipline motivating students accommodating differences and more Ask How am i doing With XP shift from focus on self to students How are the kids doing Judging success by their accomplishments The Role of Educational Psychology Beginnings Issues discussed by Plato and Aristotle Role of teacher teaching methods natureorder of learning teacherstudent relationship History of edu psychology in US William James Harvard 1890 lecture series G Stanley Hall student of James EL Thornedike first educational psychology text 1903 founder of Journal of Educational Psychology 1910 Educational Psychology Today Views as distinct discipline with its own theories research methods problems techniques also applies methods and theories of psych Research focused on learning and etching Working to improve edu policy and practice Using Research to understand and improve learning Descriptive studies Collect detailed info about specific situations using observation surveys interviews recordings Results often include reports of correlations Correlation studies statistical description of how closely two variables are related Positive Relationship between variables shows one decreases together Negative relationship between variables shows one increasing while one decreases Experimental Studies Experimental studies look at cause and effect Variables are manipulated and effects recorded Participants subjects People being studied Random Subjects are randomly grouped for study Quasiexperimental studies using naturally existing groupings such as classes or schools as the subjects An aspect of situation is changed for one group not others Compare results of each group statistically significant differences not likely to occur by chance Correlations do NOT show causation Singlesubject design determine effects of a therapy teaching method other intervention Clinical Interviews Case Studies Ethnographies Clinical Interview Pioneered by Jean Piaget Openended questioning to probe responses follow up on answers Case Studies Investigation of one person or situation Example Interviewing family members teachers friends to identify students for gifted program Ethnography Study of naturally occurring events in life of a group to understand meaning of events to the people Participate observation Researcher becoming participant in the group being studied The Role of Time in Research Longitudinal Studies Happen over months or years Study of cognitive development Involves keeping up with kids for years Cross sectional Study groups of numbers chafes from age 316 Interview children of difference ages Microgenetic studies Observationanalysis of changes in a cognitive processes as it unfolds days or weeks Observe period of change make many observations put observed behavior Under a Microscope Quanlitative vs Qualitative Research Qualitative Use words dialogue events images as data Goal explore specific situationspeople in depth understand meaning of events to people involved interpret subjective or socially constructed meanings as in case studies Quantitative take measurements make calculations use numbers statistics to assess relationships Evidencebased practice Integrate best available research with insights of expert practitioners and knowledge of the client What kind of research should guide education Complementary methods using both qualitative and quantitative methods to fit questions Teachers as Research Action Research systematic observations tests methods conducted by teachers to improve teachinglearning Uses same kind of observation intervention data gathering analysis as large research projects Ex of problemsolving investigations focused on a specific Theories of Teaching Principles An established relationship between factors Theory Integrated statement of principles that attempts to explain a mystery and make predictions Hypothesis a prediction of what will happen in a research study based on theory and previous research Research Cycle Empirical Process based on systematically collected data to test and improve theories steps in the process state hypothesis or research questions gather and analyze data interpret and analyze data gathered modify formulate law Supporting Student Learning Factors that support k12 student achievement student person factors student engagement learning strategies school and socialcontextual factors school climate socialfamilial influences Educational psychology addresses these factors