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Date Created: 09/15/14
Chapter 3 Energy Catalysis amp Biosynthesis 0 Living things create amp maintain order in universe that is tending always toward greater disorder 0 Living organism requires both a source of atoms in the form of food molecules amp E source 0 Most chem rxns that cells perform happen norm temps higher than those in cells 0 Boost of E provided by specialized protein called accelerate or rxns a particular molecule might undergo O Boost of a molecule over an E barrier before it can undergo chem rxn to a lowerE stable state o In case of burning paper activation E provided by heat 0 Enzymes can39t by themselves force energetically unfavorable rxns to occur 0 acceleration of specific chem rxns needed to sustain life 0 Long linear rxn pathways are linked together forming complex web of interconnected rxns 0 Necessity for benefit 0 sum of all chem rxns a cell carries out to survive grow reproduce o Metaboismcataboism rxns anabolism rxns o breaks down foodstuffs into smaller molecules generating useful form of E for cells and molecules needed as building blocks 0 biosynthetic pathways use E harnessed by catabolism to drive synthesis of molecules that form cell 0 Small chem building blocks into macromolecules 0 Sugars gt polysaccharides 0 Amino acids gt proteins 0 Nucleotides gt nucleic acids 0 Fatty acids gt lipids o in a universe or any isolated system the degree of disorder can only increase 0 Systems will change spontaneously toward those arrangements that have the greatest probability 0 Measure of systems disorder 0 Greater the disorder greater the entropy 0 Systems will change spontaneously towards arrangements with greater entropy 0 Because cell isn39t isolated system heat E generated by its rxns is quickly dispersed into cells surroundings 0 Heat increases intensity of thermal motions of nearby molecules increasing entropy of envuon O Amt of heat released by cell must be great enough that the increased order generated inside the cell is more than compensated for by the increased disorder generated in the envwon o E can39t be created nor destroyed can be converted from one form to another 0 process that converts electromagnetic E into sunlight into chembond E cells 0 E from sunlight captured and stored as chembond E in specialized molecules 0 Used to help drive in which sugars are manufactured from CO2 gas 0 E extracted from food molecules by process of gradual controlled burning 0 Cell able to obtain E from sugars and organic molecules by allowing C amp H atoms in molecules to combine with O2 become to produce CO2 and H20 respectiveyprocess known as 0 Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are complementary processes Oxidation literally means addition of oxygen atoms to molecule 0 Said to occur in any rxn in which e are transferred from one atom to another 0 Removal of e from an atom oxidations involves addition of e to atom s reductions Reduction and oxidation always occur simultaneously 0 If one molecule gains an e reduction a second must lose one oxidation 0 Terms apply even when there is only partial shift of e bw atoms linked by covalent bond formed when an atom gives more than equal share of e To tell whether an organic molecule is being oxidizedreduced count out CH bonds 0 If bonds increase reduction 0 If bonds decrease oxidation Free E changes reflect how much total disorder is generated in the universe by a rxn Ex burning paper releases 2 E that can be harnessed to do work or drive chem rxns in this case heat Chem rxns only proceed in direction that leads to loss of free E 0 The spontaneous direction of any rxn is the direction that goes quotdownhillquot 0 quotdownhillquot rxns are said to be energetically favorable Enzymes bind tightly to molecules called