Stem Cells, Stem Cell Theory, The Cell Cycle
Stem Cells, Stem Cell Theory, The Cell Cycle BIOL 121N
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dominick Ramos on Tuesday September 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 121N at Old Dominion University taught by DOUGLAS J MILLS in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see GENERAL BIOLOGY I in Biological Sciences at Old Dominion University.
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Date Created: 09/22/15
General Biology Stem Cells A stem cell is an unspecialized cell that can divide to produce What is o stem cell J replicate itself or another stem cell Mingle cellthotcon J a progenitor cell that can develop U into a specific cell type 9 difgletren oteir o many A stem cell has the ability to reproduce C59 39539 Q specialized cells like brain cells for an I I quot J 39 indefinite period Uses 0 Human development research 0 Drug development 0 Cell therapy Types of Stem Cells o Totipotents o Pluripotents o Multipotents Totipotent Stem Cells Embryonic stem cells are derived from blastocysts embryos that are about a week old When the cells are deposited into a dish the blastocyst is then destroyed in the process Can develop into 0 An individual 0 Every cell type there are about 200 Embryonic stem cells in the human embryo remain totipotent until the embryo reaches the 8 cell stage Pluripotent Stem Cells Pluripotent stem cells have the potential to develop into any cell type in the body Sources of Pluripotent Stem Cells include Embryo after the 8cell stage 0 Umbilical cord blood 0 Some parts of the placenta Multipotent Stem Cells AKA Adult Stem Cells General Biology Stem Cells 0 Infants children and adults have adult stem cells that enable the body to grow renew repair and defend against disease 0 Somatic stem cells Elia Eat cys taiminig allowable EH SEEN zeal 5 a as ballastsaid EIUi i p t i 5E5 fr mi llquot nae IE39EEI me 3955 Fa haairi tzip sei H5 may 555 meienchga ma jIZi IESEUEEJE Ei E 545 mnm e a Llfi39itlhi m c ei IEEEIE all HE39I39HEruE 5r SEEII39I F banHi f llTll g fi film Where Stem Cells are Strategically Located Somatic Stem Cells Most of the areas of the body listed below are areas where stem cells are common and have specificspecialized functions 0 Bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells can be used to make every type of blood cell 0 Brain 0 Eyes 0 Heart 0 Intestine 0 Lung General Biology Stem Cells 0 Muscle 0 Skin 0 Teeth 0 Hair Ex in medicine today we see a bunch of specialization If you have a problem with your eyes you see an eye doctor if you have a problem with your kidneys you see an endocrinologist Tissue Engineering 0 Produce organs to reduce organ shortages 0 Eliminate the rejection of transplanted organs and tissues 0 Produce tissues such as skin to treat burn victims CUSTOMIZED ORGANS To construct a new heart researchers first remove all cells from a donor organ left leavmg a protein scalfold That is seeded with cells centre which mature under the Influence of growth factors and mechamcal stimulation right A pulsing flow of nutrients forces Detergents are r pumped Into the the heart to beat aorta filling the arteries that feed the heart Endothelial precursor cells are pumped into the blood vessels Heart muscle precursor cells are Injected Into 1 muscle spaces THE EXTRA CELILULAR MATRX ALLOWS EM AuLT STEM gestalti grsiss crews To Aortic valve 1 shuts Left atrium Detergents llow through the existing blood vessels dissolvmg the cells General Biology Stem Cells TUET E ETIIT EUIE EIIIIEETIEHE IIIIHAT IE THE EiUHEEHF TTIE39HTEHT ETIII EELLEE39 IIIHET IE THE LIHIEIJE HEIIIITT E TTIEEHT ETEHI EEELET EEEEEIE THE ETIEE ET39ETFTEHTI ELHEFTEHT HULTEFTEHT EH IE39E ETEIII EELLEI HHET EEE EHE ELI HETIEHEEE THE EEHLT ETEH EELLE H THE EEETE HHET EEE EEHIE MEETIEH HF MET ETEHIEEILLEIH THE EET I39 IHHT AH TH HLHHIHTEHT ETIE ELLE IH TH HHILIHHL EH LE IHE 39ELLEETEE FEEI EEEIE IHEEHTE AT IITTH AHIT HHHIIIHH EHTLT ETEHEITE HiTII EHL AHLT ETEEI ELL THHEHI IEIF39HTE THEEEIIELITTHF LIFE HUHEH EEHLT ETEEI ELLE HHE EIHE IHHEETIEIITE T THEET IHHIEH IEHITHE IH IIIIE T IHHT IE THE IHJ EETIHH HF STEMELLE IHTH THE HUMEH EEETE HEITIEEL HIEH T IHHAT EHE TH HEITE HF TIEEIIE EHEIHEHIHEE THE EHTEEEEELLULEE METRE THE TEU39ETHHE THET HE HEEELLE TEEETHETE FEM TIEEHEEEHEEEEEHE HEW IE IT EEIHE H m EEEEHEE TIME EHEIHEEEIHE E General BiologyThe Cell Theory What is a Cell Cells are remarkably complex systems 0 A typical cell 0 Contains greater than 105 different molecules 0 Performs greater than 106 chemical reactions 0 quotEach cell is complex like the universe The cell is most fundamental unit of life 0 The cell is the smallest biological unit that can 0 Acquire and process energy independently 0 Repair itself independently o Reproduce independently The Cell Theorv Theorya model or explanation that is consistent with all known results from replicated experimentation Hypothesisa testable solution to a question in nature Most species consist of a single cell 0 Most prokaryote and eukaryote species are complex singlecell forms A variety of species consist of multiple cells 0 Multicellular species consist of many cell types that must interact in order to defend develop grow renew repair and reproduce a fullyfunctional organism 0 Each cell type performs a unique set of essential functions in the body Many cell types are required to form the human body The human body consists of o 220 cell types 0 Between 60200 trillion total cells Our body consists of many cells that are used for movement repair detecting and attacking foreign invaders reproduction etc General BiologyThe Cell Theory Prokargotic cell Eukergotic cell Plasma membrane Cutoplasm DNA Nucleoid region Ll Nucleus Ribosomes 10100 pm Eukarvotic Cells Eukaryotic cells contain a nucleus have specialized internal compartments that are comprised of one or more membranes 0 Each organelle has a unique biochemical function due to its containment of enzymes and other chemicals 0 Each organelle makes a unique contribution to the cell s overall function 0 Are usually bigger than prokaryotic cells Eukaryote Eukaryotes are species that contain one or more eukaryotic cells Ex animals plants fungi Cytoplasmthe contents of the cell QMthe space between the organelle Prokaryotic Cells Prokaryotic cells lack a nucleus probefore karyotenucleus Before nucleus and lack other organelles that are surrounded by a membrane 0 Typically smaller than eukaryotic cells 0 Can be spherical rod shaped spiral Prokaryotic cells contain internal compartments Internal compartments within prokaryotic cells are microcompartment 0 Each microcompartment 0 Has a unique biochemical function due to its unique set of enzymes and other chemicals 0 Make a unique essential contribution to the cell function 0 Surrounded by a protein shell Proka ryotes General BiologyThe Cell Theory Prokaryotes consist of one cell Ex archaea bacteria 0 Have a single chromosome 0 First cells to appear in the fossil record Tissues A tissue is a group of cells organized into a functional unit 0 Simple tissues made of one cell type 0 Complex tissues made up of multiple cell types Epithelial Tissue Covers all parts of the body exposed to the outside world Forms a protective barrier to protect against foreign invaders microbes viruses Moves foreign particles in the mucous membranes Has sensory abilities Absorbtion food molecules during digestion Secretion digestive substances mucous sebum sweat Permits gas exchange 02 amp C02 Connective Tissue Think about it as the glue to connect other types of tissues cells ENABLES PROPER CELL DEVELOPMENT SUPPLIESSTORES HORMONES PROVIDES SITES FOR MUSCLE ATTACHMENT CONNECTS MUSCLE TISSUE TO EPITHELIAL TISSUE PROVIDES NUTRIENT SUPPLY TO EPITHELIAL TISSUE STRETCH ES ELASTICITY CUSHIONS JOINTS ENERGY STORAGE ADIPOSE TISSUE SYSTEMIC TRANSPORT BLOOD PHYSICAL SUPPORT SKELETON TISSUE REPAIR FIBROBLASTS Muscle Tissue Gives the body the ability to move Skeletal striated muscle tissue gives us the ability to move our bones Smooth organ muscle enables the body to adjust the size and shape of organs and blood vessels Cardiac heart muscle tissue provides the heart with pumping ability General BiologyThe Cell Theory Nervous Tissue Coordinates the bodies activities PERFORMS RAPID LONGDISTANCE COMMUNICATION SENSES EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL CONDITIONS CAPTURES PROCESSES AND INTEGRATES MULTIPLE TYPES OF INFORMATION GENERATES THE PROPER BODILY RESPONSE BASED ON THE INFORMATION IT COLLECTS AND PROCESSES ENABLES COGNITION CREATIVITY DECISIONMAKING LEARNING MEMORIES EMOTIONS Dermal Tissue of Plants Convers the outer surfaces of all plant organs fruit flowers leaves roots and stems and is specialized for Absorption Gas exchange Physical barrier to invaders Secretion Structural support Waterproofing Ground Tissue of Plants Specialized for Photosynthesis Structural support Storage Vascular Tissue Connects all parts of the plant tissue and is specialized for SYSTEMIC TRANSPORT STRUCTU RAL SUPPORT STORAGE General BiologyThe Cell Theory THAT S ETUT GUllE ElllEETmHs llllHlEH EHEEEETEEIETIEE DFIH E EELLE WHH EEHFT WHELHEE EHEIIllEElll 39lllllEE bl Ellquot EHHIllEE lI IlEL THEFTE E L lEEE EEEEEIEE E H f E TEFEELEELL lE EE EIZET39IlF39LEEEE THE HHHEEEET Him HEH T Tl39llFEE DE ELIE EEEHTT EHEHIEEEE EHE FHEEEHT Hll E EliHElLE EEELE lIl llllElll l TITH39FEE E EHElEEl EEEE39ITIEE ii 1 LI Illl E EilllEILE EELll T EEEI Eli F TH E Ell HEHIEHTEL IFFEEEHEEEETWEH F39EHEETETIE EELLE EH Ill EMEEEEHTIE EELLEm HlHET E EH HEEHELLE EELLE EEHTEIH EEEEHELLEE HlHET E E FEETllIl EHT39 iIHHEE E EE ETHE r EEHHEE lilllHET EHEELEE EEE HEHELLE T FEEFE EE E UHllELlE EET E FHHETI EHE lHlTHlH EH EHHEETTIEEELL 1 lllllH llr EHEEE UHEEEETI E ELL ELIIEE 39EMFLETEET F FULLTEFU quotwarm HEEEH ELLEEE lllll39l ll EDEEE FEEHEETETTE EELL HEEHIHE EET EF LETE EET lilF FULL E FUHETIHEL HlEEEEHFE TTEEHTEE HlHET E E EHFLETEEUEE iE HET lE E EEEE FLEE TIEEHEE WHETEH E TH FMHETTIHEHF E EH F TH E ELIE WEE F EH llilEL TIEEIJ EEE39 WHETEEE THE FUHE THEEF EEEH F TH E TH EEE TEFEEEF FLEHTTEEUEET Biol121NCell Cycle Our bodies must precisely control cell division The division of adult stem cells must be precisely regulated for the body in order to 0 Develop and grow 0 Defend itself 0 Renew o Repau o Reproduce The Cell Cycle The cell cycle is the sequence of events in an adult stem cell s life from the time it is produced by the division of its parent stem cell until it divides to produce two identical quotdaughter cells Phases of the Cell Cycle DNA Copied 8 A Is prepa Division 61 First Gap Phase o the cell commits to divide o the cell makes the nucleotide building blocks of DNA 0 the cell duplicates many of its organelles 5 Synthesis Phase 0 DNA replication 62 Second Gap Phase 0 Cell makes the final preparations to divide Biol121NCell Cycle M Mitotic Phase 0 The cell divides to produce two identical cells daughter cells GoNonDividing Phase 0 Cell can reenter the cell cycle at the G1 phase when the body needs the cell to divide The Cell Cycle Control System lt pause withdraw to 60 Based on the accurate completion of a preCIse sequence of O biochemical events 0 The cell cycle advances to the next step only after the biochemical reactions of the previous step have been completed accurately mom Function of Cell Cycle Checkpoints These critical control points 0 Regulate the cell cycle by producing continue and stop signals The cell cycle pauses at each checkpoint to enable the checkpoint sensors to search for specific biochemical errors and coordinate their repair o If specific biochemical events have been completed correctly a continue signal will tell the cell cycle to continue o In an error occurs a stop signal will prevent the cell from advancing to the next step Question Can malnutrition affect the cell cycle Absolutely If we don t take care of ourselves by consuming the essential vitamins amino acids fatty acids etc the cells in our bodies will not be able to pass through certain checkpoints in the cell cycle due to possible mutations and malignancies Some Biochemical errors cannot be repaired The G1 Checkpoint Restriction Point Biol121NCell Cycle An adult stem cell The body produces around 50 GoSignals G1 The Gz Checkpoint 390 Must recognize a specific gosignal to pass the G1 checkpoint 39 restrIctIon pomt and enter S phase Will enter the Go phases if it does not recognize the proper gosignal during 61 a Cell receives a goahead 7 signal b Cell does not receive a goahead signal I Some are hormones like estrogen or testosterone Growth factor protein that stimulate cell division Recognizes and repairs mutations in the DNA m Nuc39ease DNA pmymemse Verifies the accurate completion of all of the necessary biochemical events during the S and G2 phases DNA Hgase DNA damage sensors and DNA repair enzymes200 are active I throughout the entire cell cycle The Mitotic M phase or spindle checkpoint Increases the probability that both daughter cells will receive two sets of chromosomes Promotes proper chromosome delivery to opposite ends of the cell during the M phase Prevents anaphase onset until all sister chromatids are properly attached to the spindle microtubules TWudn md EH Cancer Cells Ignore One or More Cell Cycle Checkpoints Cancer cells divide uncontrollably because some Cannot repair their damaged mutated DNA Have a continuously activated gosignal receptor that does not require a gosignal for stimulation Produce their own gosignals that stimulate gosignal receptors cannot enter apoptosis BiollZlNCell Cycle THAT S ETUT WEE EUEETEHE i WHT IIILIET IIILILTIEEELLIJLAE EHAHIEITIE FEEWHEN ITEELI LATE HELL ITITIIHIHT i WHEH EHEE THE EHITT IHETH UET A EEEEIFI E EELILATIEH E AEU LT ETEIII HELLE T HTTHTTE T i WHAT IE THE HELL ETHL39T WHAT AIT THE F39HAEE E TH HELL HTELET WHEAT IE ITIA HEELIEATEEIT THE THE ATITHLT ATEH TELL WHITE 539 WHEAT ITEEi THE AITLTILT ETEII TELL HAITE THE TIIIAITTIIEHT HWTEE T WHAT TA THE THAEE WHAT TE IIIJTEITEH AEE T WHAT HTTTJHA TJHIHA THEE HI TH AAE T i WHAT IE THE ELI HETIiiII HF A EH HELL ETHL EH EEHEiIHTE39 EliIll EHE EATHEEH HELLETHITHE WITH IT HIRE HF THEEE HHEEHHHIHTTE T i HEW DE AH AELILT ETIII HELL ITEFHE TH AH AETIHATEITEHHIEEHIHTT WHAT HEEITFIE WITEI I THE IEIHEITEHIEAL EHHFI THAT THELITIEE THE EITEEHETHT EAIHI E HEF AITTEH T i WHAT IE AFFTHIET EllTI EHE EATHEEIT HELLE FAIL EELFHEETHLTET AFTER A EITEHHETHT TE ATTTIHATE AITIT THE IAIHTHEHTTTAL TEETH WHAT HE HEFATHELTII T i WHAT AITE F39ITAETIEAL AFFLIHATIHHE FIEAEIEHALET WHEIT IE A EEEETEIE HIEHAL FITITLIEEIT ET THE IETIIITIr T WHAT TA A EHHWTH TWITTER T