Chapter 4 Lecture Notes
Chapter 4 Lecture Notes BIO 120
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Haleigh Siple on Tuesday September 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 120 at Grand Valley State University taught by Rybczynski in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 84 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biological Sciences at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 09/22/15
Bio 120 Lecture Notes Sept 21 Lecture Notes Macromolecules plus poison and venoms Alkaloids nitrogen compounds react With neurotransmitters Carbohydrates compounds used to store energy All carbohydrates have carbon oxygen and hydrogen Monosaccharides single molecule of sugar Glucose Galactose and Fructose are all isomers of each other the location of the hydroxyl in Glucose and Galactose is different the location of Fructose s carboxyl is different Disaccharides glycosidic link takes energy to link the monosaccharides Energy is stored in the links Made of two monosaccharaides Links formed by removal of a hydroxyl and a proton to give off water condensationdehydration reaction Polysaccharides made of many monosaccharides Starch glycogen animal starch stored in the liver cellulose long chains of glucose Cellulose has very strong bonds and only a few organisms are able to break it down e g Termites Glucose is the subunit of many polysaccharides Starch grains are called plastids Li ids Lipids are hydrophobic They have a carboxyl group making them acidic Hence they are called fatty acids Triglycerides chains made up of three lipids a glycerol and three fatty acid tails Bio 120 Lecture Notes Sept 21 Saturated vs Unsaturated Molecule is straight Molecule is bent cis double bond causes bending Stacked closely cannot be stacked closely Solid at room temp Liquid at room temp Phospholipids have a polar end and a nonpolar end These have two different partial charges One end is hydrophilic the other hydrophobic Steroids reduce in ammation For example cholesterol important part of membranes and hormones Proteins Hemoglobin complex has 4 subunits The Functions of Proteins Enzymes Defensive proteins Storage Proteins Transport Proteins Hormones eg insulin Receptor Proteins Contractile and motor proteins Structural Proteins Enzymes catalysts end in ase 1 Active site is available for substrate to react 2 Substrate binds to enzyme 3 Substrate converted into products 4 Products are released Enzymes desire to be at a lower energy level Amino acids Monomers of amino acids Composed of a central carbon and hydrogen an amino group a carboxyl group and different R groups Bio 120 Lecture Notes Sept 21 Polypeptide vs Protein Chain of amino acids Made of amino acids and is a functional products Amino acids nonpolar side chains 9 are hydrophobic Amino acids Polar side chains Hydroxyl groups carbonyl H or 0 indicates polar Hydrophillic Amino Acids Charged side chains Negative charge 9 acidic Positive charge 9 basic Hydrophillic Peptide bonds bonds in polypeptides formed Via dehydration reactions Ribosomes help assemble peptides Protein Structure 3D in shape Amino acid sequence 9 causes folds R Groups stabilize folds Multiple polypeptids 5993 Bio 120 Lecture Notes Sept 21 Globular vs Fibrous Spherical in shape Form strands Covered in hydrophilic Side groups hydrophobic Side groups on inside Primary Protein Structure Four Levels of Structure 1 Primary Protein Structure Specific sequence of amino acids 2 Secondary Protein Structure Coiling and Folding Many hydrogen bonds 3 Tertiary Structure 3D shape 9 folds R group interactions 4 Quarternary Structure Multiple polypeptide 9 how they are linked to for a functional protein Hemoglobin Transport Protein Collagen Structural Protein Denaturation loss of shapefunction caused by physical and chemical conditions such as pH Temperature Salt Concentration 4 Heavy Metals 93quot Sickel Cell Anemia amino acid is misfolded red blood cells are misshapen The proteins aggregate into fiber and capacity to carry oxygen is reduced Nucleic Acids Nucleotides the monomers for nucleic acids GaumineCytosine AdenineThymine DNA and RNA are informational molecules Nucleotides have a sugarphosphate backbone The order is important The sequence stores information polymers Bio 120 Lecture Notes Sept 21 DNA 9 double stranded RNA 9 Single stranded Poison vs Venom Ingested injected Inhaled Absorbed Neurotoxins affect nerve impulses Cytotoxins affect cells Hemotoxins affect blood Solanine is an alkaloid poison found in young underdeveloped potatoes and tomatoes It disrupts membranes and blocks Ion channels Secondary Metabolite compounds made by plants that are no immediately needed for life processes Have medical applications