Week 3 Lecture Notes
Week 3 Lecture Notes PSY 277
Popular in Evolutionary Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rk18370p on Tuesday September 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 277 at Pace University taught by Robert Keegan in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see Evolutionary Psychology in Psychlogy at Pace University.
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Date Created: 09/22/15
Week 3 Notes 9222015 The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals 1872 0 Mostly facial expressions 0 It s behavior 0 More specifically evolved instinctual behavior I We share something in common with ancestor 0 First book in evolutionary psychology because it explains behavior as a product of evolution 0 Strategy Remnants leftovers o Shrink the gap between humans and animals I Lowers human status to show animal like behavior in humans 3 Principals to explain Expression 1 Serviceable associated habits a Certain habits are associated with a service in the past b Remnants left over expressions from the time we were more animal like i Ex Physical Remnants 1 Wisdom teeth 2 Appendix ii Behavioral Remnants 1 Service in the past 2 With us even if they don t share the same purpose anymore a Anger i Face turns red you snarl 1 Purpose send you a signal you are getting ready to attack ii Body gets tense 1 Purpose Fighting running away b Disgust i Shrinking nasal passages and closing mouth 1 Purpose to get away from disgusting thing 3 Present Day We don t use our teeth to defend anymore a It stays with us even though we don t use it 2 Antithesis Opposite a Happy Smile you are relaxed i When you are in opposite emotion you make opposite expression anger to happy ii Your posture opens up 3 Direct Action of the Nervous System a Hints of being nervous i Tapping hands and feet ii Twitching iii Sweating Week 3 Notes 9222015 1 Your body does these things to try and calm you down b Excess of Emotion i Nervous energy ows in a certain direction 1 If you have nervous energy it ows down the most used paths the path of least resistance a Ex on your face you blink and swallow and your fingers are always moving Universal Facial Expressions Instinct Anger Fear Disgust Sadness Happiness 6 Surprise U PP Pi Paul Ekman 0 Introduced research about facial expressions and emotions in the 1960 s 0 Tried to find evidence to either support or deny Darwin s views 0 Ask if there were universal expressions or not 0 Primitive people in the 60 s 0 Still tribal people who were completely isolated I People in the rainforests or amazon 0 Traveled to primitive area in Indonesia I Brought translator I Went for research I He would tell people stories and observe their expressions 0 Stories about 0 Death of Children Sadness I They frowned 0 You re walking along and you come across a rotting pig Disgust I His work provided evidence that Darwin was correct facial expressions are instinctual Experiment using Operant Conditioning 0 Proposed by BF Skinner 1 Behaviorism a What controls it b What we learn from our behavior 0 Consequences of Behavior 1 Positive Reinforcement reward a Increases frequency of that response Week 3 Notes 9222015 0 If the rat presses the lever food comes out 0 After a few days the rat will press the lever for food 2 Negative Reinforcement take away an annoying stimulus a Increases the frequency of that response 0 If you put the electric shock on the rats feet you make the lever the thing that turns off the shock o Eventually the rat will learn that he must push the lever to take away the shocks 3 Punishment a Reduces the frequency of the response 0 When the rat passes the bar he receives the electric shock o Rat will not continue to pass the bar Experimental Expressions from the 1960 s 0 Using Operant Conditioning 0 Subjects Rhesus Monkeys I Part 1 Put monkeys into cage oor is electrified if monkey presses bar it escapes electric shock 0 This is called escape learning 0 They learn to press the bar 0 Negative Reinforcement I Part 2 Use same monkeys from Part 1 0 Add light to cage when off oor isn t electrified When light comes on monkey has 10secs to press the bar and avoid the shock o This is avoidance learning I Discrimination learning Ability to tell difference can the monkey s tell the difference between light on and light off 0 Also Negative reinforcement I Part 3 Use monkeys from Part 1 and Part 2 0 Cage 1 Light goes on and off TV camera films monkey no lever 0 Cage 2 Lever is present TV screen shows monkey in cage 1 no light 0 This monkey sees the facial expressions of the other monkey and he can stop the electric shock 0 Animals can communicate via facial expression 0 Advantage of a change of expression in communication over a vocalization I Keeps it a secret from the predator I You keep me out of danger without letting the predator know my location 1 Expressions are always changing a Emotional states are temporary b Not an indication of the person s personality Week 3 Notes 9222015 c Referring to stable characteristics 2 Facial Expressions to emotions are irrepressible a They can t be stopped i Micro expressions come onto our face for a second but we don t want other people to see us so we change it b They are instinctual Evolutionary Psychology Concepts on the Brain and Intelligence 1 Pre 1700s Big Blob a Didn t know much about the brain b Thought brain was all the same i But knew you needed it for intelligence Brain is a general processor Theory of Intelligence i Little Theory 2 1700s and 1800s a Phrenologists believed in Phrenology i Study of the mind b Method feel the skull read the bumps on your head i By reading the bumps they felt they could tell personality and intelligence ii Now known as a pseudoscience fake c Idea different parts of the brain do different jobs 3 1860 s a Paul Broca i French guy who would find people with a speech disorder and felt that damage was in a particular part of the brain if you had Broca s Aphesia 1 If you are outside of the room you can t really hear What s going on inside the room but you understand that something is wrong 2 If you are inside the room you understand everything a Normal rhythms of speech aren t there b Not a cognitive disorder 9 b Carl Wernicke i German man who studied language disorders ii Wernicke s Aphesia 1 You speak well normal speech rhythms 2 They sound ok but don t make sense 3 IS cognitive disorder Ideas on Intelligence 1 Little g intelligence is one general ability 2 First intelligence test constructed in 1905 by French Psychologists Binet amp Simon a Purpose Gooddeveloped at request of French ministry of education b Identify the children that are behind early so we can help them Week 3 Notes 9222015 c Test had 30 questions i Tested kids based on chronological age 1 Looked for an average score 3 William Stern 1912 a Looked at mental age of children i Compared this to a child s chronological age 1 IZ jxlOO 2 Intelligence Quotient or IQ
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