Notes the week of 9/14-9/18
Notes the week of 9/14-9/18 SOCI 1101
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Paige Notetaker on Tuesday September 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOCI 1101 at University of Georgia taught by Cooney in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 310 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in Sociology at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/22/15
Sociology 914 Stratification how does inequality affect individual behavior how does inequality affect society Are the 1 pulling ahead of everyone else At 12500yr not poor because you can afford food clothing apartment old car the real poor barely survives in slums and rural areas in industrializing countries you are poor compared to the average American you can only afford the cheapest food clothing housing etc you re the bottom end of America 85 of the pop earns more 2 definitions of poverty 1 Absolute inability to buy certain goods amp services deemed necessary for survival eg World Bank poverty is having less than 2 a day extreme poverty less than 125 2 Relative Having much less than others inequality relative poverty suppose average income 50000 we might define poverty as earning less than 12 of that Le 25000 or 13 of that 17000 point our definition is relative or depends upon what others earn so if average income increases to 100000 poverty thresholds will increase as well Poverty 2 inequality is a better predictor of social behavior than avg income hence it makes more sense to define poverty relatively but since the 1960 s the US gov adopts an absolute definition based on the cost of an economy food budget x3 Federal Poverty Laws under the 2015 federal poverty lines you are poor if your pretax cash income is less than 11770 for 1 person or 24250 for family of 4 These lines are controversial lines include too many the gov poverty lines exaggerate poverty as they do not include noncash incomes such as food stamps subsidized housing offthebooks income tax credits the lines exclude too many the federal lines underestimate poverty because they do not consider the cost of housing medical transportation child care An alternative approach instead of trying to define poverty the Economic Policy Institute EPI calculates how much a family needs to have a secure yet modest living standard in different parts of the country Basic family budget EP budget includes food housing healthcare transportation child care taxes other expenses eg clothing entertainment other expenses 25 of food amp housing does not include savings restaurant meals or emergency funds assumes all adults are working first child aged 4 second child 8 third child 12 Family budget average budget for a 2 parent 2 child family 63364 2013 more than twice the 23550 federal figure federal lines less than 10 of families are poor about 30 of families have incomes below the basic family budget Sociology 916 Getting out of poverty traditionally to have a secure modest living standard you have to get a job to see if this is still true Barbara Ehrenreich became a lowwage worker in Florida Maine Minnesota Ehrenreich a wellknown journalist with a Ph D her editor suggested she become a low wage worker eventuay she agreed amp had no children to worry about Her terms bought herself an old car but would not sleep in it said she was a divorced homemaker reentering the job market and had completed 3 years of college could she survive on the wages Jobs a waitress in Florida a maid in Maine a walmart employee in Minnesota How did she do E struggled to survive monthtomonth on low wages exhaustion worry her biggest problem was rent Surviving working poverty invoves constant efforts to make end meet including cutting back buying food clothing etc getting a second job going into debt getting help from familyfriends Why no wage increases when E worked 1990 s jobs were plentiful yet wages stagnated employers reluctant to increase wages offering nonwage benefits instead employees find it hard to switch jobs little information about wage rates employers make employees feel grateful for having a job and subordinate eg drug tests Dignity does E minimize the advantages of even a low wage job does a job bring sense of worth amp dignity in own amp other s eyes still dignity won t pay the bills Beam me up when E resumed her old life she was beamed up to a different world one where money solves many problems transportation housing food and there are nonmonetary benefits too people listen to you and respect you Services the poor provide many services for the better off cleaning tending yards washing dishes etc yet the poor are largely invisible lnvisibility 15 of the US population is below poverty line Athens GA 35 5th highest in US for counties over 100000 ppl yet most of us never see this poverty same is true of poor individuals television movies etc street crime vs white collar crime Chambliss school had two groups of deviant students one wealthier the other poorer both groups broke the law though in somewhat different ways yet the poorer kids were less able to hide their deviance more likely to be caught and branded as delinquents Lareau conducted observations of parenting styles used by middle class and working class parents kids aged 810 small sample 88 but lots of detail about each family Major findings parenting style varies by social class that is evident in the organization of daily activities language use social connections interventions in institutions Child rearing middle class parents concerned cultivation middle class professional managerial high income see children as a project parents try to develop talent and skills organized activities close supervision of schooling reasoning skills question authority working class accomplishment of natural growth parents work hard to feed and clothe children assume they will grow and develop naturally parents give directives provide less supervision kids hangout more with friends and cousins watch more television Class not race these differences hold across races wealthier AfAmerican parents similar to wealthier white parents and working class African American and whites similar Conclusion social class boundaries are hard to pinpoint exactly but real differences across income groups in how people raise children young people relate to adults and vise versa
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