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PSYCH 100 - Chapter 1

by: Tala Alqabbani

PSYCH 100 - Chapter 1 PSYCH 100

Tala Alqabbani
Penn State
GPA 4.0
Introductory Psychology
No professor available

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About this Document

--Evolution of Psychology-- In this class, we go over one chapter a day. Chapter one in the book (Psychology: Themes & Variations -- Briefer Version) goes over the history and basics of psychology...
Introductory Psychology
No professor available
One Day of Notes
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This 6 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Tala Alqabbani on Monday September 15, 2014. The One Day of Notes belongs to PSYCH 100 at Pennsylvania State University taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 272 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Pennsylvania State University.

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Date Created: 09/15/14
PSYCH 100 Notes What is psychology What do psychologists do Study of the mind the way people think and people s behaviors Research They ask questions and search for answers Psychological Science Research All science is based on theories and research that is conducted Psychology is constantly changing so is science There are a variety of studies which incorporate psychology CHAPTER 1 Psychology can help us find answers to pressing questions as well as better understand issues that affect each of us every day Why people do the things they do Psychologists are committed to investigating questions about human behavior in a scientific way gt they seek to formulate precise questions about behavior and then test possible answers through systematic observation Psychology is made up by people groping toward a better understanding of themselves Truisms are widely believed but really are misconceptions or myths Ex People only use 10 of their brains Psychology s Early History Greek Psychology Psyche logos gt the soul the study of a subject 16th Century Psyche was used to refer to the soul spirit or mind 18th Century Psychology had the meaning of the study of the mind 140 years ago Psychology emerged as a scientific discipline A New Science Is Born Psychology s parents gt philosophy amp physiology Philosophy the questions Physiology medicinethe methods Wilhelm Wundt German professor wanted to make psychology an independent discipline Widely characterized as founder of psychology 1879 Wundt established FIRST FORMAL LABORATORY FOR RESEARCH IN PSYCHOLOGY He focused on consciousness amp declared that psych should be a science modeled after fields such as physics and chemistry Consciousness the awareness of immediate experience Thus psychology became the scienti c study of conscious experience Psychology was born in Germany but blossomed in North America Battle of the Schools Structuralism Versus F unctionalism Schools of Thought compete for the de nition and future direction of the new science of psychology Structuralism Led by Edward Titchener He worked in Wundt s lab prior to becoming a professor at Cornell Based on the notion gt The task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements are related Most work concemed sensation and perception in vision hearing and touch More work was in the lab Depended on Introspection The careful systematic selfobservation of one s own conscious experience Required training to make the subject person being studied more objective and more aware F unctionalism Led by William James American scholar Based on the belief gt Psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness rather than its structure Focused on the real nature of conscious experience amp the continuous ow of thoughts in consciousness or the stream of consciousness Focused on how people adapt their behavior to the demands of the real world around them Freud Brings the Unconscious into the Picture Sigmund Freud Austrian physician He is one of the most in uential and controversial intellectual figures of modem times Unconscious preconscious conscious Iceberg metaphor the unconscious is more hidden and powerful PG 381 Treated people by psychological problems such as irrational fears obsessions and anxieties with a procedure called Psychoanalysis 0 Methods to probe unconscious Free Association Dream Analysis Projective Tests Ink blots Slip of the tongue His work led to his theory called the unconscious o The unconscious contains thoughts memories and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great in uence on behavior Psychoanalytic theory attempts to explain personality motivation and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior 0 An unscientific theory impossible to test using the scientific methods Though controversial Freud s theory gradually won acceptance Watson Alters Psychology s Course as Behaviorism Makes Its Debut Behaviorism became another major school of thought in early 1900s 0 It is a theoretical orientation based on the premise that scienti c psychology should study only observable behavior 0 Ivan Pavlov saw classical conditioning first hand 0 BF Skinner Operant conditioning 0 Albert Bandura Social Learning Theory EMPHASIS Consequence Veri ability focus on what you can see Founded by John B Watson 0 Classical conditioning 0 Proposed that psychologist ABANDON the study of CONSCIOUSNESS o Believed the power of the scientific method was based on VERIFIABILITY o Believed mental processes are too private to be proper subjects of scienti c study 0 Argued that NURTURE was always the winner in Nature vs Nurture Nature Genetics amp Biology Nurture Environment How Your Life is Spent Psychology had to become the science of behavior rather than consciousness if it was to be a science Behavior Any overt observable response or activity by an organism Skinner Questions Free Will as Behaviorism Flourishes Behaviorism vs Psychoanalysis 1920s thru 1940s BF Skinner worked on experiments with animals and their behaviors o Organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes and they tend not to repeat responses that lead to neutral or negative outcomes The Humanists Revolt By 195 Os behaviorism and psychoanalytic theory had become the most in uential schools of thought in psychology Many psychologists believed these two schools of thought were dehumanizing New school of thought Humanism o It is a theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth 0 Takes an OPTIMISTIC view of human nature Most prominent architects in humanistic movement 0 Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow o EMPHASIS Free Will amp SelfconceptPositive approach Psychology s Modern History Psychology Comes of A ge as a Profession First arm of psychology to achieve prominence Clinical Psychology 0 It is the branch of psychology concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders 0 Earlier times the emphasis was on psychological testing and adjustment problems in schoolchildren 0 During WWII many psychologists were pressed into service as clinicians to help soldiers suffering from trauma 0 Few years later PhD s in psychology were specializing in clinical psychology Psychology Returns to Its Roots Renewed Interest in Cognition and Physiology Cognition refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge Advocates of the study of cognition argue that our mental processes in uence how we behave Information processing mental processing problem solving Psychology Broadens Its Horizons Increasea Interest in Cultural Diversity Psychology begins to open up to the variety of races and cultures The new interest in culture appears mainly attributable to two recent trends 0 Advances in communication travel and intemational trade have shrunk the world and increased global interdependence bringing more and more Americans and Europeans into contact with people from nonWestem cultures 0 The ethnic makeup of the Westem world has become an increasingly diverse multicultural mosaic Psychology Adapts The Emergence of Evolutionary Psychology Evolutionary psychology examines behavioral processes in terms of their adaptive value for members of a species over the course of many generations 0 Basic premise Natural selection favors behaviors that enhance organisms reproductive successthat is passing on genes to the next generation Favorable genes that species possess will be passed along over generations Behavioral rather than physical genes 0 Began to emerge in the middle to late 1980s 0 Topics included mating preferences jealousy aggression sexual behavior decisionmaking and development Psychology Moves in a Positive Direction Martin Seligman Elected president of APA in 1997 0 After realizing his life was too negative the positive psychology movement was launched Positive Psychology Uses theory and research to better understand the positive adaptive creative and fulfilling aspects of human existence 0 Three Areas of Interest Positive Subjective Experiences Positive Emotions Positive Individual Traits Personal Strengths amp Virtues Positive Institutions and Communities Positive Environments Psychology Today Vigorous and Diversified Psychology Science that studies behavior and the psychological and cognitive processes that underlie behavior and it is the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems APA American Psychological Association 0 Founded by G Stanley Hall in 1892 0 Today gt 90000 Members 0 In US it is the 2nd most popular undergraduate major Research Areas in Psychology Nine MAJOR research areas in modem psychology 0 Developmental psychology Social psychology Experimental psychology Physiological psychology Cognitive psychology Personality Psychometrics Educational psychology Health psychology OOOOOOOO Professional Specialties in Psychology Four MAJOR professional specialties in psychology 0 Clinical psychology gt most widely practiced 0 Counseling psychology 0 School psychology 0 lndustrialorganizational psychology Psychiatry branch of medicine concemed with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders Seven Unifying Themes Themes Related to Psychology as a Field of Study Theme 1 Psychology is Empirical o Empiricism is the premise that knowledge should be acquired through observation 0 In psychology and the natural sciences this means that our knowledge of the world is based on evidence acquired through experimentation It doesn t mean we just observe and come to conclusions It s the key idea underlying the scienti c method Chapter 2 Show me the data Show me the money Gustav Fechner s proof A tongueincheek view to show why the philosophical approach to answering questions based on logic isn t the approach adopted by psychologists Theme 2 Psychology is Theoretically Diverse 0 Theory is a system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations Theme 3 Psychology Evolves in a Sociohistorical Context 0 Society and Psychology in uence each other in complex ways Themes Related to Psychology s Subject Matter Theme 4 Behavior is Determined by Multiple Causes 0 If we expect to understand behavior we usually have to take into account multiple determinants Theme 5 Behavior is Shaped by Cultural Heritage 0 Culture Widely shared customs beliefs values norms institutions and other products of a community that are transmitted socially across generations 0 Both differences and similarities occur across cultures Theme 6 Heredity and Environment Jointly In uence Behavior 0 Psychologists are actively seeking to understand the complex ways in which genetic inheritance and experience interact to mold behavior Theme 7 People s Experience of the World is Highly Subjective o Psychologists are committed to the scientific approach because they believe it is the most reliable route to accurate knowledge Early Grand Theories Criteria of a Good Theory D Describe E Explain P Predict F Falsifiable must be able to be falsi able


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