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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by AnnaClippinger on Tuesday September 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL-L211 2521 at Indiana University taught by Megan Dunn in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Molecular Biology in Biology at Indiana University.
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Date Created: 09/22/15
Thundgg Lecture 2 Aug 27 I 15 Last Time Review syllabus and course organization What is molecular biology Central dogma of molecular biology Molecular Biology in the News quotNew Life for Ancient DNAquot 39 39Today Email about evening exam class con ict immediately Primary versus secondary sources Molecular Biology in the News New Life for Ancient DNA pq q iny nok Introduction to Mendelian Genetics Next Time Reading Assignment Chapter 1 pp 7 13 39 Chapter 2 pp 21 23 a Exceptions to Mendelian Genetics The Transforming Principle Experiments 395 the ir l39lUQ Nu Uli E folquot Ancient DNAM primary or sccurdur l Swot EXPWW What is or primary source Primary Source t type of publication in which scientists describe their own original research studies AudiengeIp l ll2td WHEN SClQH l iS lT 9 public lar eld DE 5TH Miter gist pie 5 Technical Includes details for other scientists to criti ue andor duplicate the work WW specific in what was Cloris so 013m can p rfnrmldUpll H their m WRML Componglts typically Title N uTalway in this order 39539 maxi NOT Indude allot 1mm Lompmm t List of Authors Abstract RU SUCHN NOT JUST 391 QWUY l nt roducti on Materials and Methods Results including experimental data a Discussion References Example Research article published in a scienti c journal What is a secondary source Secondary Source A type of publication that is based on a primary sou rces Commentary an and discussion of the scienti c evidence provided in the primary source N01 Manta rivm Ju 91c an sew graph 0m Audie quotcei Broad 53 lP CI Gl d MW doom mean it s G WWW it n grinm 39mo more Tiquot mn SWYU can it our commie M 196511 7 form Truth 1 N ES I39ll n 5 l9 General less technical Few if any details on methodology or data analysis Components ltypicallvl Title List of Authors Text that is not divided into sections introduction materials and methods etc Very few lit any citations Nut N Ect tlw mst true Examp les Textboole Encyclopedias Su articles in popular magazines newspapers or websites 3 Primer articles are peer reviewed Quality lbiology primary research articles Le primary sources are published in reputable peerreviewed journals What does peer reviewed mean Recognized experts on a topic readreview the article when it is submitted to a scienti c journal 39 are usual Renewcrs Usually the author and reviewers are anonymous to each other Article will be evaluated on Validity accuracy and credibility of data analyses and interpretations Appropriateness of research methods 5 Signi cance of results Proper citations 3 Article will be accepted for publication in a journal sent back for revisions or rejected Are secondary oracles peerareviewed D pmo on tht orn cu i burNprcnny mmiat in rm Sense desorugmbm Molecular Biology in the News it New Ilia l s for ctmorc genmnzcal Broad auntme a w r mnq so 19 New Life for Ancient DNAquot Scienti c American Au gust 2012 Summary in part of this primary research article published in Nature Genetics in 2010 HHQ biochemical properties adaptive for coldtolerance quotP Authou A bitm Substitutions in woolly mammoth hemoglobin confer 15quotle ii The Kevin L Campbell 1 Jason E E Robertsl Laura N Watson org Steteifeiti3 Angela M Sloan 1 Anthony V Signore39 12559 W Hawaii 39t lEfE mi39 R H Tamed Nadir Rohlandi t Tonglien Sheila Jeremy I Austinz Michael Hofreiter v Hum sou YR New FoanCl m DNN39lJ based on E i io t Roy ii39Weher7 amp Alan jooperzm 1 or w or For Q1 artCu Si SIQ hi FilmI01 COMTI39 fun we have genetically retrieved resurrected and perimmed 0f detailed structure function analyses on authentic woolly 39 1 t I r i l I l39 I mammoth hemoglobin to reveal tor the first time both n a the evolutionary origins and the structural underpinnings V l flquot J of a lley adaptive physiochemica l trait in an extinct k 1 39 Ir l t r 7 g 7 species Hemoglobin binds and carries 0 huwmrer Its IYI ability to offload O to re39spiring cells is hampered at quotlow temperatures as heme deoxygenaiion is inl39terentlipr endothermic that 5 homglohineoz affinity increases as temperature decreases We identify amino acid substitutions with large phenotypic effect on the chimeric til giohin a subunit of mammoth hemoglobin that provide a unique solution to this problem and thereby minimize energetically Remainderoi article has i g Original data Materials and methods pup Clear costly heat loss This biochemical specialization may R as 5 have been involved in the exploitation of highlatitude 39 i c J environments by this Africanaderivetl elephentid lineage D SCZU SS l0 n 7 during the Pleistocene period This poweri39ul new approach to directly anai e the genetic and structural basis oi physiological adaptations in an extinct species ends on important new dimension to the study of natural selection 5 Citations Molecular Biology in the News quotNew Life for Ancient lDNlAquot Scienti c American August 2012 I thmthesis Hawthorn minegloom evolved to im prove 0mm wings in total temp Sequence mammoth hemoglol oin genes from DNA small fragments of DNA HlABhgcevol wt was a Compared sequences to Asian elephant 39 39 39 htmorojlobm hemoglobin genes if s V would at m thou in 9 ClC l39ualta LHAN 616 ntmo loom for ml Toluene Marika an intact mammoth like gene Mutate elephant hemoglobin gene at corresponding 3 i nucleotides 39 mam ti identical 1390 rm mommam DN 6 Molecular Biology in the News quotNew Life for Ancient DNAquot SClEHH C American Elitlgust 2012 9 Imam e melmdiymammnm M We MST the hemoglobin th mick m2 almer Wml39tiom 5 Introdulce gene into E sell me T ES39I39 Lise as a protein making factory Measnred ability of mammoth and elephant hemoglobin to release oxygen at various temperatures 9 Mammoth hemoglobin more readily released exyggnat cold temperatures The 39memuth was alone to Mensa m gm cold ramps rudder new The central dogma The central dogma explains the directional ow of genetic information in a cell Idem an Fratein Hyathcnis Oct 1956 Proposed by Francis Crick 1956 m Doctrine of the mad r Central Dogma Oman Infarmtlnn hm gait into a protpin it V can39t get nut againquot Infillarmament here means the sequence of the lamina maid residues or other sequences related tij it That in we may be able ta have m ngmu HM H 7quot ERA 39 39 43 Fritum 397 I but GETS Wa tT th M WWW X 0 where the artemu ahm39l the transfer ef information I quott l 139 l a will transcrupnom w tramlatinh a E e a 7 7 A protein a DNA isrrqntcrwed inn RNMmRNm mm translat DNA into Pmt in 8 http fprd lesnlrnnil1gevfpsfretrlevemesourceMetad ataSCBEH Genetic information is stored in the genome Genome me more at at an organism chromosome Located in the nucleus in eukaryotes eukaryotic Human somatic cell Diploid 23 pairs of chromosomes Figure 81 Eumw ores vs pro mm on golgi apparatus nucleus chromosomes I In endoplasmic reticulum 39 r 08 0m from M am I 13 from dad 9 wcmromosnmu lial v M 0m 8995 will 0M0 39 1 1 Pairs ol Aurosomes 1 parrot sex onmmL Wm5 0 ihuve 0h X521 thrumm Understanding genetics DQdZi willmm mquot EITHER an X 0M thromi 5 0m mg will olerem W W ni WeiEl n Family members often look alike Tom and Collin Hanks Reese Witherspoon and daughter because they share genetic information Though we now understand how inheritance works it took us a long time to get there ID The Theory of Pangenesis Ethcentur y MBC Deu EI op d by thehlarnic ient Greeks c GE rwab y remained current untllthe 1 32t century V V J g r g V I r SP ECIHC to that organ in bodq parr quotPangenes quot in every organ move throughout the body via the biood are delivered to the reproductive organs zSperm 39Zygme rand are passed on to offspring lrm a rprina Should hm all bodyquot m i 0 Egg 0 rqum rm WW WW 3 0mm k body parts that an AMENT from m 39 J Parent5 M It olsn be in m steaming The Germ Plasm Theory Disproving P angenesis August Weismann 1893 Tested if an organism could pass on acquired characteristics to its offspring Cut tail off Matted mice with no tails Offspring had tails Continued for 22 consecutive generations Mm amp The mmqen mnon J riii had WM CIESPJ I E 952 CI39EMYUHOM Wanderer ml nu 150m The Germ Plasm Theory Disproving Pa n39genesis Weismann developed tine Germ Piaism theory Hereditar 39 material does not come from each man or ti ssues V r r r g ONLY germ sperm and egg cells contain hereditary inform az tianm 39Sperm H w I Zygote which IS passed cm to Offspring V D39Egg 1er m 9611 m MGR1ch w naurrtd Charamrmnu aenmc Info is passed an 01 mumTam oNlN mmtm 13 The Jending Theory of inheritance 19m century mglii fhgm rw Any single inherited trait can only be within the U per and lower values of its two parents Wquot quot r I The aming of Cl ml flame lit Whi h F lnwer will make pink l4 The Blending Them V of inheritance 19th century Major problem Convergence of all variations into one Example Flower color af Blendinq Triton were true color vari anon would he lost in a 52w 99M Mendelian Gene cs Gregor Mendel 18221394 Tested blending theory by mailing true breeding pea plants where sehc pollination of seeds always produces the same trait lTrue parental Dorm generation Mated phenotypically different pea plants round seed x wrinkled seed rr gametes v 1 Figeneration Rema ined the same mm 1quot phenotype as one parent NOT a blend of generath Rr pa rental traits 3 R0 Lind reed Observed the same patterns using seven other pea plant Characteristics as Language of Genetics a Gene A segment of DNA that controls an individual trait ah Lame m nudes 39 lLucus The physical location of a gene on a chromosome Allele A version of a gene the gene controlling pea shape is either round R or wrinked r quotThe All if v d dw t gt e E JOFOUH SEE C03 Pair of homologous chromosomes at one from E Ch parent Allele for wrinkled seed coat Genotype Set 0f alleles that an individual possesses HR Hr er rr Qt f mm mimt Phenotype The appearance or manifestation of a feature wrinkled or round amen compm non Vs what ou MWva newline Language of Genetics cont parental generation RR gametes Fl rid I Heterozygous Possessing two different F1 generation v alleles efthe same gene he Hr Homozygous Possessing two of the same alleles of a gene Le RR or rrl Dominant An allele expressed in both homozygetes RR and heterozygotes Hr Usually denoted with an upper case letter R or with a plus sign r 1quot Onlg tm d mimm llet Mitpmsed in 1 mm m Recessive An allele whese phenotype is only seen when homozygous hr Usually denoted with a lower case letter r or with a minus sign r 39 H3 Bwlvttsscd quot onw sun when qu haw of The tssmqileles ss First Law of inheritance the Principle of Independent Segregation Observations leading to the Principle of independent Segregation iii lm True 39Br fedin an 30th humon 90m 50 O Sprinqwlllm rimmm gametes hybrid F1 eeneratiun FL generation 2 All round seeds Rr female male gametes r r gametes J Rt 1 F2 generation F1 3 Fl 31 ratio of round to wrinkled Note that the recessive allele was not lost in the Fl genera non Alltm a it Stqreqalinq indemmlemw Iron1mm otmr F2 generation rig 11 19 First Law of inheritance the Principle of independent Segregation parental generation RR i a cili ierent gametes l 10 3 0 that at qienmq lor the other Mendel s rst law independent segregation Alleles ofthe same gene segregate independently from each other during gamete formation to end up in 31 a hybrid F1 generation Fir iemale Ianquotmale gametee 39 Ma gaametes RH 7 r I X Rr Fir 1quot a 5 s a if III F2 generation Fig 11 20 The testcross An exercise in determining genotypes a The yellow allele Y is dominant to the green allele y What is the genotype ofthe yellow pliant boxed in red DOMlN NTREtl WT 53W dam mow liftquot homqu Y 0r moms W SETUP atesrmmtmss wl a homo 39 x C quottwain individe quot 39 Two possibilities homoygous hetehrozygous l W W 4 Draw pun n tt some hilt Qx a I I mm VI l tl i a lithe plant was W 1 l1 Y ElEESEDlagemgs allW an a 0 7 g 7 p 1 o p r F1 jglOOavvellow Y T h 1 We 1 50 yellow 111 E l1 thDWPe 39 l i 7 heterongms had to be homozygous 21 Second Law of inheritance The Principle of independent Assortment Do the alleles for one trait seed shape assort dependently or independently of the alleles for another trait color parmini generation V x l Cross plant homozygous domlna n1 for seed shape and HH39W 7 l mates iquot l m l I J a Dingbn dcmss 1 Rr H X RH 1F t ilr iv Flt Hy39 gametes IV I l l e l T color round andiyellow wrinkled and green or a trans CDlOlr 13me F1 ganemtion L enerai orl 1 7 39 39 F29 an air F2 Observed a 93321 rabo With all possible gametes Hy or gametes combinations of seed coats observed FiFiW W I nan new l HrW Fen nm 391 Mendel s second law independent assortment my any a erasL3 an Alleles of different genes sort independently of each i aw rrw so other during gamete formation r rr ry rrlliy I m 0an applies to genes located on different chromosomes 22 Fig 13 Second Law of Inheritance The Principleof Independent Assortment M1103 i 3 1 gamete f LimaHon Possibility l Possibility 2 x s V ya can have 7 cliffem arrangemm 0i rm 39Chrom0wmu along Two equally probable arrangements of chromosomes at metaphazee I Metaphaee ll it Daughter 139 r t J1 J coils l a it gt J Combi ation 1 Combt at ion 2 Combination 3 Combination 4 AWCWS DiFFETMt 1th 50 l39 INDEPENDENTLY 0f eam other during game fgnm non Chromosomal Theory of Heredity Walter 5 Sutton 1903 Proposes that chromosomes contain hereditary information Connects Mendel s statistical laws of inheritance with studies ofthe mitotic and meiotic life cycle View dinm 1in Lhmmmgn Drawing of chromosomes by Sutton 1902 Worked with grasshopper chromosomes U39b JtrWd That chrommmti ocwr inwl n Whim St iYQ imqmm mm 2amp1
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