Crim Notes 302-001
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Hall on Tuesday September 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 302-001 at George Mason University taught by Nicole DelVecchio Shelton in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 120 views. For similar materials see Delinquency in Criminology and Criminal Justice at George Mason University.
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Date Created: 09/22/15
Chapter 6 Gender and Delinquency Gender differences in development o It is possible that the genderbased traits that shape antisocial behavior choices may exist as early as infancy Baby girls show greater control over their emotions Boys are more easily angered and depend more on input from their mothers Socialization cognitive and personality are the 3 main gender differences Socialization Females sustain relationships are less aggressiveblame self MalesAre independent aggressive and externalize anger Cognitive FemalesHave superior verbal ability speak earlier have better pronunciation and read better MaleHave superior visualspatial ability and are better at math Personality Female Have lower selfesteem are selfaware and have better attention span 0 Male Have high selfesteem are materialistic have low attention span Socialization Differences Psychologist believe that differences in the way females and males are socialized affect their development Males learn to value independence Masculinity hypothesis 0 view that women who commit crimes have biosocial and psychological traits Cognitive differences 0 there are cognitive differences between males and females starting in cthhood Gender group strengths found in the early school years become more established at adolescence and remain stable through adulthood Males excel in tasks that assess the ability to manipulate visual images in working memory Personality Differences Girls are often stereotypes as talkative but research shows that in many situations boys spend more time talking than girls do 0 Females are willing to reveal their feelings of concerns What causes gender differences Socialization cognitive personality 0 Females tend to blame themselves in relationships Males are aggressive independent and practice external anger Gender differences and delinquency Regardless of their origin gender distinctions may partly explain the signi cant gender differences in the delinquency rate Males view aggression as an appropriate behavior Gender patterns 0 Both the juvenile and adult crime rates for both males and females have been in decadelong decline 0 While males still commit more delinquency than females there are indications that the gender gap in crime and delinquency arrest is narrow Trait Views 0 There is a long tradition of tracing gender differences in delinquency to traits that are uniquely male or female 0 The argument that biological and psychological differences between m and f can explain the differences in crimes rates is not a new one Early biological explanations Women who commit crimes could be distinguished from normal women by physical characteristics 0 the masculinity hypothesis suggested that delinquent girls had excessive male characteristics Chivalry hypothesis ow female crime rate and delinquency rates are a re ection on the leniency with which police treat females Prococious sexuality Early psychological explanations Psychologist view that the physical differences between males and females are a basis for their behavior differentials Sigmund Freud maintained that girls interpret their lack of a penis as a sign they have been punishedpenis envy One way to compensate is to identify with their mothers and accept a maternal role Contemporary biosocial views 0 Early theorists linked female delinquency to early puberty and precocious sexuality 0 female delinquents were believe to bed promiscuous and more sophisticated than male delinquents Biological and social factors seem to be a play Premenstrual syndrome An early bio theorist suspected that premenstrual syndrome was a direct cause of the relatively rare instances of female violence Today there is con icting evidence on the relationship between PMS and female delinquency The link between PMS and delinquency was popularized by Katharina Dalton For the females in the class does this really exist Aggression Some psychologist believe that males are inherently more aggressive Male are more aggressive because they wish to possess as many sex partners as possible to increase their chance of increasing offspring eft brain thinking creativity emotions feelings ect females Right brain aggressions male girls are socialized to be less aggressive than boys Research indicates that antisocial adolescent girls do suffer a wide variety of psychiatric problems Female delinquents score high on psychological tests Socialization Views socialization views are based on the idea that a child s social development may be the key to understanding delinquent behavior if a child experiences impairment family disruption and so on the child will be more susceptible to delinquent acts precocious sexuality makes a girl vulnerable to older men who lead them down a path to decadence Contemporary socialization views Contemporary investigators continue to support the view that female delinquents have more dysfunctional home lives than males Girls may be forced into a life of sexual promiscuity Many girls nd themselves pregnant at an early age Socialization and Gangs There is a signi cant body of literature linking homes lives to gang participation and crime Joan Moore39s analysis of gang girls in Los Angeles found that many came from troubled homes Liberal feminist views The feminist movements has from its origins fought to help women break away from their traditional roles Liberal feminists have I in uenced thinking about delinquency Female criminality is motivated by the same in uences as male criminality Criminal Feminist views A of writers take more critical view of gender differences in crime Criminal feminists focus on the social forces that shape girls lives Female delinquency originates with the onset of male supremacy Power Control Theory ln paternalistic families fathers assume the role of the breadwinner Mothers are expected to control the behavior of daughters while granting greater freedom to sons Egalitarian families Husband and wife share power at home daughters gain kind of freedom similar to that of sons and their lowviolating behaviors mirror those of their brothers Gender and the juvenile justice system Gender differences not only have an effect on crime patterns but also have a signi cant impact on the way children are treated by the criminal justice system Several feminist scholars argue that girls are not only the victims in injustice at home but also risk being victimized by agents of the justice system Females are likely to have been detained for status offences Key Terms Masculinity Hypothesis Chivalry Hypothesis Precocious Sexuality Critical Feminism Sex traf cking Power control theory
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