Lecture Notes Week 4
Lecture Notes Week 4 HIST 100
Popular in History of Western Civilization
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cailyn Notetaker on Tuesday September 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 100 at George Mason University taught by Scala in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see History of Western Civilization in History at George Mason University.
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Date Created: 09/22/15
Lecture Notes Week 4 92215 1001 PM Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages Christianity Triumphs Rome Falls Western Christendom Takes Shape Late Antiquity 284622 CE 0 Prolonged transitional period from ancient to medieval world 0 Key events Rise of Christianity and fall of Western Roman Empire 0 Persistence of political social and cultural forms from the ancient world in modified form 0 Emergence of new beliefs systems and forms political and social organization 0 Foundation laid for emergence of European civilization End of 3rd Century Crisis in Rome comes to end when Diocletian comes to power 0 Makes reforms to stabilize country 0 Division of military and civilian spheres 0 Improve efficiency of administration by dividing into two territorial districts East empire and West empire 0 Subdivided the halves into four different provinces run by governors Constantine his successor leads to huge influence of Christianity End of Babylonian captivity Monotheism takes over 0 Known as second temple period 0 Different factions take place 0 Theological elite Sadducees o Pharisees all Jews must live according to 613 laws from 5 books of Moses in the Bible Torah and oral laws of Moses 0 Essenes not enough to follow Gods laws they must repent themselves and devote oneself entirely to god Romans appoints King to rule Judea Province 0 Political radicals call for antiroman uprising 0 Call for Messiah to free the Hebrews from Roman rule 0 Gospels give teachings on Jesus 0 directly criticized Sadducees o Jesus s teachings outrage Pharisees Jesus believed in following the spirit of God s teachings and not necessarily the written words 0 Jesus outright claims to be the Messiah temple priests arrest him and charge him for blasphemy o sentenced to crucifixion based on sedition against the state Jesus is risen from the grave gradual development of new and separate religion Christianity Christ the anointed one o the Apostle Paul Persecuted the followers of Christ before he converted to Christianity when he saw a blinding light and saw Jesus Jesus told him to become his missionary Plays crucial role in early development of Christianity Travels throughout Eastern Rome to share the teachings of new religion I Christ is savior of all men n Transcends old covenant of Hebrew bible Torah s laws no longer painted way for salvation n Judaism was a dead end Christianity was true faith a Offered salvation to all unless followers of Torah 0 Christianity was one of dozens of smaller religions within the Roman Empire Evolution of Christianity Christianity s promise of salvation appealed to the poorhopeless because it gave a sense of community and organization 0 Christians believed in miracles The church began evolving sophisticated priestly hierarchies strong organizational cohesiveness Periods of severe persecutions proved important to the traditions of the church 0 became symbolic figures Most Christians lived in Eastern part of the Empire Turning point 312 CE Constantine converts to Christianity Constantine converting was an unexpected development changing history of roman empire in western civilization Battle of Milvian bridge Constantine sees Greek s symbols for Jesus Christ in the ky In this sign you will conquerquot and wins battle Consolidates power in Roman Empire Most powerful ruler of the empire is Christian Administrative changes 330 Moves capital to border between east and western halves of empire Constantinople I Gave emperor easier access to both sides a defendable position high land water on three sides good sight lines a empires culture and language becomes more divided between Latin west and Greek east Promotes Christianity as empires chief religion 337 Outlawed Pagan sacrifices in effort to support Christianity his successor reverses this degree and promoted Paganism but from then on all other rulers were Christian Theodosius comes to power banned all Pagan cults and makes Christianity ruled Rome s principle state religion Defined priestly hierarchy Now becomes a religion for the elite and higher class and no longer just poor lowerclass Imperial power and the church helps shape church doctrines Trinitarian doctrine Allows priestly hierarchy to establish correct doctrine and define all other beliefs of Christianity as heresy Imperial power plays direct role in creation of Dogma only correct interpretation on the matter Saint Jerome and Saint Augustine 0 Jerome translated old testament and new testament into Latin helped spread of Christianity through western empire O Augustine converted to Christianity and rose to bishop in his church shaped his theology and approach to problems of worldliness and sin all men and women are born in original sin God appointed salvation to an elect few good behavior can39t earn salvation but nobody knows if they are apart of the elect few or not Only proper path in life is through goodness despite not knowing if marked for damnation or not Emergence of Christian Monasteries O O Outposts of Christian learning and missionary work win over new converts and spread Christianity into frontier lands into Northwestern Europe St Benedict lays out set of rules that become bases for the organization of Christian monastic life Benedicts successor Cassiodorus believes monks should have solid understanding of classical learning as well as the Bible Recognized the importance of classical learning and scholarship but in regards to broader Christian theological concerns 0 Germanic tribes cause problems for Western Roman Empire 0 relationship between Rome and German tribes become increasingly complicated Germanic tribes resented roman rule and coveted the rich agricultural roman regions Huns invade Germanic tribes from central Asia which leads to Germanic tribes pushing up against Roman territory and invade Rome 476 Rome Falls to combined army of Huns and Ostrogoth s Western part of the Empire becomes patchwork of Germanic kingdoms Eastern half remains Decline in Roman culture due to Germanic rule Economic decline in West decay of bureaucratic administrative system that was in place Germans adopt some Roman culture such as the language and many converted to Christianity 0 Eastern Roman Empire Justinian begins revising and codifying Roman Law Corpus Copus Civius n Influence thinking about the state state power and civil law Saw himself as the emperor of the entire Roman Empire Conquers back significant amount of territory from Germanic kingdoms n Empire weekend by costs of battle a Persians invade and Constantinople looses control over the territories once again a Lost hope for controlling the West Eastern Roman Empire Byzantine Empire 600 BC Start of Middle Ages 0 Roman west starts becoming a new Western Europe 0 Economic and cultural trends 0 Cities becoming less important urban society of Rome breaking down 0 large portions of the agricultural estates left unused because they didn t have a labor pool to work the land 0 Peasants become known as serfs to tie them to the land which creates Feudalism o Germanic kingdoms constantly at war with one another political instability few stable kingdoms Merovingian s one of the important Germanic kingdoms 0 Established by Clovis Frankish king 0 He converted to Christianity and his people did too 0 Make use of administrative bureaucracy based on old roman bureaucracy 0 Faces civil war between competing aristocratic families Charles Martel seizes power over this Frankish power a Victory at the battle of tours stopped the spread of Islamic forces further into Europe 0 Charles Martel s son Pepin is anointed and pledges to reign as a Catholic King and to protect the Church o Charlemagne O 0000 O became king after Pepin s death most important ruler in Middle Ages brilliant military leader converting people he conquered to Christianity relationship between Charlemagne and Papacy is political marked the emergence of a new Western Europe from the ashes of the old Roman Empire Christendom not simply political and includes the single unified Christian empire designed system for administering his empire that helped shape his organization for political power implemented courts taxes and tolls conducted grand tours of his empire that reinforced image of royal authority divided conquered regions into districts administered by counts that served as local governors and judges established school for royal court teaching the classics of Greek and Latin literature Carolingian Renaissance scholarly period of traditional Greek and Roman Hterature emphasis on liberal arts Lewis the Pias his son much less capable and wasn t able to keep the empire unified Lewis dies and empire is in decline sons divide it into three different realms by 917 empire completely disintegrated new western European empires emerge Charlemagne s rule set a baseline for all new empires Take Away Points 0 Very different Roman Empire emerges following thirdcentury crisis Fracturing of unified Mediterranean world emergence of three separate and competing successor civilizations Syntheses of GrecoRoman Christian and Germanic traditions in northwestern Europe reaches early peak in Carolingian Empire Distinct European culture begins to take shape in Early Middle Ages 92215 1001 PM 92215 1001 PM