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week 1

by: Gabriela Saint-Louis
Gabriela Saint-Louis
GPA 3.04
Memory and Cognition
Myeong-Ho Sohn

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About this Document

Memory and Cognition
Myeong-Ho Sohn
Class Notes
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Popular in Memory and Cognition

Popular in Psychlogy

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gabriela Saint-Louis on Tuesday September 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3121 at George Washington University taught by Myeong-Ho Sohn in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Memory and Cognition in Psychlogy at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 09/22/15
092215 Exam Tuesday 30 mc 10 from each chapter 3 short answer 1 from each chapter Visual Search Conjunction search looking for a target that is different from the distractors by not just one but a conjunction of features shape and color Slope re ects amount of time it takes to exampne conjunction features in a search Requires serial examination if we don t have time to combine featurs in one object all we have left are a bunch of features and not a solid representation of object it can fail because it requires time so if you don t invest time and energy this search will not be successful Feature Search Binding visual object identification spatial or temporal conjunction of features feature of processing when we only have one difference not much work what becomes part of your consciousness it must have required prior effort to establish a recognition Illusory Conjunction 0 individual features are processed before location preattentively does not require cognitive researching I to combine features you need to have a reference point I there may be some linearity in visual processing feature location perception I if all you have is features you don t have a good sense of location but if you ve already completed the conjunctions earch you would need to know where the conjunction happened target location vs featue search does not require location 0 then conjoined to form an object attentive process 0 features re independent of locations 0 need more than 2030 ms 0 3 objects you have an idea that you saw three things but not sure hich feature is going with another to form an object if early visual processing is disturbed they report illusory objects say things were there that weren t report digits and objects seen in ashing of image for 2030 ms feature processing is good does not require cognitive research but the binding of features may not be complete people will have accurate idea of the feature 0 When attending to an object Luck et al 1997 macaque 0 neurons in macaque brain that are responding to the bue vertical regardless of if it is presented alone or with something else 0 The gorilla video the fact that we can focus on white shirts means we have a mechanism in brain for binding binding is a mechanism is a mechanism that signlas out task relevant information 0 you know something black is going around but identifying it would require cognitive researching which you don t have time 0 supports early selection if selection occurs early in the visual processing and binding is successful if binding process is successful then you will not be aware of semantic information in unintended channel if binding occurs after semantic information then it would be late selection Kastner et al Human Simons amp chabirs 0 Visual Neglect does binding take place just on location or something else so far we assume it is location Posner Cohen 0 damage to right parietal region 0 asymmetry in attention shift in a static display location is confounded with objects how do people go back between location and object based selection location stays still but objects can move around generally we are equipped with both selection mechanisms object and location based I visual neglect inability to pay attention to a contralateral side of the visual field most studies have been done with patients ith damatge to left parietal cortex ques presented to left vs right and where the target really was que wills stay in place until you realize you need to divert attention to target location in study graph as long as target is presented in right when quee is on right but target is on left you have to disengage attention to the left this person s left hemisphere has to disengage information from right side to left whenthe right cortex has to disengage from right side to the left there is a difficulty damage in right side and cue is presented on right hand side left cortex is engaging and claiming attention on the right hand side left cortex is healthy but then a target appears on left side if it is healthy right cortex will disengage and move to left if right is too weak it will be harder and take longer 0 Unilateral Visual Neglect 0 dmage to right parietal region 0 ignoring the left visual field 0 image patient asked to check off all the circles they see person with visual neglect will only cross off circles on right hand side and ignore the ones on the left side 0 not trouble with visual system they see all the circles but the roblem is the attention applying feature to location 0 example Clock ask people with right parietal cortex tdamage to copy it they will only draw the right side as though left side does not exist 0 Hemispheric asymmetry 0 left parietal local spatial attention 0 Right parietal global spatial attention 0 image one copy has original and other columns show copies done by patients with left and right parietal cortex damage middle colomn has component parts but not the overall shape global spatial attentionRight parietal cortex damage right column has the shape but not the components local informationleft parietal cortex damage when we analyze objects division of labor one focuses on global location and another part analyzes local spatial features 0 Object based attention I same object benefit 0 withinobject comparison is betwteen than betweenobject comparison 0 object than location may be basis of attention 0 if space based attention is the only slection mechanism the distance will be the driving force 0 late selection information is available to you and you select the best semantic meaning 0intraindividual distance head to toe which is one object may be further than intervidual distance head to head which deals with two objects 0 distance between two points may play minor role but distance between stimulus is more important 0 task compare to see if oj ects have same number of bumps whether the bumps belong to the sme object examining distance beteen both sets of bumps People respond faster if bumps belong to same object even though it enforces longer distance examining space and location is ignored or donplayed here 0 professor holding bag space based attention scnning his head and bagwobj ect based examining bag and then his head 0 people respond faster to qued location than unqued location target presentation 0 time sensitive 0 Inhibition of return people respond faster to objects in unqued location 0 moving attention to netural position if object appears in qued location as you re moving attention away to go to netural it takes longer to go back if it appears in unqued location it is faster because your attention was already headed there 0 spacebased attention 0 qued object vs qued location whether inhibition of return occurs on basis of space or object I inhibition of return can occur on both 0 Central Attention IThinking which line of thinking are we going to maintainone thinking at one time on a given input slection bottleneckl encoding slection motor I cenral attention refers to the selection process eX given problem 23 and he tosses marker but you have to suppress that to focus on problem to solve answer and produce it I three possibilities 1 perfect time sharing no resource limitation you can do multiple things at the same time 2 no time sharing at all you have to wait for completion of one task before you begin another 3 selection bottleneck you may be able to encode multiple stimuli and produce multiple responses at the same time if they respond different motor ex 1 response involves verbal and another requires manual response eX 23 and capital of France you may be able to register both questions at the same time but the selection part has to be done serially intergration of features


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